FlowCam Macro library of Noctiluca scintillans from vertical plankton net hauls collected in 2018 from station L4 using 335um mesh plankton net, 50cm diameter. Fluid Imaging VisualSpreadsheet software required.
Perceived and actual fighting ability: determinants of success via decision, knockout or submission in human combat sportsSarah Lane & Mark Briffa
Animal contest theory assumes individuals to possess accurate information about their own fighting ability or resource holding potential (RHP) and, under some models, that of their opponent. However, due to the difficulty of disentangling perceived and actual RHP in animals, how accurately individuals are able to assess RHP remains relatively unknown. Furthermore, it is not just individuals within a fight that evaluate RHP. Third party observers evaluate the fight performance of conspecifics in order to...
Ecological mechanisms explaining interactions within plant-hummingbird networks: morphological matching increases towards lower latitudesJesper Sonne, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Pietro K. Maruyama, Andréa C. Araújo, Edgar Chávez-González, Aline G. Coelho, Peter A. Cotton, Oscar H. Marín-Gómez, Carlos Lara, Liliana R. Lasprilla, Caio G. Machado, Maria A. Maglianesi, Tiago S. Malucelli, Ana M. Martín-González, Genilda M. Oliveira, Paulo E. Oliveira, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Márcia A. Rocca, Licléia C. Rodrigues, Ivan Sazima, Benno I. Simmons, Boris Tinoco, Isabela G. Varassin, Marcelo F. Vasconcelos, Bob O’Hara … & Bo Dalsgaard
Interactions between species are influenced by different ecological mechanisms, such as morphological matching, phenological overlap, and species abundances. How these mechanisms explain interaction frequencies across environmental gradients remains poorly understood. Consequently, we also know little about the mechanisms that drive the geographical patterns in network structure, such as complementary specialization and modularity. Here, we use data on morphologies, phenologies and abundances to explain interaction frequencies between hummingbirds and plants at a large geographic scale. For...
Diving as a lifestyle has evolved on multiple occasions when air-breathing terrestrial animals invaded the aquatic realm, and diving performance shapes the ecology and behaviour of all air-breathing aquatic taxa, from small insects to great whales. Using the largest dataset yet assembled, we show that maximum dive duration increases predictably with body mass in both ectotherms and endotherms. Compared to endotherms, ectotherms can remain submerged for longer, but the mass scaling relationship for dive duration...
From pup to predator; generalized hidden Markov models reveal rapid development of movement strategies in a naïve long‐lived vertebrateMatt I. D. Carter, Brett T. McClintock, Clare B. Embling, Kimberley A. Bennett, Dave Thompson & Debbie J. F. Russell
Rapid development of a successful foraging strategy is critical for juvenile survival, especially for naïve animals that receive no parental guidance. However, this process is poorly understood for many species. Although observation of early-life movements is increasingly possible with miniaturisation of animalborne telemetry devices, analytical limitations remain. Here, we tracked 29 recently-weaned, grey seal Halichoerus grypus pups from colonies in two geographically distinct regions of the United Kingdom. We analysed at-sea movements of pups throughout...
Small shelly fossils and carbon isotopes from the early Cambrian (Stage 3-4) Mural Formation of western LaurentiaChristian B. Skovsted, Uwe Balthasar, Jakob Vinther & Erik Sperling
The extraordinary window of phosphatised and phosphatic Small Shelly Fossils (SSFs) during the early and middle Cambrian is an important testament to the radiation of biomineralising metazoans. While SSF are well known from most Cambrian palaeocontinents during this time interval, western Laurentia has relatively few SSF faunas. Here we describe a diverse SSF fauna from the early Cambrian (Stage 3-4) Mural Formation at three localities in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada, complemented by carbon isotope...
Aim Although latitudinal and bathymetric species diversity gradients in the deep sea have been identified and investigated, studies have rarely considered these gradients across seamount and oceanic island ecosystems. This study aimed to identify whether the current understanding of latitudinal and bathymetric gradients in α-diversity (species richness) apply to South Atlantic seamount ecosystems, as well as ascertaining whether identifiable trends were present in seamount β-diversity along a bathymetric gradient. Location The South Atlantic Ocean. Time...
Aim We compare the performance of habitat suitability models using climate data only or climate data together with water chemistry, land cover and predation pressure data to model the distribution of European grayling (Thymallus thymallus). From these models, we (1) investigate the relationship between habitat suitability and genetic diversity; (2) project the distribution of grayling under future climate change and (3) model the effects of habitat mitigation on future distributions. Location United Kingdom Methods Maxent...
Asymmetry in kinematic generalization between visual and passive lead-in movements are consistent with a forward model in the sensorimotor systemIan S Howard, Sae Franklin & David W Franklin
In our daily life we often make complex actions comprised of linked movements, such as reaching for a cup of coffee and bringing it to our mouth to drink. Recent work has highlighted the role of such linked movements in the formation of independent motor memories, affecting the learning rate and ability to learn opposing force fields. In these studies, distinct prior movements (lead-in movements) allow adaptation of opposing dynamics on the following movement. Purely...
University of Leeds2
Mato Grosso State University2
Manchester Metropolitan University2
University of Exeter2
Harper Adams University1
Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana1
University of Cambridge1
European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts1