45 Works

Escape from natural enemies depends on the enemies, the invader, and competition

Jacob Lucero, Nafiseh Arab, Sebastian Meyer, Robert Pal, Rebecca A. Fletcher, Dávid Nagy, Ragan M. Callaway & Wolfgang Weisser
The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) attributes the success of some exotic plant species to reduced top-down effects of natural enemies in the non-native range relative to the native range. Many studies have tested this idea, but very few have considered the simultaneous effects of multiple kinds of enemies on more than one invasive species in both the native and non-native ranges. Here, we examined the effects of two important groups of natural enemies – insect...

Multi-scale habitat assessment of pronghorn migration routes

Andrew Jakes, Nicholas DeCesare, Paul Jones, C Cormack Gates, Scott Story, Sarah Olimb, Kyran Kunkel & Mark Hebblewhite
We studied the habitat selection of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) during seasonal migration; an important period in an animal’s annual cycle associated with broad-scale movements. We further decompose our understanding of migration habitat itself as the product of both broad- and fine-scale behavioral decisions and take a multi-scale approach to assess pronghorn spring and fall migration across the transboundary Northern Sagebrush Steppe region. We used a hierarchical habitat selection framework to assess a suite of natural...

Pervasive effects of Wolbachia on host temperature preference

Michael Hague, Chelsey Caldwell & Brandon Cooper
Heritable symbionts can modify a range of ecologically important host traits, including behavior. About half of all insect species are infected with maternally transmitted Wolbachia, a bacterial endosymbiont known to alter host reproduction, nutrient acquisition, and virus susceptibility. Here, we broadly test the hypothesis that Wolbachia modify host behavior by assessing the effects of eight different Wolbachia strains on the temperature preference of six Drosophila melanogaster-subgroup species. Four of the seven host genotypes infected with...

VTFT_Demography: global ageclass simulation data from the LPJ-wsl v2.0 Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

Leonardo Calle
Forest ecosystem processes follow classic responses with age, peaking production around canopy closure and declining thereafter. Although age dynamics might be more dominant in certain regions over others, demographic effects on net primary production (NPP) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh) are bound to exist. Yet, explicit representation of ecosystem demography is notably absent in most global ecosystem models. This is concerning because the global community relies on these models to regularly update our collective understanding of...

Public opinion about management strategies for a low-profile Species across multiple jurisdictions: whitebark pine in the northern Rockies

Elizabeth Shanahan, Eric Raile, Helen Naughton, Michael Wallner & Kendall Houghton
1. As public land managers seek to adopt and implement conservation measures aimed at reversing or slowing the negative effects of climate change, they are looking to understand public opinion regarding different management strategies. 2. This study explores drivers of attitudes toward different management strategies (i.e., no management, protection, and restoration) for a low-profile but keystone tree species, the whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis), in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Since the whitebark pine species has a...

Tree growth data, ISSR tree genetics data, and monotorpene concentration data relating to mountain pine beetle attacks on whitebark pine at Vipond Park, Montana, 2017-2018

Diana Six
Abstract This record contains three zip files of data. First, for the file treeGeneticISSRData, the data consists of genetic ISSR band scores. Two sets of trees were sampled for genetic analyses - large trees surviving mountain pine beetle and 'general population' trees that we just a little to small to be attacked that served as a proxy for the population without beetle selection. Second, for the file Treegrowthdata_, this dataset includes files that record tree...

Trade-offs between seed size and biotic interactions contribute to coexistence of co-occurring species that vary in fecundity

John Maron, Philip Hahn, Kayrn Hajek & Dean Pearson
Despite theoretical advances, the ecological factors and functional traits that enable species varying in seed size and fecundity to coexist remain unclear. Given inherent fecundity advantages, why don’t small-seeded species dominate communities? In perennial grasslands, we evaluated whether small-seeded species are less tolerant of competition from the community dominant bunchgrass than large-seeded species but also less vulnerable to seed predation by mice. We also explored whether trade-offs involving competitive tolerance include two other functional traits,...

Data from: An annotated draft genome of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus)

João Pedro Marques, Fernando A. Seixas, Jeffrey M. Good, Liliana Farelo, Colin M. Callahan, W. Ian Montgomery, Neil Reid, Paulo C. Alves, Pierre Boursot & José Melo-Ferreira
Hares (genus Lepus) provide clear examples of repeated and often massive introgressive hybridization and striking local adaptations. Genomic studies on this group have so far relied on comparisons to the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) reference genome. Here, we report the first de novo draft reference genome for a hare species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus), and evaluate the efficacy of whole-genome re-sequencing analyses using the new reference versus using the rabbit reference genome. The genome...

