Inbreeding depression has become a central theme in evolutionary biology and is considered to be a driving force for the evolution of reproductive morphology, physiology, behavior, and mating systems. Despite the overwhelming body of empirical work on the reproductive consequences of inbreeding, relatively little is known on whether inbreeding depresses male and female fitness to the same extent. However, sex-specific inbreeding depression has been argued to affect the evolution of selfing rates in simultaneous hermaphrodites...
Data from: Quantifying the effects of migration and mutation on adaptation and demography in spatially heterogeneous environmentsFlorence Débarre, Ophélie Ronce & Sylvain Gandon
How do mutation and gene flow influence population persistence, niche expansion, and local adaptation in spatially heterogeneous environments? In this article, we analyse a demographic and evolutionary model of adaptation to an environment containing two habitats in equal frequencies, and we bridge the gap between different theoretical frameworks. Qualitatively, our model yields four qualitative types of outcomes: (i) global extinction of the population (ii) adaptation to one habitat only, but also adaptation to both habitats...
Data from: Inferring contemporary dispersal processes in plant metapopulations: comparison of direct and indirect estimates of dispersal for the annual species Crepis sanctaPierre-Olivier Cheptou & Antoine Dornier
Analyzing population dynamics in changing habitats is a prerequisite for population dynamics forecasting. The recent development of metapopulation modeling allows the estimation of dispersal kernels based on the colonization pattern but the accuracy of these estimates compared with direct estimates of the seed dispersal kernel has rarely been assessed. In this study, we used recent genetic methods based on parentage analysis (spatially explicit mating models) to estimate seed and pollen dispersal kernels as well as...
Data from: Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impactJean-Marc Pons, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Carla Dove & Pierre-Andre Crochet
Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull...
Data from: Impact of host nutritional status on infection dynamics and parasite virulence in a bird-malaria systemStéphane Cornet, Coraline Bichet, Stephen Larcombe, Bruno Faivre & Gabriele Sorci
1. Host resources can drive the optimal parasite exploitation strategy by offering a good or a poor environment to pathogens. Hosts living in resource-rich habitats might offer a favourable environment to developing parasites because they provide a wealth of resources. However, hosts living in resource-rich habitats might afford a higher investment into costly immune defences providing an effective barrier against infection. Understanding how parasites can adapt to hosts living in habitats of different quality is...
Heterozygosity–fitness correlations (HFCs) are often used to link individual genetic variation to differences in fitness. However, most studies examining HFCs find weak or no correlations. Here, we derive broad theoretical predictions about how many loci are needed to adequately measure genomic heterozygosity assuming different levels of identity disequilibrium (ID), a proxy for inbreeding. We then evaluate the expected ability to detect HFCs using an empirical data set of 200 microsatellites and 412 single nucleotide polymorphisms...
Data from: ‘Becoming a species by becoming a pest’ or how two maize pests of the genus Ostrinia possibly evolved through parallel ecological speciation eventsDenis Bourguet, Sergine Ponsard, Rejane Streiff, Serge Meusnier, Philippe Audiot, Jing Li & Zhen-Ying Wang
New agricultural pest species attacking introduced crops may evolve from pre-existing local herbivores by ecological speciation, thereby becoming a species by becoming a pest. We compare the evolutionary pathways by which two maize pests (the Asian and the European corn borers, ACB and ECB) in the genus Ostrinia (Lepidoptera, Crambidae) probably diverged from an ancestral species close to the current Adzuki bean borer (ABB). We typed larval Ostrinia populations collected on maize and dicotyledons across...
Data from: Variation in habitat connectivity generates positive correlations between species and genetic diversity in a metacommunityThomas Lamy, Philippe Jarne, Fabien Laroche, Jean-Pierre Pointier, Géraldine Huth, Adeline Segard, Patrice David & J.-P. Pointier
An increasing number of studies are simultaneously investigating species diversity (SD) and genetic diversity (GD) in the same systems, looking for ‘species– genetic diversity correlations’ (SGDCs). From negative to positive SGDCs have been reported, but studies have generally not quantified the processes underlying these correlations. They were also mostly conducted at large biogeographical scales or in recently degraded habitats. Such correlations have not been looked for in natural networks of connected habitat fragments (metacommunities), and...
Data from: On the origin of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) genetic diversity in New Guinea, a secondary centre of diversityCaroline Roullier, Rosa Kambouo, Janet Paofa, Doyle McKey & Vincent Lebot
New Guinea is considered the most important secondary centre of diversity for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas). We analysed nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity of 417 New Guinea sweet potato landraces, representing agro-morphological diversity collected throughout the island, and compared this diversity with that in tropical America. The molecular data reveal moderate diversity across all accessions analysed, lower than that found in tropical America. Nuclear data confirm previous results, suggesting that New Guinea landraces are principally...
Data from: Why do mixotrophic plants stay green? A comparison between green and achlorophyllous orchid individuals in situMelanie Roy, Cedric Gonneau, Alain Rocheteau, Daniel Berveiller, Jean-Claude Thomas, Claire Damesin, Marc André Selosse & M.-A. Selosse
Some forest plants adapt to shade by mixotrophy, i.e., they obtain carbon both from photosynthesis and from their root mycorrhizal fungi. Fully achlorophyllous species using exclusively fungal carbon (the so-called mycoheterotrophic plants) have repeatedly evolved from such mixotrophic ancestors. However, adaptations for this evolutionary transition, and the reasons why it has happened a limited number of times, remain unknown. We investigated this using achlorophyllous variants (i.e., albinos) spontaneously occurring in Cephalanthera damasonium, a mixotrophic orchid....
Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive10
French National Centre for Scientific Research2
University of Montpellier2
National Museum of Natural History1
Université de Sherbrooke1
Institute of Plant Protection1
University of Alberta1
University of Toulouse1
University of Paris-Sud1
Paul Sabatier University1