Objective: To clarify whether deaths associated with hot and cold days are among the frail who would have died anyway in the next few weeks or months. Design: Time series regression analysis of annual deaths in relation to annual summaries of cold and heat. Setting: London, UK. Participants: 3 530 280 deaths from all natural causes among London residents between October 1949 and September 2006. Main outcome measures: Change in annual risk of death (all...
Data from: Safety and immunogenicity of H1/IC31®, an adjuvanted TB subunit vaccine, in HIV-infected adults with CD4+ Lymphocyte counts greater than 350 cells/mm3: a phase II, multi-centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trialKlaus Reither, Lynn Katsoulis, Trevor Beattie, Nicolene Gardiner, Nicole Lenz, Khadija Said, Elirehema Mfinanga, Christian Pohl, Katherine L. Fielding, Hannah Jeffery, Benjamin M. Kagina, Elisabeth J. Hughes, Thomas J. Scriba, Willem A. Hanekom, Søren T. Hoff, Peter Bang, Ingrid Kromann, Claudia Daubenberger, Peter Andersen & Gavin J. Churchyard
Background: Novel tuberculosis vaccines should be safe, immunogenic, and effective in various population groups, including HIV-infected individuals. In this phase II multi-centre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, the safety and immunogenicity of the novel H1/IC31 vaccine, a fusion protein of Ag85B-ESAT-6 (H1) formulated with the adjuvant IC31, was evaluated in HIV-infected adults. Methods: HIV-infected adults with CD4+ T cell counts >350/mm3 and without evidence of active tuberculosis were enrolled and followed until day 182. H1/IC31 vaccine or...
Antenatal code list for: \"The effects of antenatal care, ethnicity and social deprivation on the risk of stillbirth in the UK: A cohort study using routinely collected data\"Amanda Clery, Caroline Minnasian, Liam Smeeth & Rohini Mathur
A list of Read codes and entity types used to identify events in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink that identify the antenatal appointments women in the Pregnancy Register had. These were used to quantify the frequency and timing of antenatal care, the exposure variable for the study.
Data from: A randomized feasibility trial comparing four antimalarial drug regimens to induce Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia in the controlled human malaria infection modelIsaie J. Reuling, Lisanne A Van De Schans, Luc E Coffeng, Kjerstin Lanke, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Wouter Graumans, Geert-Jan Van Gemert, Karina Teelen, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Marga Van De Vegte-Bolmer, Quirijn De Mast, André J Van Der Ven, Karen Ivinson, Cornelus C Hermsen, Sake De Vlas, John Bradley, Katharine A Collins, Christian F Ockenhouse, James McCarthy, Robert W. Sauerwein & Teun Bousema
Background: Malaria elimination strategies require a thorough understanding of parasite transmission from human to mosquito. A clinical model to induce gametocytes to understand their dynamics and evaluate transmission-blocking interventions (TBI) is currently unavailable. Here, we explore the use of the well-established Controlled Human Malaria Infection model (CHMI) to induce gametocyte carriage with different antimalarial drug regimens. Methods: In a single centre, open-label randomised trial, healthy malaria-naive participants (aged 18–35 years) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum...
Data from: Understanding willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in ChinaXia Wang, Adam Bourne, Pulin Liu, Jiangli Sun, Thomas Cai, Gitau Mburu, Matteo Cassolato, Bangyuan Wang & Wang Zhou
Background: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional prevention choice for men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial risk of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent, and reasons, for MSM’s willingness to use oral PrEP in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. Methods: Between May and December 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 487 MSM recruited through snowball sampling in physical locations frequented by MSM and through...
Behavioural change towards reduced intensity physical activity is disproportionately prevalent among adults with serious health issues or self-perception of high risk during the UK COVID-19 lockdown.Chrissy Roberts, Nina Rogers, Naomi Waterlow, Hannah Brindle, Luisa Enria & Shelley Lees
Quantitative data on physical activity and health behaviours during the UK COVID-19 lockdown. The anonymous web-based survey was performed between 6th April and 22 April 2020, approximately mapping to weeks 3-5 of the lockdown in the UK. The main survey included 49 questions which covered a broad range of topics including (1) Demographics, (2) Health and Health Behaviours, (3) Adherence to COVID-19 Control measures, (4) Information sources used to learn about COVID-19, (5) Trust in...
