119 Works

Data from: Mismatches between the resources for adult herbivores and their offspring suggest invasive Spartina alterniflora is an ecological trap

Ke-Ke Sun, Wen-Sheng Yu, Jia-Jia Jiang, Christina Richards, Evan Siemann, Jun Ma, Bo Li & Rui-Ting Ju
1. Plant invasions can alter the behavior and performance of native herbivorous insects because the insects are evolutionarily naïve to the novel plants. An ecological trap results when native insects prefer invasive plants over their native hosts but suffer reduced fitness on the invaders. Although such traps are predicted to occur frequently given the prevalence of invasive plants, empirical support for ecological traps and their underlying mechanisms remains sparse. 2. We examined the potential for...

Data from: Can the genomics of ecological speciation be predicted across the divergence continuum from host races to species? A case study in Rhagoletis

Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Gregory J. Ragland, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Patrik Nosil & Jeffrey L. Feder
Studies assessing the predictability of evolution typically focus on short-term adaptation within populations or the repeatability of change among lineages. A missing consideration in speciation research is to determine whether natural selection predictably transforms standing genetic variation within populations into differences between species. Here, we test whether host-related selection on diapause timing anticipates genome-wide differentiation during ecological speciation by comparing ancestral hawthorn and newly formed apple-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella to their sibling species...

Individual-based networks reveal the highly skewed interactions of a frugivore mutualist with individual plants in a diverse community

Jadelys Tonos
While plant-animal interactions occur fundamentally at the individual level, the bulk of research examining the mechanisms that drive interaction patterns has focused on the species or population level. In seed-dispersal mutualisms between frugivores and plants, little is known about the role of space and individual-level variation among plants in structuring patterns of frugivore foraging and, thus, seed dispersal in a plant community. Here we use an animal perspective to examine how space and variation between...

Orbital and In-Situ Investigation of the Bagnold Dunes and Sands of Forvie, Gale Crater, Mars

Eleanor Moreland, Raymond Arvidson, Richard Morris, Thomas Condus, Madison Hughes, Catherine Weitz & Scott VanBommel
The Bagnold linear dune field investigated by Curiosity at Mount Desert Island (MDI) is in Gale crater, north of the ~5.5 km high Aeolis Mons mound. False-color images (RGB, 2.4957, 1.8020, and 1.2365 µm, respectively) generated from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) data show the dune field has a reddish-brown color. Sand sheets located south of the Bagnold dunes, such as at the Sands of Forvie (SoF), are darker...

Does ant-plant mutualism have spillover effects on the non-partner ant community?

Marion Donald & Tom EX Miller
Mutualism benefits partner species and theory predicts these partnerships can affect the abundance, diversity, and composition of partner and non-partner species. We used 16 years of monitoring data to determine the ant partner species of tree cholla cacti (Cylindriopuntia imbricata), which reward ants with extrafloral nectar in exchange for anti-herbivore defense. This long-term data revealed one dominant ant partner (Liometopum apiculatum) and two less common partners (Crematogaster opuntiae and Forelius pruinosus. We then used short-term...

Species specific plant-mediated effects between herbivores converge at high damage intensity

Jinlong Wan, Jiahui Yi, Zhibin Tao, Zhikun Ren, Evans Otieno, Baoliang Tian, Jianqing Ding, Evan Siemann, Matthias Erb & Wei Huang
Plants are often exposed to multiple herbivores and densities of these attackers (or corresponding damage intensities) generally fluctuate greatly in the field. Plant-mediated interactions vary among herbivore species and with changing feeding intensity, but little is known about how herbivore identity and density interact to determine plant responses and herbivore fitness. Here, we investigated this question using Triadica sebifera (tallow) and its two major specialist insect herbivores, Bikasha collaris (flea beetle) and Heterapoderopsis bicallosicollis (weevil)....

Data from: Mutations in global regulators lead to metabolic selection during adaptation to complex environments

Gerda Saxer, Michael D. Krepps, Eric D. Merkley, Charles Ansong, Brooke L. Deatherage Kaiser, Marie-Thérèse Valovska, Nikola Ristic, Ping T. Yeh, Vittal P. Prakash, Owen P. Leiser, Luay Nakhleh, Henry S. Gibbons, Helen W. Kreuzer & Yousif Shamoo
Adaptation to ecologically complex environments can provide insights into the evolutionary dynamics and functional constraints encountered by organisms during natural selection. Adaptation to a new environment with abundant and varied resources can be difficult to achieve by small incremental changes if many mutations are required to achieve even modest gains in fitness. Since changing complex environments are quite common in nature, we investigated how such an epistatic bottleneck can be avoided to allow rapid adaptation....

Data from: Habitat-mediated carry-over effects lead to context dependent outcomes of species interactions

Benjamin G. Van Allen & Volker H. W. Rudolf
1. When individuals disperse, their performance in newly colonized habitats can be influenced by the conditions they experienced in the past, leading to environmental carry-over effects. While carry-over effects are ubiquitous in animal and plant systems, their impact on species interactions and coexistence are largely ignored in traditional coexistence theory. 2. Here we used a combination of modelling and experiments with two competing species to examine when and how such environmental carry-over effects influence community...

Data from: Standing geographic variation in eclosion time and the genomics of host race formation in Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies

Meredith M. Doellman, Scott P. Egan, Gregory J. Ragland, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Peter Lazorchak, Daniel A. Hahn, Stewart H. Berlocher, Patrik Nosil, Jeff L. Feder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
Taxa harboring high levels of standing variation may be more likely to adapt to rapid environmental shifts and experience ecological speciation. Here, we characterize geographic and host-related differentiation for 10,241 single nucleotide polymorphisms in Rhagoletis pomonella fruit flies to infer if standing genetic variation in adult eclosion time in the ancestral hawthorn (Crataegus spp.)-infesting host race, as opposed to new mutations, contributed substantially to its recent shift to earlier fruiting apple (Malus domestica). Allele frequency...

Data from: Multilocus approaches for the measurement of selection on correlated genetic loci

Zachariah Gompert, Scott P. Egan, Rowan D. H. Barrett, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
The study of ecological speciation is inherently linked to the study of selection. Methods for estimating phenotypic selection within a generation based on associations between trait values and fitness (e.g. survival) of individuals are established. These methods attempt to disentangle selection acting directly on a trait from indirect selection caused by correlations with other traits via multivariate statistical approaches (i.e. inference of selection gradients). The estimation of selection on genotypic or genomic variation could also...

Data from: Non-linear effects of phenological shifts link inter-annual variation to species interactions

Volker H.W. Rudolf & Volker H. W. Rudolf
1. The vast majority of species interactions are seasonally structured and depend on species’ relative phenologies. However, differences in the phenologies of species naturally vary across years and are altered by ongoing climate change around the world. 2. By combining experiments that shifted the relative hatching of two competing tadpole species across a productivity gradient with simulations of inter-annual variation in arrival times I tested how phenological variation across years can alter the strength and...

Data from: Rapid evolution of dispersal ability makes biological invasions faster and more variable

Brad M. Ochocki & Tom E. X. Miller
Genetic variation in dispersal ability may result in the spatial sorting of alleles during range expansion. Recent theory suggests that spatial sorting can favour the rapid evolution of life history traits at expanding fronts, and therefore modify the ecological dynamics of range expansion. Here we test this prediction by disrupting spatial sorting in replicated invasions of the bean beetle Callosobruchus maculatus across homogeneous experimental landscapes. We show that spatial sorting promotes rapid evolution of dispersal...

Data from: A test of genomic modularity among life-history adaptations promoting speciation with gene flow

Gregory Ragland, Meredith M. Doellman, Peter J. Meyers, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H. Q. Powell, Daniel A. Hahn, Patrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Gregory J. Ragland
Speciation with gene flow may require adaptive divergence of multiple traits to generate strong ecologically based reproductive isolation. Extensive negative pleiotropy or physical linkage of genes in the wrong phase affecting these diverging traits may therefore hinder speciation, while genetic independence or “modularity” among phenotypic traits may reduce constraints and facilitate divergence. Here, we test whether the genetics underlying two components of diapause life history, initial diapause intensity and diapause termination timing, constrain differentiation between...

Data from: Faster processing of moving compared to flashed bars in awake macaque V1 provides a neural correlate of the flash lag illusion

Manivannan Subramaniyan, Alexander S. Ecker, Saumil S. Patel, R. James Cotton, Matthias Bethge, Xaq Pitkow, Philipp Berens & Andreas S. Tolias
When the brain has determined the position of a moving object, due to anatomical and processing delays, the object will have already moved to a new location. Given the statistical regularities present in natural motion, the brain may have acquired compensatory mechanisms to minimize the mismatch between the perceived and the real position of moving objects. A well-known visual illusion — the flash lag effect — points towards such a possibility. Although many psychophysical models...

Data from: Fruiting phenology is linked to rainfall variability in a tropical rain forest

Amy E. Dunham, Onja H. Razafindratsima, Paul Rakotonirina, Patricia C. Wright. & Patricia C. Wright
As the influence of climate change on tropical forests becomes apparent, more studies are needed to understand how changes in climatic variables like rainfall are likely to affect tree phenology. Using a twelve-year dataset (2005–2016), we studied the impact of seasonal rainfall patterns on the fruiting phenology of 69 tree species in the rain forest of southeastern Madagascar. We found that average annual rainfall in this region has increased by >800mm (23%) during this period...

Data from: Pooled analysis suggests benefit of catheter-based hematoma removal for intracerebral hemorrhage

Pitchaiah Mandava, Santosh B. Murthy, Neel Shah, Yves Samson, Marek Kimmel & Thomas A. Kent
Objective: To develop models of outcome for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to identify promising and futile interventions based on their early phase results without need for correction for baseline imbalances. Methods: We developed a pooled outcome model from the control arms of randomized control trials and tested different interventions against the model at comparable baseline conditions. Eligible clinical trials and large case series were identified from multiple library databases. Models based on baseline factors reported in...

