Data from: A randomized feasibility trial comparing four antimalarial drug regimens to induce Plasmodium falciparum gametocytemia in the controlled human malaria infection modelIsaie J. Reuling, Lisanne A Van De Schans, Luc E Coffeng, Kjerstin Lanke, Lisette Meerstein-Kessel, Wouter Graumans, Geert-Jan Van Gemert, Karina Teelen, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Marga Van De Vegte-Bolmer, Quirijn De Mast, André J Van Der Ven, Karen Ivinson, Cornelus C Hermsen, Sake De Vlas, John Bradley, Katharine A Collins, Christian F Ockenhouse, James McCarthy, Robert W. Sauerwein & Teun Bousema
Background: Malaria elimination strategies require a thorough understanding of parasite transmission from human to mosquito. A clinical model to induce gametocytes to understand their dynamics and evaluate transmission-blocking interventions (TBI) is currently unavailable. Here, we explore the use of the well-established Controlled Human Malaria Infection model (CHMI) to induce gametocyte carriage with different antimalarial drug regimens. Methods: In a single centre, open-label randomised trial, healthy malaria-naive participants (aged 18–35 years) were infected with Plasmodium falciparum...
Data from: Understanding willingness to use oral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among men who have sex with men in ChinaXia Wang, Adam Bourne, Pulin Liu, Jiangli Sun, Thomas Cai, Gitau Mburu, Matteo Cassolato, Bangyuan Wang & Wang Zhou
Background: Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as an additional prevention choice for men who have sex with men (MSM) at substantial risk of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent, and reasons, for MSM’s willingness to use oral PrEP in Wuhan and Shanghai, China. Methods: Between May and December 2015, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among 487 MSM recruited through snowball sampling in physical locations frequented by MSM and through...
Background: Universal access to Primary Eye Care (PEC) is a key global initiative to reduce and prevent avoidable causes of visual impairment (VI). PEC can address minor eye conditions, simple forms of uncorrected refractive error (URE) and create a referral pathway for specialist eye care, thus offering a potential solution to a lack of eye health specialists in low-income countries. However, there is little information on the population need for PEC, including prevalence of URE...
Monogamy is associated with sibling-directed altruism in multiple animal taxa, including insects, birds, and mammals. Inclusive-fitness theory readily explains this pattern by identifying high relatedness as a promoter of altruism. In keeping with this prediction, monogamy should promote the evolution of voluntary sterility in insect societies if sterile workers make for better helpers. However, a recent mathematical population-genetics analysis failed to identify a consistent effect of monogamy on voluntary worker sterility. Here, we revisit that...
Background: Visual impairment is a global public health problem, with an estimated 285 million affected globally, of which 43% are due to refractive error. A lack of specialist eye care in low and middle-income countries indicates a new model of care would support a task-shifting model and address this urgent need. We describe the features and results of the process evaluation of a national primary eye care (PEC) programme in Rwanda. Methods: We used the...
Data from: Functional antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites are associated with a longer time to qPCR-detected infection among schoolchildren in Burkina FasoAissata Barry, Marije C. Behet, Issa Nébié, Kjerstin Lanke, Lynn Grignard, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Issiaka Soulama, Chris Drakeley, Robert Sauerwein, Judith M. Bolscher, Koen J. Dechering, Teun Bousema, Alfred B. Tiono & Bronner P. Gonçalves
Background: Individuals living in malaria-endemic regions develop naturally acquired immunity against severe malarial disease, but it is unclear whether immunity that affects the establishment of infections develops following continuous natural exposure. Methods: We cleared schoolchildren in Burkina Faso of possible sub-patent infections and examined them weekly for incident infections by PCR. Plasma samples collected at enrolment were used to quantify antibodies to the pre-eryhrocytic-stage antigens circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and liver stage antigen. Sporozoite gliding inhibition...
Data from: Women's experiences of mistreatment during childbirth: a comparative view of home- and facility-based births in PakistanWaqas Hameed & Bilal Iqbal Avan
Introduction: Respectful and dignified healthcare is a fundamental right for every woman. However, many women seeking childbirth services, especially those in low-income countries such as Pakistan, are mistreated by their birth attendants. The aim of this epidemiological study was to estimate the prevalence of mistreatment and types of mistreatment among women giving birth in facility- and home-based settings in Pakistan in order to address the lack of empirical evidence on this topic. The study also...
Data from: Human cytomegalovirus epidemiology and relationship to tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural Ugandan cohortLisa Stockdale, Stephen Nash, Angela Nalwoga, Hannah Painter, Gershim Asiki, Helen Fletcher & Robert Newton
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection has been associated with increased mortality, specifically cardiovascular disease (CVD), in high-income countries (HICs). There is a paucity of data in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where HCMV seropositivity is higher. Serum samples from 2,174 Ugandan individuals were investigated for HCMV antibodies and data linked to demographic information, co-infections and a variety of CVD measurements. HCMV seropositivity was 83% by one year of age, increasing to 95% by five years. Female...
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine8
Radboud University Nijmegen2
QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute1
Erasmus University Medical Center1
La Trobe University1
International HIV/AIDS Alliance1
University of St Andrews1
Program for Appropriate Technology in Health1
Medical Research Council1
Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme1