28 Works

Data from: Natural resistance to worms exacerbates bovine tuberculosis severity independently of worm coinfection

Vanessa Ezenwa, Sarah Budischak, Peter Buss, Mauricio Seguel, Gordon Luikart, Anna Jolles & Kaori Sakamoto
Pathogen interactions arising during coinfection can exacerbate disease severity, for example, when the immune response mounted against one pathogen negatively affects defense of another. It is also possible that host immune responses to a pathogen, shaped by historical evolutionary interactions between host and pathogen, may modify host immune defenses in ways that have repercussions for other pathogens. In this case, negative interactions between two pathogens could emerge even in the absence of concurrent infection. Parasitic...

Experimental admixture among geographically disjunct populations of an invasive plant yields a global mosaic of reproductive incompatibility and heterosis

Ramona E. Irimia, José L. Hierro, Soraia Branco, Gastón Sotes, Lohengrin A. Cavieres, Özkan Eren, Christopher J. Lortie, Kristine French, Ragan M. Callaway & Daniel Montesinos
1. Invasive species have the ability to rapidly adapt in the new regions where they are introduced. Classic evolutionary theory predicts that the accumulation of genetic differences over time in allopatric isolation may lead to reproductive incompatibilities resulting in decreases in reproductive success and, eventually, to speciation. However, experimental evidence for this theoretical prediction in the context of invasive species is lacking. We aimed to test for the potential of allopatry to determine reproductive success...

Whole-genome resequencing confirms reproductive isolation between sympatric demes of brown trout (Salmo trutta) detected with allozymes

Atal Saha, Anastasia Andersson, Sara Kurland, Naomi Keehnen, Verena Kutschera, Ola Hössjer, Diana Ekman, Sten Karlsson, Marty Kardos, Gunnar Ståhl, Fred Allendorf, Nils Ryman & Linda Laikre
The sympatric existence of genetically distinct populations of the same species remains a puzzle in ecology. Coexisting salmonid fish populations are known from over 100 freshwater lakes. Most studies of sympatric populations have used limited numbers of genetic markers making it unclear if genetic divergence involves only certain parts of the genome. We return to the first reported case of salmonid sympatry, initially detected through contrasting homozygosity at a single allozyme locus (coding for lactate...

Positive interactions between an exotic invader and moss biocrusts vary across life-stage and correspond with the effect of water pulses on soil nitrogen

Mandy Slate, Morgan McLeod & Ragan Callaway
The size and frequency of resource pulses can affect plant interactions and increase the abundance of invasive species relative to native species. We examined resource pulses generated during desiccation and rehydration of communities of native biological soil crust (biocrust) forming mosses, in the context of positive associations between biocrusts and the invasive forb, Centaurea stoebe. We surveyed Centaurea and biocrust cover and evaluated how interactions among Centaurea, biocrusts, and water pulses influenced plant biomass and...

Data from: The stoichiometric signature of high-frequency fire in forest floor food webs

Orpheus Butler, Tom Lewis, Sarah Maunsell, Mehran Rezaei Rashti, James Elser, Brendan Mackey & Chengrong Chen
Fire regimes are shifting under climate change. Decadal-scale shifts in fire regime can disrupt the biogeochemical cycling of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) within forest ecosystems, but the full extent of these disruptions is unknown. It is also unclear whether these disruptions have consequences for the ecological characteristics (e.g., biomass, abundance, and composition) of microbial and invertebrate communities, which together comprise the majority of terrestrial biodiversity and underpin many ecosystem processes. The theoretical...

Data from: Sex-specific contributions to nest building in birds

Mark Mainwaring, Jenó Nagy & Mark Hauber
The causes and consequences of interspecific variation in sex-specific contributions to animal parental care are relatively well understood during pregnancy or incubation and during offspring provisioning, but comparative patterns of sex-biased investment during nest-, den-, or other shelter-building have been almost completely overlooked. This is surprising because birthing shelter properties have important fitness consequences for both parents and offspring. Here, we address this gap in our knowledge by testing predictions concerning sex-specific contributions to avian...

Insect-mediated apparent competition between mammals in a boreal food web

Guillemette Labadie, Philip D. McLoughlin, Mark Hebblewhite & Daniel Fortin
Datasets generated and analyzed within the study area located in the Côte-Nord region of Québec, Canada. "DataFinal_Vegetation.csv" was used to evaluate the availability of deciduous vegetation (column Cover_Deciduous) in stands impacted by the spruce budworm (SBW, severity index values presented in column SBW_SevCum) outbreak and test our prediction that the reduction in canopy cover caused by SBW in coniferous stands would result in greater deciduous vegetation. We determined the percentage cover of deciduous vegetation for...

Temperature perturbation of cellular host-microbe interactions explains continent-wide endosymbiont prevalence

Michael Hague, J. Dylan Shropshire, Chelsey Caldwell, John Statz, Kimberly Stanek, William Conner & Brandon Cooper
Endosymbioses influence host physiology, reproduction, and fitness, but these relationships require efficient microbe transmission between host generations to persist. Maternally transmitted Wolbachia are the most common known endosymbionts, but their frequencies vary widely within and among host populations for unknown reasons. Here we integrate genomic, cellular, and phenotypic analyses with mathematical models to provide an unexpectedly simple explanation for global wMel Wolbachia prevalence in Drosophila melanogaster. Cooling temperatures decrease wMel cellular abundance at a key...

