Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere. Location and dating estimates were validated using the earliest HIV-1 archival sample, also from Kinshasa. The epidemic histories of HIV-1 group M...
Data from: Seasonality in the migration and establishment of H3N2 Influenza lineages with epidemic growth and declineDaniel Zinder, Trevor Bedford, Edward B. Baskerville, Robert J. Woods, Manojit Roy & Mercedes Pascual
Background: Influenza A/H3N2 has been circulating in humans since 1968, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although H3N2 incidence is highly seasonal, how such seasonality contributes to global phylogeographic migration dynamics has not yet been established. In this study, we incorporate time-varying migration rates in a Bayesian MCMC framework. We focus on migration within China and between China and North-America as case studies, then expand the analysis to global communities. Results: Incorporating seasonally varying migration rates...
Island populations provide natural laboratories for studying key contributors to evolutionary change, including natural selection, population size, and the colonization of new environments. The demographic histories of island populations can be reconstructed from patterns of genetic diversity. House mice (Mus musculus) inhabit islands throughout the globe, making them an attractive system for studying island colonization from a genetic perspective. Gough Island, in the central South Atlantic Ocean, is one of the remotest islands in the...
Data from: Adaptive evolution and environmental durability jointly structure phylodynamic patterns in avian influenza virusesBenjamin Roche, John M. Drake, Justin Brown, David E. Stallknecht, Trevor Bedford & Pejman Rohani
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have been pivotal to the origination of human pandemic strains. Despite their scientific and public health significance, however, there remains much to be understood about the ecology and evolution of AIVs in wild birds, where major pools of genetic diversity are generated and maintained. Here, we present comparative phylodynamic analyses of human and AIVs in North America, demonstrating (i) significantly higher standing genetic diversity and (ii) phylogenetic trees with a weaker...
Data from: Sex chromosome turnover contributes to genomic divergence between incipient stickleback speciesKohta Yoshida, Takashi Makino, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Mitsuyasu Hasebe, Masakado Kawata, Manabu Kume, Seiichi Mori, Catherine L. Peichel, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama & Jun Kitano
Sex chromosomes turn over rapidly in some taxonomic groups, where closely related species have different sex chromosomes. Although there are many examples of sex chromosome turnover, we know little about the functional roles of sex chromosome turnover in phenotypic diversification and genomic evolution. The sympatric pair of Japanese threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) provides an excellent system to address these questions: the Japan Sea species has a neo-sex chromosome system resulting from a fusion between an...
Data from: Defining the alloreactive T cell repertoire using high-throughput sequencing of mixed lymphocyte reaction cultureRyan O. Emerson, James M. Mathew, Iwona M. Konieczna, Harlan S. Robins & Joseph R. Leventhal
The cellular immune response is the most important mediator of allograft rejection and is a major barrier to transplant tolerance. Delineation of the depth and breadth of the alloreactive T cell repertoire and subsequent application of the technology to the clinic may improve patient outcomes. As a first step toward this, we have used MLR and high-throughput sequencing to characterize the alloreactive T cell repertoire in healthy adults at baseline and 3 months later. Our...
Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center6
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor2
Gifu Kyoritsu University1
Université de Sherbrooke1
David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA1
University of Georgia1
Royal Society for the Protection of Birds1
University of Lisbon1
National Institutes of Health1