Data from: Biogeographic variation of distance-dependent effects in an invasive tree species

Qiang Yang, Jianqing Ding & Evan Siemann
1.Plant pathogens and herbivores can maintain forest diversity by reducing survival of tree seedlings close to conspecifics. However, how biogeographic variation in these natural enemies affects such distance‐dependent processes is unknown. Because invasive plants escape ecologically important enemies when introduced to a new range, distance‐dependent mortality may differ between their native and introduced ranges. 2. Here, we test whether the invasive tree Triadica sebifera escaped distance‐dependent mortality when introduced to the US from China, and...

Data from: Understanding the recruitment response of juvenile Neotropical trees to logging intensity using functional traits

J. Aaron Hogan, Bruno Hérault, Bénédicte Bachelot, Anaїs Gorel, Marianne Jounieaux & Christopher Baraloto
Selective-logging remains a widespread practice in tropical forests, yet the long-term effects of timber-harvest on juvenile tree (i.e., sapling) recruitment across the hundreds of species occurring in most tropical forests, remain difficult to predict. This uncertainty could potentially exacerbate threats to some of the thousands of timber-valuable tree species in the Amazon. Our objective was to determine to what extent long-term responses of tree species regeneration in logged forests can be explained by their functional...

Data reported in: Effects of ozone isotopologue formation on the clumped-isotope composition of atmospheric O2

Laurence Yeung
Tropospheric 18O18O is an emerging proxy for past tropospheric ozone and free-tropospheric temperatures. The basis of these applications is the idea that isotope-exchange reactions in the atmosphere drive 18O18O abundances toward isotopic equilibrium. However, previous work used an offline box-model framework to explain the 18O18O budget, approximating the interplay of atmospheric chemistry and transport. This approach, while convenient, has poorly characterized uncertainties. To investigate these uncertainties, and to broaden the applicability of the 18O18O proxy,...

Data from: Can't live with them, can't live without them? Balancing mating and competition in two-sex populations

Aldo Compagnoni, Kenneth Steigman & Tom E. X. Miller
Two-sex populations are usually studied through frequency-dependent models that describe how sex ratio affects mating, recruitment, and population growth. However, in two-sex populations, mating and recruitment should also be affected by density and by its interactions with sex ratio. Density may have positive effects on mating (Allee effects) but negative effects on other demographic processes. In this study, we quantified how positive and negative inter-sexual interactions balance in two-sex populations. Using a dioecious grass (Poa...

Data from: Parsimonious inference of hybridization in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting

Yun Yu, Robert Matthew Barnett & Luay Nakhleh
Hybridization plays an important evolutionary role in several groups of organisms. A phylogenetic approach to detect hybridization entails sequencing multiple loci across the genomes of a group of species of interest, reconstructing their gene trees, and taking their differences as indicators of hybridization. However, methods that follow this approach mostly ignore population effects, such as incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). Given that hybridization occurs between closely related organisms, ILS may very well be at play and,...

Data from: Legacy effects of developmental stages determine the functional role of predators

Volker H.W. Rudolf & Benjamin G. Van Allen
Predators are instrumental in structuring natural communities and ecosystem processes. The strong effects of predators are often attributed to their high trophic position in the food web. However, most predators have to grow and move up the food chain before reaching their final trophic position and during this developmental process, their traits, interactions, and abundances change. Here we show that this process of “moving up” the food chain during development strongly determines the ecological role...

Data from: The rate and effects of spontaneous mutation on fitness traits in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum

David W. Hall, Sara Fox, Joan E. Strassman, David C. Queller, Joan E. Strassmann & Jennie J. Kuzdzal-Fick
We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment using the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to estimate the rate and distribution of effects of spontaneous mutations affecting eight putative fitness traits. We found that the per generation mutation rate for most fitness components is 0.0019 mutations per haploid genome per generation, or larger. This rate is an order of magnitude higher than estimates for fitness components in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though the base-pair substitution...

Data from: Within-host priority effects systematically alter pathogen coexistence

Patrick A. Clay, Kailash Dhir, Volker H.W. Rudolf, Meghan A. Duffy & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Coinfection of host populations alters pathogen prevalence, host mortality, and pathogen evolution. Because pathogens compete for limiting resources, whether multiple pathogens can coexist in a host population can depend on their within-host interactions which, in turn, can depend on the order in which pathogens infect hosts (within-host priority effects). However, the consequences of within-host priority effects for pathogen coexistence have not been tested. Using laboratory studies with a coinfected zooplankton system, we found that pathogens...

Data from: Edge effects on components of diversity and above-ground biomass in a tropical rainforest

Onja H. Razafindratsima, Kerry A. Brown, Fabio Carvalho, Steig E. Johnson, Patricia C. Wright & Amy E. Dunham
1. Edge effects are among the most significant consequences of forest fragmentation. Therefore, understanding the impacts of edge creation on biodiversity is crucial for forest management and biological conservation. 2. In this study, we used trait-based and phylogenetic approaches to examine the effects of fragmentation on components of diversity and above-ground biomass of rainforest tree communities in Madagascar in forest edge vs. interior habitats. 3. Tree communities in forest edges showed lower phylogenetic diversity relative...

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