9 Works

Topological structure and dynamics of three-dimensional active nematics

Guillaume Duclos, Thomas Powers, Aparna Baskaran, Zvonimir Dogic, Vincenzo Vitelli, Federico Toschi, Raymond Adkins, Debarghya Banerjee, Matthew Peterson, Minu Varghese, Itamar Kolvin, Robert Pelcovits, Sebastian Streichan, Daniel Beller, Arvind Baskaran, Michael Hagan, Matthew S. E. Peterson, Robert A. Pelcovits, Thomas R. Powers, Michael F. Hagan & Sebastian J. Streichan
Topological structures are effective descriptors of the nonequilibrium dynamics of diverse many-body systems. For example, motile, point-like topological defects capture the salient features of two-dimensional active liquid crystals composed of energy-consuming anisotropic units. We dispersed force-generating microtubule bundles in a passive colloidal liquid crystal to form a three-dimensional active nematic. Light-sheet microscopy revealed the temporal evolution of the millimeter-scale structure of these active nematics with single-bundle resolution. The primary topological excitations are extended, charge-neutral disclination...

Data from: Genetic diversity, clonality and connectivity in the scleractinian coral Pocillopora damicornis: a multi-scale analysis in an insular, fragmented reef system

Mehdi Adjeroud, Aurélie Guérécheau, Jeremie Vidal-Dupiol, Jean-François Flot, Sophie Arnaud-Haond & François Bonhomme
Clonality and genetic structure of the coral Pocillopora damicornis sensu lato were assessed using five microsatellites in 12 populations from four islands of the Society Archipelago (French Polynesia) sampled in June 2008. The 427 analysed specimens fell into 132 multilocus genotypes (MLGs), suggesting that asexual reproduction plays an important role in the maintenance of these populations. A haploweb analysis of ITS2 sequences of each MLG was consistent with all of them being conspecific. Genetic differentiation...

Data from: Scaling of phloem structure and optimality of photoassimilate transport in conifer needles

Henrik Ronellenfitsch, Johannes Liesche, Kaare H. Jensen, Noel Michele Holbrook, Alexander Schulz & Eleni Katifori
The phloem vascular system facilitates transport of energy-rich sugar and signalling molecules in plants, thus permitting long-range communication within the organism and growth of non-photosynthesizing organs such as roots and fruits. The flow is driven by osmotic pressure, generated by differences in sugar concentration between distal parts of the plant. The phloem is an intricate distribution system, and many questions about its regulation and structural diversity remain unanswered. Here, we investigate the phloem structure in...

Data from: Local origin of global contact numbers in frictional ellipsoid packings

Fabian M. Schaller, Max Neudecker, Mohammad Saadatfar, Gary W. Delaney, Gerd E. Schröder-Turk & Matthias Schröter
In particulate soft matter systems the average number of contacts Z of a particle is an important predictor of the mechanical properties of the system. Using x-ray tomography, we analyze packings of frictional, oblate ellipsoids of various aspect ratios α, prepared at different global volume fractions ϕg. We find that Z is a monotonically increasing function of ϕg for all α. We demonstrate that this functional dependence can be explained by a local analysis where...

Data from: Breakdown of local information processing may underlie isoflurane anesthesia effects

Patricia Wollstadt, Kristin K. Sellers, Lucas Rudelt, Viola Priesemann, Axel Hutt, Flavio Fröhlich, Michael Wibral & Flavio Fröhlich
The disruption of coupling between brain areas has been suggested as the mechanism underlying loss of consciousness in anesthesia. This hypothesis has been tested previously by measuring the information transfer between brain areas, and by taking reduced information transfer as a proxy for decoupling. Yet, information transfer is a function of the amount of information available in the information source—such that transfer decreases even for unchanged coupling when less source information is available. Therefore, we...

Data from: Metagenomic chromosome conformation capture (meta3C) unveils the diversity of chromosome organization in microorganisms

Martial Marbouty, Axel Cournac, Jean-Francois Flot, Herve Marie-Nelly, Julien Mozziconacci & Romain Koszul
Genomic analyses of microbial populations in their natural environment remain limited by the difficulty to assemble full genomes of individual species. Consequently, the chromosome organization of microorganisms has been investigated in a few model species, but the extent to which the features described can be generalized to other taxa remains unknown. Using controlled mixes of bacterial and yeast species, we developed meta3C, a metagenomic chromosome conformation capture approach that allows characterizing individual genomes and their...

Data from: Measuring the configurational temperature of a binary disc packing

Song-Chuan Zhao & Matthias Schroeter
Jammed packings of granular materials differ from systems normally described by statistical mechanics in that they are athermal. In recent years a statistical mechanics of static granular media has emerged where the thermodynamic temperature is replaced by a configurational temperature X which describes how the number of mechanically stable configurations depends on the volume. Four different methods have been suggested to measure X. Three of them are computed from properties of the Voronoi volume distribution,...

Data from: Jammed frictional tetrahedra are hyperstatic

Max Neudecker, Stephan Ulrich, Stephan Herminghaus & Matthias Schröter
We prepare packings of frictional tetrahedra with volume fractions ϕ ranging from 0.469 to 0.622 using three different experimental protocols under isobaric conditions. Analysis via x-ray microtomography reveals that the contact number Z grows with ϕ, but does depend on the preparation protocol. While there exist four different types of contacts in tetrahedra packings, our analysis shows that the edge-to-face contacts contribute about 50% of the total increase in Z. The number of constraints per...

Data from: The coalescent in boundary-limited range expansions

Jens Nullmeier & Oskar Hallatschek
Habitat ranges of most species shift over time, for instance due to climate change, human intervention, or adaptation. These demographic changes often have drastic population genetic effects, such as a stochastic resampling of the gene pool through the "surfing" phenomenon. Most models assume that the speed of range expansions is only limited by the dispersal ability of the colonizing species and its reproductive potential. While such models of "phenotype-limited" expansions apply to species invasions, it...

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