61 Works

Data from: Morphological evolution of the bivalve Ptychomya through the Lower Cretaceous of Argentina

Pablo S. Milla Carmona, Dario G. Lazo & Ignacio M. Soto
The complex morphological evolution of the bivalve Ptychomya throughout the well studied Agrio Formation in the Neuquén Basin (west-central Argentina, lower/upper Valanginian – lowest Barremian) constitutes an ideal opportunity to study evolutionary patterns and processes occurring at geological timescales. Ptychomya is represented in this unit by four species, the morphological variation of which need to be temporally assessed in order to obtain a thorough picture of the evolution of the group. Here we use geometric...

Data from: Drosophila wing modularity revisited through a quantitative genetic approach

Francesc Muñoz-Muñoz, Valeria Paula Carreira, Neus Martínez-Abadías, Victoria Estefanía Ortiz, Rolando González-José, Ignacio M. Soto & Victoria Ortiz
To predict the response of complex morphological structures to selection it is necessary to know how the covariation among its different parts is organized. Two key features of covariation are modularity and integration. The Drosophila wing is currently considered a fully integrated structure. Here, we study the patterns of integration of the Drosophila wing and test the hypothesis of the wing being divided into two modules along the proximo-distal axis, as suggested by developmental, biomechanical,...

Data from: Mutualism effectiveness and vertical transmission of symbiotic fungal endophytes in response to host genetic background

Pedro E. Gundel, María A. Martínez-Ghersa, Marina Omacini, Romina Cuyeu, Elba Pagano, Raúl Ríos & Claudio M. Ghersa
Certain species of the Pooideae subfamily develop stress tolerance and herbivory resistance through symbiosis with vertically-transmitted, asexual fungi. This symbiosis is specific, and genetic factors modulate compatibility between partners. Although gene flow is clearly a fitness trait in allogamous grasses, since it injects hybrid vigor and raw material for evolution, it could reduce compatibility and thus, mutualism effectiveness. To explore the importance of host genetic background in modulating the performance of symbiosis, Lolium multiflorum plants,...

Data from: A shady business: pine afforestation alters the primary controls on litter decomposition along a precipitation gradient in Patagonia, Argentina

Patricia I. Araujo & Amy T. Austin
Our understanding of the principal controls on litter decomposition is critical for our capacity to predict how global changes will impact terrestrial ecosystems. Although climate, litter quality and soil organisms clearly modulate carbon (C) and nutrient turnover, land-use change affecting plant species composition and structure can alter the relative importance of such controls. We took advantage of prior land-use changes of intentional planting of exotic forest species along a broad precipitation gradient [250–2200 mm mean...

The more the merrier: evaluating managed pollinators in highbush blueberry

Walter Farina, Maria Estravis Barcala, Florencia Palottini, Ivana Macri, Denise Nery & Walter Farina
As the global stock of Apis mellifera colonies is growing slower than agricultural demands for pollination services, there is great interest in managing alternative species. Highbush blueberry floral morphology limits the access of bees to nectar and pollen, requiring growers to rent a considerable number of beehives. Recently, the South American bumblebee Bombus pauloensis is increasingly managed alongside honeybees. Herein, we evaluated their foraging patterns, in relation to the potential pollen transfer between two blueberry...

Data from: Systematics of spiny-backed treefrogs (Hylidae: Osteocephalus): an Amazonian puzzle

Karl-Heinz Jungfer, Julián Faivovich, José M. Padial, Santiago Castroviejo-Fisher, Mariana M. Lyra, Bianca Von Muller Berneck, Patricia P. Iglesias, Philippe J. R. Kok, Ross T. Macculloch, Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues, Vanessa K. Verdade, Claudia P. Torres Gastello, Juan Carlos Chaparro, Paula H. Valdujo, Steffen Reichle, Jiří Moravec, Václav Gvoždík, Giussepe Gagliardi-Urrutia, Raffael Ernst, Ignacio De La Riva, Donald Bruce Means, Albertina P. Lima, J. Celsa Señaris, Ward C. Wheeler & Célio F. B. Haddad
Spiny-backed tree frogs of the genus Osteocephalus are conspicuous components of the tropical wet forests of the Amazon and the Guiana Shield. Here, we revise the phylogenetic relationships of Osteocephalus and its sister group Tepuihyla, using up to 6134 bp of DNA sequences of nine mitochondrial and one nuclear gene for 338 specimens from eight countries and 218 localities, representing 89% of the 28 currently recognized nominal species. Our phylogenetic analyses reveal (i) the paraphyly...

Worlds apart: location above- or belowground determines plant litter decomposition in a semiarid Patagonian steppe

Paula Berenstecher, Patricia I. Araujo & Amy T. Austin
1. While considerable attention has been devoted to how precipitation modulates net primary productivity in arid and semiarid ecosystems, the emergence of multi-faceted controls on carbon (C) turnover suggests that there is much to be understood with respect to the mechanistic controls on plant litter decomposition. 2. In the Patagonian steppe, we conducted a long-term factorial experiment, evaluating the importance of position, litter quality, tissue origin and soil resources on rates of C turnover under...

Mowing does not redress the negative effect of nutrient addition on alpha and beta diversity in a temperate grassland

Cecilia Denisse Molina
Species loss due to an increasing number of added nutrients has been explained by both light competition through biomass increase and by niche dimension reduction as a result of species specific limiting soil resources trade-offs. Disturbances, by reducing community biomass, species dominance and increasing light availability, may counteract above ground nutrient effects. However, it is unknown if diversity loss at local or spatial scales generated by increasing number of added nutrients can be redressed with...

Urbanization buffers seasonal change in composition of bird communities: a multi-continental meta-analysis

Lucas Leveau, Jukka Jokimäki & Marja-Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki
Aim: Urbanization buffers the seasonality of climate conditions and food availability and, therefore, may cause a seasonal homogenization of animal communities. However, the global effect of urbanization on the seasonal dynamics of animal communities remains unexplored. Our aim was to study the multi-continental relationship between urbanization and the seasonal change in bird composition and explore the influence of climatic factors on the urban-induced reduction of seasonality of bird composition. Location: Multi-continental Methods: We performed a...

Local male breeding density affects extra-pair paternity in a south temperate population of grass wrens Cistothorus platensis

Ramiro Arrieta, Leonardo Campagna, Bettina Mahler, Irby Lovette & Paulo Llambias
Demographic factors can affect the frequency of extra-pair paternity (EPP) in birds, as the distribution and availability of potential mates in both space and time influence the rate of encounters between females and males. Over three breeding seasons, we intensively studied the breeding system of a south temperate population of grass wrens Cistothorus platensis by genotyping 73 broods (319 nestlings) and estimating EPP rates for those broods. Using five different radii (80, 160, 240, 320,...

Data from: The gastropod family Aporrhaidae in the Lower Cretaceous of the Neuquén Basin, west-central Argentina

Cecilia S. Cataldo
The gastropod fauna of the Lower Cretaceous of the Argentinian Neuquén Basin contains three aporrhaid species. Protohemichenopus neuquensis Camacho, 1953 is the most abundant, longest-lived, and most geographically widespread of the aporrhaids of this basin, and its protoconch and early teleoconch whorls were unknown until now. The new species Dimorphosoma weaveri features convex to subtly angular spire whorls with opisthocyrt collabral ribs that are more prominent towards the mid-whorl, a bicarinate last whorl with small...

Global patterns of rainfall partitioning by invasive woody plants

Juan Ignacio Whitworth-Hulse, Patricio N. Magliano, Sebastián R. Zeballos, Sebastián Aguiar & Germán Baldi
Aim: Invasive species have the potential to alter hydrological processes by changing the local water balance. However, general patterns of how rainfall is partitioned into interception, throughfall and stemflow for invasive species worldwide have been seldom explored. We (a) describe the percentage of interception, throughfall and stemflow for the invasive woody plant species; (b) analyse the influence of morphological attributes (i.e., life-form, bark roughness, leaf type, leaf phenology and leaf area index) of invasive species...