Data from: Positive associations with native shrubs are intense and important for an exotic invader but not the native annual community across an aridity gradient

Jacob Lucero, Merav Seifan, Ragan Callaway & Christopher Lortie
AIM AND LOCATION: Positive interactions influence the assembly of plant communities globally, particularly in stressful environments like deserts. However, few studies have measured the intensity and relative importance of positive interactions involving native and invasive species along aridity gradients. These measures are essential for predicting how dryland communities will respond to biological invasions and environmental change. Here, we measured the intensity and importance of positive associations formed between native shrubs and the annual plant community,...

The legacy of recurrent introgression during the radiation of hares

Mafalda S. Ferreira, Matthew R. Jones, Colin M. Callahan, Liliana Farelo, Zelalem Tolesa, Franz Suchentrunk, Pierre Boursot, L. Scott Mills, Paulo C. Alves, Jeffrey M. Good & José Melo-Ferreira
Hybridization may often be an important source of adaptive variation, but the extent and long-term impacts of introgression have seldom been evaluated in the phylogenetic context of a radiation. Hares (Lepus) represent a widespread mammalian radiation of 32 extant species characterized by striking ecological adaptations and recurrent admixture. To understand the relevance of introgressive hybridization during the diversification of Lepus, we analyzed whole exome sequences (61.7 Mb) from 15 species of hares (1- 4 individuals...

Ecological traits and the spatial structure of competitive coexistence among carnivores

Pedro Monterroso, Francisco Díaz-Ruiz, Paul Lukacs, Paulo Alves & Pablo Ferreras
Competition is a widespread interaction among carnivores, ultimately manifested through one or more dimensions of the species’ ecological niche. One of the most explicit manifestations of competitive interactions regards spatial displacement. Its interpretation under a theoretical context provides an important tool to deepen our understanding of biological systems and communities, but also for wildlife management and conservation. We used Bayesian multi-species occupancy models on camera trapping data from multiple sites in Southwestern Europe (SWE) to...

Climate influences the value of a plant structural defence against browsing

Christopher H. Lusk, Susan K. Wiser & Daniel C. Laughlin
The circumstances that select for plant anti-herbivore defences are not well understood. In New Zealand, the “divaricate” cage-like architecture of many woody plants may have arisen as a defence against avian browsing; it also has some ability to deter browsing by introduced deer. Its prominence on alluvial soils in frosty and droughty areas led us to hypothesize that structural defences are of most value where fertile soils coincide with climatic constraints that prevent plants from...

Life history predicts flight muscle phenotype and function in birds

Shane DuBay, Yongjie Wu, Graham Scott, Yanhua Qu, Qiao Liu, Joel Smith, Chao Xin, Andrew Hart Reeve, Chen Juncheng, Dylan Meyer, Jing Wang, Jacob Johnson, Zachary Cheviron, Fumin Lei & John Bates
1. Functional traits are the essential phenotypes that underlie an organism’s life history and ecology. Although biologists have long recognized that intraspecific variation is consequential to an animals’ ecology, studies of functional variation are often restricted to species-level comparisons, ignoring critical variation within species. In birds, interspecific comparisons have been foundational in connecting flight muscle phenotypes to species-level ecology, but intraspecific variation has remained largely unexplored. 2. We asked how age- and sex-dependent demands on...

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Context-dependent variability in the population prevalence and individual fitness effects of plant-fungal symbiosis

Marion Donald, Teresa Bohner, Kory Kolis, Alan Shadow, Jennifer Rudgers & Tom Miller
1. Heritable symbionts, found within a diverse array of flora and fauna, are often observed at intermediate prevalence within host populations, despite expectations that positive fitness feedbacks should drive beneficial symbionts to fixation. Intermediate prevalence may reflect neutral dynamics of symbionts with weak fitness effects, transient dynamics of symbionts trending toward fixation (or elimination), or a stable intermediate outcome determined by the balance of fitness effects and failed symbiont transmission. Theory suggests these outcomes should...

Rainfall continentality, via the winter GAMS angle, provides a new dimension to biogeographical distributions in the Western United States

Richard Michalet, Philippe Choler, Ragan M. Callaway & Thomas G. Whitham
Aim: Drought stress, and its effects on the biogeography of vegetation, has focused primarily on water availability during the growing season, thus focusing primarly on summer. However, variation in rainfall continentality (i.e., the continental interior being insulated from oceanic influences) can produce striking vegetation differences. We aim to disentangle summer water balance from the influence of rainfall continentality on winter rainfall, to better understand how climate regulated the distributions of woody plants in the Western...

Data from: Risk of predation on offspring reduces parental provisioning, but not flight performance or survival across early life stages

James Mouton, Bret Tobalske, Natalie Wright & Thomas E. Martin
Developmental responses can help young animals reduce predation risk but can also yield costs to performance and survival in subsequent life stages with major implications for lifetime fitness. Compensatory mechanisms may evolve to offset such costs, but evidence from natural systems is largely lacking. In songbirds, increased nest predation risk should favour reduced provisioning, but also young that fledge (leave their nest) at an earlier age. Both responses can result in fledglings with shorter wings,...

Life history data for longer-lived tropical songbirds reduce breeding activity as they buffer impacts of drought

Thomas E Martin
Droughts are expected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Population impacts of such harsh environmental events are theorized to vary with life history strategies among species. However, existing demographic models generally do not consider behavioral plasticity that may modify the impact of harsh events. Here we show that tropical songbirds in the New and Old World reduced reproduction during drought, with greater reductions in species with higher average long-term survival. Large reductions...

Plant Biomass data from: Bottom-up Herbivore-Plant Feedbacks Trump Trophic Cascades in a Wolf-Elk-Grassland System

Trevor Weeks, Evelyn Merril & Mark Hebblewhite
Top-down predator-prey effects that alter the abundance, biomass, or productivity of a population community across more than one link in a food web are referred to as trophic cascades. While these effects have been extensively studied in aquatic environments, fewer studies have examined trophic cascades in terrestrial ecosystems. And fewer still terrestrial studies have tested for trophic cascades between vertebrates and grassland vegetation. Across the globe, grassland plant biomass is driven by both precipitation and...

Data from: The genetic architecture of fitness drives population viability during rapid environmental change

Marty Kardos & Gordon Luikart
The rapid global loss of biodiversity calls for improved predictions of how populations will evolve and respond demographically to ongoing environmental change. The heritability (h2) of selected traits has long been known to affect evolutionary and demographic responses to environmental change. However, effects of the genetic architecture underlying the h2 of a selected trait on population responses to selection are less well understood. We use deterministic models and stochastic simulations to show that the genetic...

Data from: Experimental amelioration of harsh weather speeds growth and development in a tropical montane songbird

Adam Mitchell, Jordan Boersma, Anthonio Anthony, Kanehiro Kitayama & Thomas Martin
Organisms living at high elevations generally grow and develop slower than those at lower elevations. Slow montane ontogeny is thought to be an evolved adaptation to harsh environments that improve juvenile quality via physiological tradeoffs. However, slower montane ontogeny may also reflect proximate influences of harsh weather on parental care and offspring development. We experimentally heated and protected nests from rain to ameliorate harsh montane weather conditions for Mountain Blackeyes (Chlorocharis emiliae), a montane songbird...

Coordinated changes across the O2 transport pathway underlie adaptive increases in thermogenic capacity in high-altitude deer mice

Graham Scott, Kevin Tate, Oliver Wearing, Catherine Ivy, Zachary Cheviron, Jay Storz & Grant McClelland
Animals native to the hypoxic and cold environment at high altitude provide an excellent opportunity to elucidate the integrative mechanisms underlying the adaptive evolution of complex traits. The capacity for aerobic thermogenesis can be a critical determinant of survival for small mammals at high altitude, but the physiological mechanisms underlying the evolution of thermogenic capacity remain unresolved. We examined this issue by comparing high-altitude deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) to low-altitude deer mice and white-footed mice...

Metabolic rate is negatively linked to adult survival but does not explain latitudinal differences in songbirds

Andy Boyce, James C. Mouton, Penn Lloyd, Blair O. Wolf & Thomas E. Martin
Survival rates vary dramatically among species and predictably across latitudes, but causes of this variation are unclear. The rate of living hypothesis posits that physiological damage from metabolism causes species with faster metabolic rates to exhibit lower survival rates. However, whether increased survival commonly observed in tropical and south temperate latitudes is associated with slower metabolic rate remains unclear. We compared metabolic rates and annual survival rates across 46 species that we measured, and 147...

Data from: Can patterns of habitat use by western Nearctic-Neotropical migratory landbirds in winter inform conservation priorities?

Richard Hutto
ABSTRACT—I use point-count survey data collected from 171 locations across 11 vegetation conditions in western Mexico to illustrate common patterns of winter habitat use by 97 Nearctic-Neotropical migratory landbird species. A number of bird species are relatively restricted in their habitat use, with some [e.g., Northern Waterthrush (Parkesia noveboracensis), American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla)] occurring only in relatively undisturbed habitats, and others [e.g., Say’s Phoebe (Sayornis saya), Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris)] occurring only in relatively disturbed...

Voles mediate functional trait diversity along a resource gradient

Loralee Larios, Loralee Larios & John Maron
Disentangling the effect of multiple ecological processes on plant trait composition is complicated by the fact that both top-down and bottom-up processes may affect similar traits. We examined the interacting role of resource variation and vole herbivory on functional trait patterns in an annual California grassland. We manipulated vole herbivory via exclosures at eight grassland sites along a steep resource gradient and measured plant composition and functional traits over three years. Plants with resource acquisitive...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Montana
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Utah State University
  • University of Georgia
  • University of Virginia
  • University of Alberta
  • University of Nevada Reno
  • University of Wisconsin-Madison
  • McMaster University
  • University of Porto