298 Works

Nutrient Criterion Data

Paul Jakus, Nanette Nelson & Jeffery Ostenmiller
We present a scientific replication of a benthic algae nuisance threshold study originally conducted in Montana, but we do so using a different sampling methodology in a different state. Respondents are asked to rate eight photographs that depict varying algae conditions. Our initial results show that Utah resident preferences for benthic algae levels are quite similar to those of Montana residents, thus replicating the Montana study. For the full Utah sample, though, Cronbachís ? indicated...

Data from: Selection on an extreme weapon in the frog legged leaf beetle (Sagra femorata)

Devin M. O'Brien, Masako Katsuki & Douglas J. Emlen
Biologists have been fascinated with the extreme products of sexual selection for decades. However, relatively few studies have characterized patterns of selection acting on ornaments and weapons in the wild. Here, we measure selection on a wild population of weapon-bearing beetles (frog legged leaf beetles: Sagra femorata) for two consecutive breeding seasons. We consider variation in both weapon size (hindleg length), and in relative weapon size (deviations from the population average scaling relationship between hindleg...

Data from: Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore

David E. Ausband, Michael S. Mitchell & Lisette P. Waits
1. Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition, and recruitment. 2. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding gray...

Data from: Declining demographic performance and dispersal limitation influence the geographic distribution of the perennial forb, Astragalus utahensis (fabaceae)

Kathryn C. Baer & John L. Maron
1. A central goal of ecology is understanding the determinants of species’ distributions. ‘Metapopulation’ models for the existence of distributional boundaries predict that species’ geographic ranges arise from the landscape-scale deterioration of habitat suitability towards the range edge (i.e. niche mechanisms), which simultaneously hinders demographic performance and limits dispersal to suitable habitat beyond the edge (i.e. dispersal limitation). However, few studies have examined both of these mechanisms for the same species by examining abundance and...

Data from: Context-dependent costs and benefits of a heterospecific nesting association

Rose J Swift, Amanda D Rodewald & Nathan R Senner
The costs and benefits of interactions among species can vary spatially or temporally, making them context-dependent. For example, benefits associated with nesting near species that deter predators may give way to costs if the association increases the risk of predation during other stages of reproduction. We examined the extent to which the costs and benefits of heterospecific aggregations between a declining shorebird, the Hudsonian Godwit (Limosa haemastica), and a potential protector and predator, the Mew...

Data from: Climate, demography, and zoogeography predict introgression thresholds in Salmonid hybrid zones in Rocky Mountain streams

Michael K. Young, Daniel J. Isaak, Kevin S. McKelvey, Taylor M. Wilcox, Daniel M. Bingham, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Kellie J. Carim, Matthew R. Campbell, Matthew P. Corsi, Dona E. Horan, David L. Nagel, Michael K. Schwartz, Dona L. Horan & David E. Nagel
Among the many threats posed by invasions of nonnative species is introgressive hybridization, which can lead to the genomic extinction of native taxa. This phenomenon is regarded as common and perhaps inevitable among native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, despite that these taxa naturally co-occur in some locations. We conducted a synthetic analysis of 13,315 genotyped fish from 558 sites by building logistic regression models using data from geospatial stream...

Data from: Models for assessing local-scale co-abundance of animal species while accounting for differential detectability and varied responses to the environment

Jedediah F. Brodie, Olga E. Helmy, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J. Giordano & Elise Zipkin
We developed a new modeling framework to assess how the local abundance of one species influences the local abundance of a potential competitor while explicitly accounting for differential responses to environmental conditions. Our models also incorporate imperfect detection as well as abundance estimation error for both species. As a case study, we applied the model to four pairs of mammal species in Borneo, surveyed by extensive and spatially widespread camera trapping. We detected different responses...

Data from: Population responses of common ravens to reintroduced gray wolves

Lauren E. Walker, John M. Marzluff, Matthew C. Metz, Aaron J. Wirsing, L. Monika Moskal, Daniel R. Stahler & Douglas W. Smith
1. Top predators have cascading effects throughout the food web but their impacts on scavenger abundance are largely unknown. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) provide carrion to a suite of scavenger species, including the common raven (Corvus corax). Ravens are wide-ranging and intelligent omnivores that commonly take advantage of anthropogenic food resources. In areas where they overlap with wolves, however, ravens are numerous and ubiquitous scavengers of wolf-acquired carrion. 2. We aimed to determine whether subsidies...

Data from: Steller’s jays assess and communicate about predator risk using detection cues and identity

Alexis C. Billings, Erick Greene & Dylan MacArthur-Waltz
Predators can vary in the risk they pose, depending upon the factors such as body size, maneuverability, hunting strategy, and diet. Prey can also detect predators with different senses, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling them. We presented wild Steller’s jays (Cyanocitta stelleri annectens) with visual cues (robotic raptors) or acoustic cues (call playbacks) of 4 different raptors to test how they assess risk and how this influences their alarm calls. The assessment of risk...

Data from: Ecological mismatches are moderated by local conditions in two populations of a long-distance migratory bird

Nathan Senner, Maria Stager, Brett K. Sandercock & Nathan R. Senner
Ecological mismatches between reproductive events and seasonal resource peaks are frequently proposed to be a key driver of population dynamics resulting from global climate change. Many local populations are experiencing reduced reproductive success as a consequence of mismatches, but few mismatches have led to species-level population declines. To better understand this apparent paradox, we investigated the breeding phenology and chick survival of two disjunct populations of Hudsonian godwits Limosa haemastica breeding at Churchill, Manitoba and...

Data from: Can physiographic regions substitute for genetically-determined conservation units? A case study with the threatened plant, Silene spaldingii

Peter Lesica, Brice Adams & Christian T. Smith
Protecting genetic diversity throughout the range of a species is important for conservation, as doing so provides for long-term evolutionary potential and persistence under a changing environment. Conservation of diversity at the intraspecific level requires identification of all genetically distinct population segments within species; i.e., conservation units (CUs). Silene spaldingii occurs in grasslands of the Columbia Plateau region of western North America and is listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act. The recovery...

Data from: Exotic invasive plants increase productivity, abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and nitrogen availability in intermountain grasslands

Morgan Luce McLeod, Cory C. Cleveland, Ylva Lekberg, John L. Maron, Laurent Philippot, David Bru & Ragan M. Callaway
1. Exotic plant invasion is often associated with dramatic increases in above-ground net primary productivity and soil nitrogen. However, most evidence for these increases comes from correlative studies of single species, leaving open the question of whether invasive plants drive these processes and if they are consistent among invaders. 2. We combined field surveys and measurements within experimental plantings to examine how plant productivity, soil nitrogen, and the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) change in...

Data from: A comparison of individual-based genetic distance metrics for landscape genetics

Andrew J. Shirk, Erin L. Landguth & Samuel A. Cushman
A major aim of landscape genetics is to understand how landscapes resist gene flow and thereby influence population genetic structure. An empirical understanding of this process provides a wealth of information that can be used to guide conservation and management of species in fragmented landscapes, and also to predict how landscape change may affect population viability. Statistical approaches to infer the true model among competing alternatives are based on the strength of the relationship between...

Trade-offs between seed size and biotic interactions contribute to coexistence of co-occurring species that vary in fecundity

John Maron, Philip Hahn, Kayrn Hajek & Dean Pearson
Despite theoretical advances, the ecological factors and functional traits that enable species varying in seed size and fecundity to coexist remain unclear. Given inherent fecundity advantages, why don’t small-seeded species dominate communities? In perennial grasslands, we evaluated whether small-seeded species are less tolerant of competition from the community dominant bunchgrass than large-seeded species but also less vulnerable to seed predation by mice. We also explored whether trade-offs involving competitive tolerance include two other functional traits,...

Data from: An annotated draft genome of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus)

João Pedro Marques, Fernando A. Seixas, Jeffrey M. Good, Liliana Farelo, Colin M. Callahan, W. Ian Montgomery, Neil Reid, Paulo C. Alves, Pierre Boursot & José Melo-Ferreira
Hares (genus Lepus) provide clear examples of repeated and often massive introgressive hybridization and striking local adaptations. Genomic studies on this group have so far relied on comparisons to the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) reference genome. Here, we report the first de novo draft reference genome for a hare species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus), and evaluate the efficacy of whole-genome re-sequencing analyses using the new reference versus using the rabbit reference genome. The genome...

Data from: Positive associations with native shrubs are intense and important for an exotic invader but not the native annual community across an aridity gradient

Jacob Lucero, Merav Seifan, Ragan Callaway & Christopher Lortie
AIM AND LOCATION: Positive interactions influence the assembly of plant communities globally, particularly in stressful environments like deserts. However, few studies have measured the intensity and relative importance of positive interactions involving native and invasive species along aridity gradients. These measures are essential for predicting how dryland communities will respond to biological invasions and environmental change. Here, we measured the intensity and importance of positive associations formed between native shrubs and the annual plant community,...

The legacy of recurrent introgression during the radiation of hares

Mafalda S. Ferreira, Matthew R. Jones, Colin M. Callahan, Liliana Farelo, Zelalem Tolesa, Franz Suchentrunk, Pierre Boursot, L. Scott Mills, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good & José Melo-Ferreira
Hybridization may often be an important source of adaptive variation, but the extent and long-term impacts of introgression have seldom been evaluated in the phylogenetic context of a radiation. Hares (Lepus) represent a widespread mammalian radiation of 32 extant species characterized by striking ecological adaptations and recurrent admixture. To understand the relevance of introgressive hybridization during the diversification of Lepus, we analyzed whole exome sequences (61.7 Mb) from 15 species of hares (1- 4 individuals...

Ecological traits and the spatial structure of competitive coexistence among carnivores

Pedro Monterroso, Francisco Díaz-Ruiz, Paul Lukacs, Paulo Alves & Pablo Ferreras
Competition is a widespread interaction among carnivores, ultimately manifested through one or more dimensions of the species’ ecological niche. One of the most explicit manifestations of competitive interactions regards spatial displacement. Its interpretation under a theoretical context provides an important tool to deepen our understanding of biological systems and communities, but also for wildlife management and conservation. We used Bayesian multi-species occupancy models on camera trapping data from multiple sites in Southwestern Europe (SWE) to...

Habitat loss on seasonal migratory range imperils an endangered ungulate

Sara Williams, Robin Steenweg, Troy Hegel, Mike Russell, Dave Hervieux & Mark Hebblewhite
Endangered species policies and their associated recovery documents and management actions do not always sufficiently address the importance of migratory behavior and seasonal ranges for imperiled populations. Using a telemetry location dataset spanning 1981 – 2018, we tested for changes in prevalence of migratory tactics (resident, migrant) over time, switching between tactics, shifts in seasonal space-use including migration corridors, and survival consequences of migrant and resident tactics for 237 adult female endangered woodland mountain caribou...

Climate influences the value of a plant structural defence against browsing

Christopher H. Lusk, Susan K. Wiser & Daniel C. Laughlin
The circumstances that select for plant anti-herbivore defences are not well understood. In New Zealand, the “divaricate” cage-like architecture of many woody plants may have arisen as a defence against avian browsing; it also has some ability to deter browsing by introduced deer. Its prominence on alluvial soils in frosty and droughty areas led us to hypothesize that structural defences are of most value where fertile soils coincide with climatic constraints that prevent plants from...

Wildfire impacts on forest microclimate vary with biophysical context

Kyra Wolf
Increasing wildfire activity in western North America has the potential to remove forest canopy cover over large areas, increasing the vulnerability of understory plants and juvenile trees to microclimatic extremes. To understand the impacts of wildfire on forest microclimatic buffering, we monitored daily temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in 33 plots over the first two growing seasons following two wildfires from 2017. The Lolo Peak and Sunrise fires occurred during a regionally extensive fire...

Avian plumage and eggshell colouration covary with sex-specific contributions to nest building

Jenő Nagy, Mark E. Hauber & Mark C. Mainwaring
Interspecific variation in sex-specific contributions to nest building remain poorly understood. We examine whether the colouration of parents and of eggs influences sex-specific nest building contributions in 521 species of Western Palearctic birds. Having colourful plumage and laying colourful eggs are costly because of the deposition of pigments (in feathers and eggs) and/or forming costly nanostructural substrates (of feathers). We tested the hypotheses that species in which females alone build nests (i) exhibit sexual plumage...

Pervasive effects of Wolbachia on host activity

Michael Hague, H. Arthur Woods & Brandon Cooper
Heritable symbionts have diverse effects on the physiology, reproduction, and fitness of their hosts. Maternally transmitted Wolbachia are one of the most common endosymbionts in nature, infecting about half of all insect species. We test the hypothesis that Wolbachia alter host behavior by assessing the effects of 14 different Wolbachia strains on the locomotor activity of nine Drosophila host species. We find that Wolbachia alter the activity of six different host genotypes, including all hosts...

Body size determines the thermal coupling between insects and plant surfaces

Sylvain Pincebourde, Michael Dillon & Arthur Woods
1. Most studies in global change biology predict biological impacts of warming from information on macroclimates. Most organisms, however, live in microhabitats with physical conditions which are decoupled to varying degrees from those in macroclimates depending partly on organism body size. 2. Small ectotherms of a few millimetres in length live deep in surface boundary layers such that their heat budgets are dominated by different processes compared to larger ectotherms, whose bodies emerge from surface...

Data from: Signatures of polygenic adaptation associated with climate across the range of a threatened fish species with high genetic connectivity

Katherine A. Harrisson, Stephen J. Amish, Alexandra Pavlova, Shawn R. Narum, Marina Telonis-Scott, Meaghan L. Rourke, Jarod Lyon, Zeb Tonkin, Dean M. Gilligan, Brett A. Ingram, Mark Lintermans, Han Ming Gan, Christopher M. Austin, Gordon Luikart & Paul Sunnucks
Adaptive differences across species’ ranges can have important implications for population persistence and conservation management decisions. Despite advances in genomic technologies, detecting adaptive variation in natural populations remains challenging. Key challenges in gene-environment association studies involve distinguishing the effects of drift from those of selection, and identifying subtle signatures of polygenic adaptation. We used paired-end restriction-site associated-DNA sequencing data (6605 biallelic single nucleotide polymorphisms; SNPs) to examine population structure and test for signatures of adaptation...

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