Model and data for: Economical defense of resources structures territorial space use in a cooperative carnivore

Sarah Sells
Manuscript Abstract: Ecologists have long sought to understand space use and mechanisms underlying patterns observed in nature. We developed an optimality landscape and mechanistic territory model to understand mechanisms driving space use and compared model predictions to empirical reality. We demonstrate our approach using gray wolves (Canis lupus). In the model, simulated animals selected territories to economically acquire resources by selecting patches with greatest value, accounting for benefits, costs, and tradeoffs of defending and using...

Habitat loss on seasonal migratory range imperils an endangered ungulate

Sara Williams, Robin Steenweg, Troy Hegel, Mike Russell, Dave Hervieux & Mark Hebblewhite
Endangered species policies and their associated recovery documents and management actions do not always sufficiently address the importance of migratory behavior and seasonal ranges for imperiled populations. Using a telemetry location dataset spanning 1981 – 2018, we tested for changes in prevalence of migratory tactics (resident, migrant) over time, switching between tactics, shifts in seasonal space-use including migration corridors, and survival consequences of migrant and resident tactics for 237 adult female endangered woodland mountain caribou...

Wildfire impacts on forest microclimate vary with biophysical context

Kyra Wolf
Increasing wildfire activity in western North America has the potential to remove forest canopy cover over large areas, increasing the vulnerability of understory plants and juvenile trees to microclimatic extremes. To understand the impacts of wildfire on forest microclimatic buffering, we monitored daily temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) in 33 plots over the first two growing seasons following two wildfires from 2017. The Lolo Peak and Sunrise fires occurred during a regionally extensive fire...

Avian plumage and eggshell colouration covary with sex-specific contributions to nest building

Jenő Nagy, Mark E. Hauber & Mark C. Mainwaring
Interspecific variation in sex-specific contributions to nest building remain poorly understood. We examine whether the colouration of parents and of eggs influences sex-specific nest building contributions in 521 species of Western Palearctic birds. Having colourful plumage and laying colourful eggs are costly because of the deposition of pigments (in feathers and eggs) and/or forming costly nanostructural substrates (of feathers). We tested the hypotheses that species in which females alone build nests (i) exhibit sexual plumage...

Pervasive effects of Wolbachia on host activity

Michael Hague, H. Arthur Woods & Brandon Cooper
Heritable symbionts have diverse effects on the physiology, reproduction, and fitness of their hosts. Maternally transmitted Wolbachia are one of the most common endosymbionts in nature, infecting about half of all insect species. We test the hypothesis that Wolbachia alter host behavior by assessing the effects of 14 different Wolbachia strains on the locomotor activity of nine Drosophila host species. We find that Wolbachia alter the activity of six different host genotypes, including all hosts...

Body size determines the thermal coupling between insects and plant surfaces

Sylvain Pincebourde, Michael Dillon & Arthur Woods
1. Most studies in global change biology predict biological impacts of warming from information on macroclimates. Most organisms, however, live in microhabitats with physical conditions which are decoupled to varying degrees from those in macroclimates depending partly on organism body size. 2. Small ectotherms of a few millimetres in length live deep in surface boundary layers such that their heat budgets are dominated by different processes compared to larger ectotherms, whose bodies emerge from surface...

Data from: Wolbachia in the spittlebug Prosapia ignipectus: variable infection frequencies, but no apparent effect on host reproductive isolation

Timothy Wheeler, Vinton Thompson, William Conner & Brandon Cooper
Animals serve as hosts for complex communities of microorganisms, including endosymbionts that live inside their cells. Wolbachia bacteria are perhaps the most common endosymbionts, manipulating host reproduction to propagate. Many Wolbachia cause cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI), which results in reduced egg hatch when uninfected females mate with infected males. Wolbachia that cause intense CI spread to high and relatively stable frequencies, while strains that cause weak or no CI tend to persist at intermediate, often variable,...

The density of anthropogenic features explains seasonal and behaviour-based functional responses in selection of linear features by a social predator

Karine Pigeon, Doug MacNearney, Mark Hebblewhite, Marco Musiani, Jerome Cranston, Gord Stenhouse, Fiona Schmiegelow & Laura Finnegan
Anthropogenic linear features facilitate access and travel efficiency for predators, and can influence predator distribution and encounter rates with prey. We used GPS collar data from eight wolf packs and characteristics of seismic lines to investigate whether (1) ease-of-travel or (2) access to areas presumed to be preferred by prey best explained seasonal selection patterns of wolves near seismic lines, and whether the density of anthropogenic features led to functional responses in habitat selection. At...

