16 Works

Data from: Internet blogs, polar bears, and climate-change denial by proxy

Jeffrey A. Harvey, Daphne Van Den Berg, Jacintha Ellers, Remko Kampen, Thomas W. Crowther, Peter Roessingh, Bart Verheggen, Rascha J. M. Nuijten, Eric Post, Stephan Lewandowsky, Ian Stirling, Meena Balgopal, Steven C. Amstrup & Michael E. Mann
Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a “poster species” for AGW, making them a target of those denying AGW evidence....

Data from: A test of the hierarchical model of litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, G. F. Veen, Anne Bonis, Ella M. Bradford, Aimee T. Classen, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Thomas W. Crowther, Jonathan R. De Long, Gregoire T. Freschet, Paul Kardol, Marta Manrubia-Freixa, Daniel S. Maynard, Gregory S. Newman, Richard S. P. Van Logtestijn, Maria Viketoft, David A. Wardle, William R. Wieder, Stephen A. Wood & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Our basic understanding of plant litter decomposition informs the assumptions underlying widely applied soil biogeochemical models, including those embedded in Earth system models. Confidence in projected carbon cycle-climate feedbacks therefore depends on accurate knowledge about the controls regulating the rate at which plant biomass is decomposed into products such as CO2. Here, we test underlying assumptions of the dominant conceptual model of litter decomposition. The model posits that a primary control on the rate of...

Data from: How close do we live to water? a global analysis of population distance to freshwater bodies

Matti Kummu, Hans De Moel, Philip J. Ward & Olli Varis
Traditionally, people have inhabited places with ready access to fresh water. Today, over 50% of the global population lives in urban areas, and water can be directed via tens of kilometres of pipelines. Still, however, a large part of the world's population is directly dependent on access to natural freshwater sources. So how are inhabited places related to the location of freshwater bodies today? We present a high-resolution global analysis of how close present-day populations...

Data from: Tracking plant preference for higher-quality mycorrhizal symbionts under varying CO conditions over multiple generations

Gijsbert D. A. Werner, Yeling Zhou, Corné M. J. Pieterse & E. Toby Kiers
The symbiosis between plants and root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most ecologically important examples of interspecific cooperation in the world. AM fungi provide benefits to plants; in return plants allocate carbon resources to fungi, preferentially allocating more resources to higher-quality fungi. However, preferential allocations from plants to symbionts may vary with environmental context, particularly when resource availability affects the relative value of symbiotic services. We ask how differences in atmospheric CO2-levels...

Data from: Scaling up flammability from individual leaves to fuel beds

Saskia Grootemaat, Ian Wright, Peter Van Bodegom, Johannes Cornelissen, Peter M. Van Bodegom, Ian J. Wright & Johannes H. C. Cornelissen
Wildfires play an important role in vegetation composition and structure, nutrient fluxes, human health and wealth, and are interlinked with climate change. Plants have an influence on wildfire behaviour and predicting this feedback is a high research priority. For upscaling from leaf traits to wildfire behaviour we need to know if the same leaf traits are important for the flammability of (i) individual leaves, and (ii) multiple leaves packed in fuel beds. Based on a...

Data from: Does warming by open-top chambers induce change in the root-associated fungal community of the arctic dwarf shrub Cassiope tetragona (Ericaceae)?

Kelsey Erin Lorberau, Synnøve Smebye Botnen, Sunil Mundra, Anders Bjørnsgaard Aas, Jelte Rozema, Pernille Bronken Eidesen & Håvard Kauserud
Climate change may alter mycorrhizal communities, which impact ecosystem characteristics such as carbon sequestration processes. These impacts occur at a greater magnitude in Arctic ecosystems, where the climate is warming faster than in lower latitudes. Cassiope tetragona (L.) D. Don is an Arctic plant species in the Ericaceae family with a circumpolar range. C. tetragona has been reported to form ericoid mycorrhizal (ErM) as well as ectomycorrhizal (ECM) symbioses. In this study, the fungal taxa...

Data from: Two-thirds of global cropland area impacted by climate oscillations

Matias Heino, Michael J. Puma, Philip J. Ward, Dieter Gerten, Vera Heck, Stefan Siebert & Matti Kummu
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) peaked strongly during the boreal winter 2015-2016, leading to food insecurity in many parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Besides ENSO, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are known to impact crop yields worldwide. Here, we assess for the first time in a unified framework the relationship between ENSO, IOD and NAO and simulated crop productivity at the sub-country scale. Our findings reveal...

Data from: A simple experimental set-up to disentangle the effects of altered temperature and moisture regimes on soil organisms

Eveline J. Krab, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen & Matty P. Berg
1. Climate manipulation experiments in the field and laboratory incubations are common methods to study the impact of climate change on soils and their biota. However, both types of methods have drawbacks either on their mechanistic interpretation or ecological relevance. 2. We propose an experimental setup that combines the best of both methods, and can be easily obtained by modifying widely available Tullgren soil fauna extractors. This setup creates or alters temperature and moisture gradients...