Data from: The impact of long-term azithromycin on antibiotic resistance in HIV-associated chronic lung diseaseRegina Esinam Abotsi, Mark P. Nicol, Grace McHugh, Victoria Simms, Andrea M. Rehman, Charmaine Barthus, Lucky G. Ngwira, Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Robert S Heyderman, Jon Ø Odland, Rashida A Ferrand & Felix S. Dube
Background: Selection for resistance to azithromycin (AZM) and other antibiotics such as tetracyclines and lincosamides remains a concern with long-term AZM use for treatment of chronic lung diseases (CLD). We investigated the impact of 48 weeks of AZM on the carriage and antibiotic resistance of common respiratory bacteria among children with HIV-associated CLD. Methods: Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs and sputa were collected at baseline, 48 and 72 weeks from participants with HIV-associated CLD randomised to receive...
Read codes for dementia subtypes.
Data from: Weekend admission as an independent predictor of mortality: an analysis of Scottish hospital admissionsAdam E. Handel, Sunil V. Patel, Andrew Skingsley, Katrina Bramley, Roma Sobieski & Sreeram V. Ramagopalan
OBJECTIVES: Weekend admissions have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of mortality compared with weekday admissions for many diagnoses. We analysed emergency department admissions within the Scottish National Health Service to investigate whether mortality is increased in case of weekend emergency department admissions. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: Scotland National Health Service (NHS) emergency departments. PARTICIPANTS: 5 271 327 emergency department admissions between 1999 and 2009. We included all patients admitted via...
Data from: Temperature and population density determine reservoir regions of spatial persistence in highland malariaAmir S. Siraj, Menno J. Bouma, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Asnakew K. Yeshiwondim, Dale S. Rothman, Damtew Yadeta, Paul C. Sutton & Mercedes Pascual
A better understanding of malaria persistence in highly seasonal environments such as highlands and desert fringes requires identifying the factors behind the spatial reservoir of the pathogen in the low season. In these ‘unstable’ malaria regions, such reservoirs play a critical role by allowing persistence during the low transmission season and therefore, between seasonal outbreaks. In the highlands of East Africa, the most populated epidemic regions in Africa, temperature is expected to be intimately connected...
Data from: Substantial contribution of submicroscopical Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriage to the infectious reservoir in an area of seasonal transmission.André Lin Ouédraogo, Teun Bousema, Petra Schneider, Sake J. De Vlas, Edith Ilboudo-Sanogo, Nadine Cuzin-Ouattara, Issa Nébié, Will Roeffen, Jan Peter Verhave, Adrian J.F. Luty & Robert Sauerwein
Background: Man to mosquito transmission of malaria depends on the presence of the sexual stage parasites, gametocytes, that often circulate at low densities. Gametocyte densities below the microscopical threshold of detection may be sufficient to infect mosquitoes but the importance of submicroscopical gametocyte carriage in different transmission settings is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings: Membrane feeding experiments were carried out on 80 children below 14 years of age at the end of the wet season in an...
Background: Universal access to Primary Eye Care (PEC) is a key global initiative to reduce and prevent avoidable causes of visual impairment (VI). PEC can address minor eye conditions, simple forms of uncorrected refractive error (URE) and create a referral pathway for specialist eye care, thus offering a potential solution to a lack of eye health specialists in low-income countries. However, there is little information on the population need for PEC, including prevalence of URE...
The MAISHA study (component A) is a mixed-methods evaluation, including a cluster randomised trial (CRT), of a small group based social empowerment intervention to prevent intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in Mwanza city, Tanzania. The trial was conducted among women already participating in a group-based microfinance scheme, with the microfinance group being the unit of randomisation and (in the intervention arm) the unit of intervention delivery. The CRT involved two surveys of trial participants...
Quality of care in a differentiated HIV service delivery intervention in Tanzania: A mixed methods studyNwanneka Okere, Judith Meta, Werner Maokola, Giulia Martelli, Eric Van Praag, Denise Naniche, Gabriela Gomez, Anton Pozniak, Tobias Rinke De Wit, Josien De Klerk & Sabine Hermans
Background: Differentiated service delivery (DSD) offers benefits to people living with HIV (improved access, peer support), and the health system (clinic decongestion, efficient service delivery). ART clubs, 15-30 clients who usually meet within the community, are one of the most common DSD options. However, evidence about the quality of care (QoC) delivered in DSD is still limited. Materials and Methods: We conducted a concurrent triangulation mixed methods study as part of the Test & Treat...
Read codes for depression.
Dataset for: The effect of cumulative early life adversities, and their differential mediation through hair cortisol levels, on childhood growth and cognition: Three-year follow-up of a birth cohort in rural IndiaMukherjee Mukherjee, Sunil Bhopal, Supriya Bhavnani, Kamal Kant Sharma, Reetabrata Roy, Gauri Divan, Siddhartha Mandal, Betty Kirkwood & Vikram Patel
The SPRING-ELS sub-study of the SPRING cluster randomised controlled trial included 1304 children that had adversity exposure assessment conducted at 12 months of age. Hair cortisol concentration was assessed in 845 of them at this time. As part of the REACH follow-up study, 1124 children (of the 1304 with adversity assessments) were followed-up at three years of age to assess height, weight and cognition using the Developmental Assessment on an E-Platform (DEEP) tool. 607 children...
Data for: \"Children, Cities and Climate: A cross-sectional survey of global urban youth on their cities and urban air quality\"Robert Hughes & Rachel Juel
A survey questionnaire, data, and analysis code produced or collected as part of a global cross-sectional survey of urban youth on their cities and urban air quality. The dataset contains 3,222 survey responses, with respondents classified as a parent of someone under 13 years old, participant aged between 13-25 years, or aged over 25 years of age. The survey contains questions on respondent opinion of the air quality in the town/city in which they live,...
Codelists for: \"Long-term oral antibiotic use in people with acne vulgaris in UK primary care: a drug utilisation study\"Ketaki Bhate
Codelists utilised as part of a drug utilisation research (DUR) study to investigate long-term oral antibiotic use in people with acne vulgaris in UK primary care. Appendix A table contains a code list adapted from Francis et al 2017 (doi: 10.1111/bjd.15081).
Data from: Distinguishing between reservoir exposure and human-to-human transmission for emerging pathogens using case onset dataAdam Kucharski, Harriet L. Mills, Amy Pinsent, Christophe Fraser, Maria Van Kerkhove, Christl A. Donnelly, Steven Riley & Harriet Mills
Pathogens such as MERS-CoV, influenza A/H5N1 and influenza A/H7N9 are currently generating sporadic clusters of spillover human cases from animal reservoirs. The lack of a clear human epidemic suggests that the basic reproductive number R0 is below or very close to one for all three infections. However, robust cluster-based estimates for low R0 values are still desirable so as to help prioritise scarce resources between different emerging infections and to detect significant changes between clusters...
Data from: The REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statement: methods for arriving at consensus and developing reporting guidelinesStuart G. Nicholls, Pauline Quach, Erik Von Elm, Astrid Guttmann, David Moher, Irene Petersen, Henrik T. Sørensen, Liam Smeeth, Sinéad M. Langan & Eric I. Benchimol
Objective: Routinely collected health data, collected for administrative and clinical purposes, without specific a priori research questions, are increasingly used for observational, comparative effectiveness, health services research, and clinical trials. The rapid evolution and availability of routinely collected data for research has brought to light specific issues not addressed by existing reporting guidelines. The aim of the present project was to determine the priorities of stakeholders in order to guide the development of the REporting...
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine85
Radboud University Nijmegen6
Medical Research Council5
Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme5
Imperial College London4
University College London3
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre3
Biomedical Research and Training Institute2
Erasmus University Medical Center2