Quantitative trait locus mapping reveals an independent genetic basis for joint divergence in leaf function, life-history, and floral traits between scarlet monkeyflower (Mimulus cardinalis) populations

Lila Fishman, Thomas C. Nelson, Christopher D. Muir, Angela M. Stathos, Daniel D. Vanderpool, Kayli Anderson & Amy L. Angert
PREMISE Across taxa, vegetative and floral traits that vary along a fast-slow life-history axis are often correlated with leaf functional traits arrayed along the leaf economics spectrum, suggesting a constrained set of adaptive trait combinations. Such broad-scale convergence may arise from genetic constraints imposed by pleiotropy (or tight linkage) within species, or from natural selection alone. Understanding the genetic basis of trait syndromes and their components is key to distinguishing these alternatives and predicting evolution...

Data and code for: Rocky Mountain subalpine forests now burning more than any time in recent millennia

Philip Higuera, Bryan Shuman & Kyra Wolf
The 2020 fire season punctuated a decades-long trend of increased fire activity across the western United States, nearly doubling the total area burned in the central Rocky Mountains since 1984. Understanding the causes and implications of such extreme fire seasons, particularly in subalpine forests that have historically burned infrequently, requires a long-term perspective not afforded by observational records. We place 21st century fire activity in subalpine forests in the context of climate and fire history...

Conformity to Bergmann’s rule in birds depends on nest design and migration

Mark Mainwaring & Sally Street
Ecogeographical rules attempt to explain large-scale spatial patterns in biological traits. One of the most enduring examples is Bergmann’s rule, which states that species should be larger in colder climates due to the thermoregulatory advantages of larger body size. Support for Bergmann’s rule, however, is not consistent across taxonomic groups, raising questions about what factors may moderate its effect. Behaviour may play a crucial, yet so far underexplored, role in mediating the extent to which...

Data from: Intraspecific correlations between growth and defense vary with resource availability and differ within- and among-populations

Philip Hahn, Ken Keefover-Ring, Linh Nguyen & John Maron
A paradigm in the plant defense literature is that defending against herbivores comes at a cost to growth, resulting in a growth-defense tradeoff. However, while there is strong evidence for growth-defense tradeoffs across species, evidence is mixed within species. Several mechanisms can account for this equivocal support within species, but teasing them apart requires examining growth-defense relationships both within and among populations, an approach seldom employed. We examined correlations between plant biomass (growth) and terpene...

Behavioral responses by a bumble bee to competition with a niche-constructing congener

Nick Rosenberger, Marcelo Aizen, Rachel Dickson & Lawrence Harder
While feeding, foragers can alter their environment. Such alteration constitutes ecological niche construction (ENC) if it enables future benefits for the constructor and conspecific individuals. The environmental modification may also affect non-constructing, bystander species, especially if they share resources with constructor species. If so, ENC could confer the constructor species a competitive advantage by both enhancing its foraging returns and reducing those of bystander species. Expectations – (E1) ENC frequency should vary positively with the...

Flow increases tolerance of heat and hypoxia of an aquatic insect

James Frakes
Recent experiments support the idea that upper thermal limits of aquatic insects arise, at least in part, from a lack of sufficient oxygen: rising temperatures typically stimulate metabolic demand for oxygen more than they increase rates of oxygen supply from the environment. Consequently, factors influencing oxygen supply, like water flow, should also affect thermal and hypoxia tolerance. We tested this hypothesis by measuring the effects of experimentally manipulated flows on the heat and hypoxia tolerance...

Physiology and behavior under food limitation support an escape, not preparative, response in the nomadic Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus)

Joely DeSimone, Bret W Tobalske & Creagh W Breuner
Migration allows animals to use resources that are variable in time and/or space, with different migratory strategies depending on the predictability of resource variation. When food varies seasonally, obligate migrants anticipate and prepare for migration. In contrast, facultative migrants, whose movements are unpredictable in timing and destination, may either prepare for migration or escape when resources are depleted. We propose and test two alternative hypotheses regarding the behavioral and physiological responses of facultative migrants to...

Bedrock weathering controls on terrestrial carbon-nitrogen-climate interactions

Pawlok Dass, Benjamin Houlton, Yingping Wang, David Warlind & Scott Morford
Anthropogenic nitrogen deposition is widely considered to increase CO2 sequestration by land plant communities on a global scale. Here, we suggest that bedrock nitrogen weathering contributes significantly more to nitrogen-carbon interactions than anthropogenic nitrogen deposition. This working hypothesis is based on the application of empirical results into a global biogeochemical simulation model from the mid-1800s to the end of the 21st century. We demonstrate that rock nitrogen inputs have contributed roughly 2 to 11 times...

Selfish chromosomal drive shapes recent centromeric histone evolution in monkeyflowers

Lila Fishman, Findley Finseth & Thomas Nelson
Under the selfish centromere model, costs associated with female meiotic drive by centromeres select on interacting kinetochore proteins to restore Mendelian inheritance. We directly test this model in yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus guttatus), which are polymorphic for a costly driving centromere (D). We show that the D haplotype is structurally and genetically distinct and swept to a high stable frequency within the past 1500 years. Quantitative genetic analyses reveal that variation in the strength of drive...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Montana
  • University of Wyoming
  • University of Debrecen
  • United States Geological Survey
  • Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks
  • Claremont Colleges
  • University of Calgary
  • University of Wollongong
  • University of Georgia
  • Oregon State University