Data from: Specific leaf area predicts dryland litter decomposition via two mechanisms

Guofang Liu, Lei Wang, Li Jiang, Xu Pan, Zhenying Huang, Ming Dong & Johannes H. C. Cornelissen
1. Litter decomposition plays important roles in carbon and nutrient cycling. In dryland both microbial decomposition and abiotic degradation (by UV light or other forces) drive variation in decomposition rates, but whether and how litter traits and position determine the balance between these processes is poorly understood. 2. We investigated relationships between litter quality and their decomposition rates among diverse plant species in a desert ecosystem in vertically contrasting positions representing distinct decomposition environments driven...

Data from: Disentangling competitive versus climatic drivers of tropical forest mortality

Michiel Pillet, Emilie Joetzjer, Camille Belmin, Jérôme Chave, Philippe Ciais, Aurélie Dourdain, Margaret Evans, Bruno Hérault, Sebastiaan Luyssaert & Benjamin Poulter
1. Tropical forest mortality is controlled by biotic and abiotic processes, but how these processes interact to determine forest structure is not well understood. Using long-term demography data from permanent forest plots at the Paracou Tropical Forest Research Station in French Guiana, we analyzed the relative influence of competition and climate on tree mortality. We found that self-thinning is evident at the stand level, and is associated with clumped mortality at smaller scales (< 2...

Data from: Environmental conditions limit attractiveness of a complex sexual signal in the túngara frog

Wouter Halfwerk, Judith A. H. Smit, Hugo Loning, Amanda M. Lea, Inga Geipel, Jacintha Ellers & Michael J. Ryan
Animals choosing particular display sites often balance sexual and natural selection pressures. Here we assess how physical properties of display sites can alter this balance by influencing signal production and attractiveness of the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Males that call from very shallow water bodies (few mm depth) benefit from reduced predation risk, but by manipulating water levels, we show that this comes at a cost of reduced attractiveness to females. Our data show that...

Data from: Plant community composition but not plant traits determine the outcome of soil legacy effects on plants and insects

Robin Heinen, Martijn Van Der Sluis, Arjen Biere, Jeffrey A. Harvey & T. Martijn Bezemer
1.Plants leave species-specific legacies in the soil they grow in that can represent changes in abiotic or biotic soil properties. It has been shown that such legacies can affect future plants that grow in the same soil (plant-soil feedback, PSF). Such processes have been studied in detail, but mostly on individual plants. Here we study PSF effects at the community level and use a trait-based approach both in the conditioning phase and in the feedback...

Data from: Taxonomic effect on plant base concentrations and stoichiometry at the tips of the phylogeny prevails over environmental effect along a large scale gradient

Xuejun Yang, Zhenying Huang, Keliang Zhang & J. Hans C. Cornelissen
Despite the well-known importance of all elements to plant growth and nutrient fluxes in ecosystems, most studies to date have been restricted to the roles of foliar nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Much less is known about cycling and pools of base cations in ecosystems and the drivers of variation in cation concentrations among plant species, even though these cations are paramount for plant and ecosystem function. In particular, little is known about the contributions...

Data from: Tree leaf and root traits mediate soil faunal contribution to litter decomposition across an elevational gradient

Saori Fujii, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Matty P. Berg & Akira S. Mori
1.Plant litter decomposition is key to carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil fauna are important litter decomposers, but how their contribution to decomposition changes with alterations in plant composition and climate is not well established. 2.Here we quantified how soil mesofauna affect decomposition rate interactively with climate and leaf and root traits. We conducted an in situ decomposition experiment using eight dominant tree species per forest site across four elevations (50, 400, 600...

Data from: Fungal communities influence decomposition rates of plant litter from two dominant trees species

Johan Asplund, Håvard Kauserud, Stef Bokhorst, Marit H. Lie, Mikael Ohlson & Line Nybakken
The home-field advantage hypothesis (HFA) predicts that plant litter decomposes faster than expected underneath the plant from which it originates. We tested this hypothesis in a decomposition experiment where litters were incubated reciprocally in neighbouring European beech and Norway spruce forests. We analysed fungal communities in the litter through DNA metabarcoding and evaluated the effect of mesofauna (mites and springtails) on litter mass loss by using different litter-bag mesh sizes. Accounting for general differences in...

Data from: Evolutionary ecology of beta-lactam gene clusters in animals

Wouter Suring, Karen Meusemann, Alexander Blanke, Janine Marien, Tim Schol, Valeria Agamennone, Anna Faddeeva-Vakhrusheva, Matty P. Berg, , Bram Brouwer, Nico M. Van Straalen, Dick Roelofs & Abraham Brouwer
Beta-lactam biosynthesis was thought to occur only in fungi and bacteria, but we recently reported the presence of isopenicillin N synthase in a soil-dwelling animal, Folsomia candida. However, it has remained unclear whether this gene is part of a larger beta-lactam biosynthesis pathway and how widespread the occurrence of penicillin biosynthesis is among animals. Here, we analyzed the distribution of beta-lactam biosynthesis genes throughout the animal kingdom and identified a beta-lactam gene cluster in the...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    16

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    16

Affiliations

  • VU University Amsterdam
    16
  • Nederlands Instituut voor Ecologie
    3
  • University of Oslo
    2
  • Aalto University
    2
  • Leiden University
    2
  • French National Centre for Scientific Research
    2
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
    2
  • Centre d'Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Evolutive
    1
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    1
  • University of Groningen
    1