Song parameters, repertoire size and song sharing within and across age classes in the saffron finch

Maria Juliana Benitez Saldivar, Carolina Isabel Miño & Viviana Massoni
Birds sing mostly to attract partners or to defend territories or resources. In relation to the first function, song can vary with age if older experienced males signal their quality through their vocal output. Regarding the second function, song can also vary with age if singing behavior helps mediate social interactions through repertoire sharing with neighbors. Here, we investigate whether song parameters change with age, and in which direction, in saffron finches Sicalis flaveola pelzelni,...

Data from: Taxonomy of the bivalve Ptychomya in the Lower Cretaceous of the Neuquén basin (west-central Argentina)

Pablo S. Milla Carmona, Dario G. Lazo & Ignacio M. Soto
In the Lower Cretaceous Agrio Formation, Neuquén Basin (west-central Argentina), the highly variable genus Ptychomya Agassiz has challenged traditional taxonomists for over a century. Here we apply a previously outlined quantitative protocol in order to settle the taxonomy of the genus based on specimens recorded from the base to the top of the Agrio Formation. The shell outline and ribbing pattern, two prominent external features of the valves, were quantified using geometric morphometric measurements of...

Data from: Effects of grazing intensity on plant richness and diversity: a meta-analysis

Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui & Martin Oesterheld
Most of our knowledge of the effect of grazing on grassland structure is based on grazed-ungrazed contrasts. The effects of grazing in the most common scenario, where grazing intensity varies from low to high grazing intensity, are less known. The objectives of this paper were to (1) quantify the effect of stocking rates on species richness and diversity of grasslands world-wide, and (2) evaluate the response under different environmental and experimental conditions. We conducted a...

Data from: The grass was greener: repeated evolution of specialized morphologies and habitat shifts in ghost spiders following grassland expansion in South America

Fadia Sara Ceccarelli, Nicolas Mongiardino Koch, Eduardo M. Soto, Mariana L. Barone, Miquel A. Arnedo & Martin J. Ramirez
While grasslands, one of Earth’s major biomes, are known for their close evolutionary ties with ungulate grazers, these habitats are also paramount to the origins and diversification of other animals. Within the primarily South American spider subfamily Amaurobioidinae (Anyphaenidae), several species are found living in the continent’s grasslands, with some displaying putative morphological adaptations to dwelling unnoticed in the grass blades. Here, a dated molecular phylogeny provides the backbone for analyses revealing the ecological and...

Data from: Transcriptome modulation during host shift is driven by secondary metabolites in desert Drosophila

Diego N. De Panis, Julián Padró, Pedro Furió-Tarí, Sonia Tarazona, Pablo S. Milla Carmona, Ignacio M. Soto, Hernán Dopazo, Ana Conesa & Esteban Hasson
High-throughput transcriptome studies are breaking new ground to investigate the responses that organisms deploy in alternative environments. Nevertheless, much remains to be understood about the genetic basis of host plant adaptation. Here, we investigate genome-wide expression in the fly Drosophila buzzatii raised in different conditions. This species uses decaying tissues of cactus of the genus Opuntia as primary rearing substrate and secondarily, the necrotic tissues of the columnar cactus Trichocereus terscheckii. The latter constitutes a...

Data from: Megaphylogeny resolves global patterns of mushroom evolution

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml … & László G. Nagy
Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfill diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree...

Is Cyclocardia (Conrad) a wastebasket taxon? Exploring the phylogeny of the most diverse genus of the Carditidae (Archiheterodonta, Bivalvia)

Damian Perez & Luciana Giachetti
The carditid genus Cyclocardia is currently the most diverse genus of the family, including nearly 180 nominal species from a wide stratigraphical (Cretaceous–Recent) and geographical range (Antarctica, South and North America, Europe, Africa, Alaska, Russia, Japan, and New Zealand). Due to the lack of autapomorphies in the diagnosis of the genus and its large account of species, we re-evaluated the systematic and phylogenetic status of Cyclocardia. We carried out three approaches: bibliographic revision, phylogenetic analysis,...

