135 Works

Data from: Phosphorus alleviation of nitrogen-suppressed methane sink in global grasslands

Lihua Zhang, Fenghui Yuan, Junhong Bai, Hongtao Duan, Xueying Gu, Longyu Hou, Yao Huang, Mingan Yang, Jinsheng He, Zhenghua Zhang, Lijun Yu, Changchun Song, David Lipson, Donatella Zona, Walter Oechel, Ivan Janssens & Xiaofeng Xu
Grassland ecosystems account for more than 10% of the global CH4 sink in soils. A 4-year field experiment found that addition of P alone did not affect CH4 uptake and experimental addition of N alone significantly suppressed CH4 uptake, while concurrent N and P additions suppressed CH4 uptake to a lesser degree. A meta-analysis including 382 data points in global grasslands corroborated these findings. Global extrapolation with an empirical modeling approach estimated that contemporary N...

Data from: Temporal stability of chimpanzee social culture

Edwin J. C. Van Leeuwen
Culture is a hallmark of the human species, both in terms of the transmission of material inventions (e.g., tool manufacturing) and the adherence to social conventions (e.g., greeting mannerisms). While material culture has been reported across the animal kingdom, indications of social culture in animals are limited. Moreover, there is a paucity in evidencing cultural stability in animals. Here, based on a large dataset spanning 12 years, I show that chimpanzees adhere to arbitrary group-specific...

Data from: Potentially peat-forming biomass of fen sedges increases with increasing nutrient levels

Tjorven Hinzke, Guixiang Li, Franziska Tanneberger, Elke Seeber, Camiel Aggenbach, Jelena Lange, Łukasz Kozub, Klaus-Holger Knorr, Juergen Kreyling & Wiktor Kotowski
Peat formation is a key carbon sequestration process in the terrestrial biosphere. In temperate fens, peat is mainly formed by below-ground biomass of vascular plants. Nutrient availability in temperate fens is naturally variable, and nowadays increasing due to atmospheric deposition, runoff from agriculture, and mineralization of peat caused by drainage. To maintain or restore peat formation, it is important to understand how increased nutrient availability influences the main controls of peat formation, i.e., below-ground biomass...

Species abundance along the railway of Kashmir Himalaya

Irfan Rashid, Marifatul Shiekh, Jonas Lembrechts, Anzar Khuroo, Anibal Pauchard & Jeffrey Dukes
1. The significant portion of global terrestrial biodiversity harbored in mountains is under increasing threat from a variety of anthropogenic impacts. Protecting fragile mountain ecosystems requires understanding how these human disturbances affect biodiversity. As roads and railways are extended further into mountain ecosystems, understanding the long-term impacts of this infrastructure on community composition and diversity gains urgency. 2. We used railway corridors constructed across the mountainous landscapes of the Kashmir Himalaya from 1994-2013 to study...

Urbanisation lowers great tit (Parus major) breeding success at multiple spatial scales

Jacques De Satge
While numerous studies have reported negative effects of urbanisation on birds, few have examined the role of urban scale in influencing breeding success and many studies have relied on qualitative rather than quantitative assessments of urbanisation. This study sought to address these issues by testing the effects of urbanisation, measured at two spatial scales, on the breeding success of great tits Parus major. A nested study design, incorporating over 400 nestboxes, was used in study...

Data from: Early detection of chronic hepatitis B and risk factor assessment in Turkish migrants, Middle Limburg, Belgium.

Özgür Muhammet Koc, Cécile Kremer, Niel Hens, Rob Bielen, Dana Busschots, Pierre Van Damme & Geert Robaeys
Background Turkey is an intermediate hepatitis B virus (HBV) endemic country. However, prevalence among Turkish migrants in Belgium is unknown, especially in those born in Belgium with a foreign-born parent, i.e. second-generation migrants (SGM). Aims To evaluate the prevalence of HBV infection and associated risk factors in Turkish first-generation migrants (FGM), i.e. foreign-born, and SGM. Methods Between September 2017 and May 2019, free outreach testing for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibodies...

Data from: Proximity to roads, but not exposure to metal pollution, is associated with accelerated developmental telomere shortening in nestling great tits

Andrea Grunst, Melissa Grunst, Lieven Bervoets, Rianne Pinxten & Marcel Eens
Comprehensively understanding the factors affecting physiology and fitness in urban wildlife requires concurrently considering multiple stressors. To this end, we simultaneously assessed how metal pollution and proximity to roads affect body condition and telomere shortening between days 8 and 15 of age in nestling great tits (Parus major), a common urban bird. We employed a repeated-measures sampling design to compare telomere shortening and body condition between nestlings from four urban study sites south of Antwerp,...

Data from: Modulation of yaw stability with an unstable rigid body and a stabilising caudal fin in the yellow boxfish (Ostracion cubicus)

Pim G. Boute, Sam Van Wassenbergh & Eize J. Stamhuis
Despite that boxfishes have a rigid carapace that restricts body undulation, they are highly manoeuvrable and manage to swim with remarkably dynamic stability. Recent research has indicated that the rigid body shape of boxfishes shows an inherently unstable response in its rotations caused by course-disturbing flows. Hence, any net stabilising effect should come from the fish’s fins. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of the surface area and orientation of...

Data from: Early-life exposure to artificial light at night elevates physiological stress in free-living songbirds

Melissa L. Grunst, Thomas Raap, Andrea S. Grunst, Rianne Pinxten, Charline Parenteau, Frédéric Angelier & Marcel Eens
Artificial light at night (ALAN) can disrupt adaptive patterns of physiology and behavior that promote high fitness, resulting in physiological stress and elevation of steroid glucocorticoids (corticosterone, CORT in birds). Elevated CORT may have particularly profound effects early in life, with the potential for enduring effects that persist into adulthood. Research on the consequences of early-life exposure to ALAN remains limited, especially outside of the laboratory, and whether light exposure affects CORT concentrations in wild...

Data from: Resource predictability drives inter-annual variation in migratory behaviour in a long-lived bird

Jan Baert, Eric Stienen, Frederick Verbruggen, Nico Van De Weghe, Luc Lens & Wendt Müller
There is a growing awareness that experience may play a major role in migratory decisions, especially in long-lived species. However, empirical support remains to date scarce. Here, we use multi-year GPS-tracking data on 28 adult Lesser Black-backed Gulls (Larus fuscus), a long-lived species for which migratory strategies typically consist of a series of long stopovers, to assess how experience affects interannual variation in stopover selection. We expect that food source reliability should play a pivotal...

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