Data from: Broad-scale variation of fungal-endophyte incidence in temperate grasses

María Semmartin, Marina Omacini, Pedro E. Gundel & Ignacio M. Hernández-Agramonte
1. The strength of many interactions between plants and other organisms changes across regional gradients. For example, the relevance of plant-herbivore interactions increases with primary production. Likewise, biotic interactions collectively become more intense from the poles to the equator. Yet, the regional variation of the interaction between grasses and systemic fungal endophytes, which provide resistance to biotic and abiotic environmental factors (i.e. herbivory and drought), is poorly understood. 2. We compiled 1008 records of the...

Data from: Climate and sea-level changes across a shallow marine Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary succession in Patagonia, Argentina

Johan Vellekoop, Femke Holwerda, Mercedes B. Prámparo, Verónica Willmott, Stefan Schouten, Nestor R. Cúneo, Roberto A. Scasso & Henk Brinkhuis
Upper Maastrichtian to lower Paleocene, coarse-grained deposits of the Lefipán Formation in Chubut Province, (Patagonia, Argentina) provide an opportunity to study environmental changes across the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) boundary in a shallow marine depositional environment. Marine palynological and organic geochemical analyses were performed on the K–Pg boundary interval of the Lefipán Formation at the San Ramón section. The palynological and organic geochemical records from the San Ramón K–Pg boundary section are characteristic of a highly dynamic,...

Data from: Loss of fungal symbionts at the arid limit of the distribution range in a native Patagonian grass – resource ecophysiological relations

Cecilia Casas, Pedro E. Gundel, Eluney Deliens, Leopoldo J. Iannone, Guillermo García Martinez, María V. Vignale & Hans Schnyder
1. Crucial to our understanding of plant ecology is the consideration of the eco-physiological responses and constraints of plant-fungal symbioses throughout the native distribution range of their host. 2. We examined key eco-physiological roles of two co-occurring fungal symbionts [Epichloë endophytes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)] in the endemic grass Hordeum comosum across a wide bioclimatic gradient and contrasting grazing severity. We sampled H. comosum plants along four humid-to-arid transects in Patagonia, Argentina, covering its...

Mutualism has its limits: consequences of asymmetric interactions between a well-defended plant and its herbivorous pollinator

Robert Raguso & Maria Sol Balbuena
Concern for pollinator health has focused on social bees and their agricultural services, but not all pollinators are bees, and their ecosystem services also promote biodiversity and conservation. Pollinating herbivores generate ecological conflicts when they utilize the same plant as a nectar source and larval host. We tracked individual-level metrics of pollinator health – growth, survivorship, fecundity – across the life cycle of a pollinating herbivore, the hawkmoth Hyles lineata, through its interactions with Oenothera...

Optomotor response (eye movment) and avoidance responses (locomotor activity) of crabs Neohelice granulata for LP-lesioned, control lesioned and control crabs

Yair Barnatan, Daniel Tomsic, Alejandro Cámera & Julieta Sztarker
When an animal rotates (whether it is an arthropod, a fish, a bird, or a human) a drift of the visual panorama occurs over its retina, termed optic flow. The image motion is stabilized by compensatory behaviors (driven by the movement of the eyes, head or the whole body depending on the animal) collectively termed optomotor response (OR). Dipteran lobula plate has been consistently linked with optic flow processing and the control of optomotor responses....

Data from: Litter microbial and soil faunal communities stimulated in the wake of a volcanic eruption in a semi-arid woodland in Patagonia, Argentina

Paula Berenstecher, Daniela Gangi, Adelia González-Arzac, M. Laura Martínez, Eliseo J. Chaves, Eduardo A. Mondino & Amy T. Austin
Large-scale disturbances can be important components of the temporal landscape of natural ecosystems, but generalities regarding ecosystem impacts are difficult due to their infrequent and unpredictable nature. Volcanic eruptions figure as one of the most prominent of these natural disturbances, but the effects on microbes and ground-dwelling arthropods, which modulate carbon and nutrient turnover, are relatively unknown. We evaluated the effects of the 2011 Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption in Patagonia, Argentina, on the litter and soil...

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  • University of Buenos Aires
  • National Scientific and Technical Research Council
  • Bernardino Rivadavia Natural Sciences Museum
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Sao Paulo State University
  • Stanford University
  • University of Münster
  • University of Guelph