15 Works

Data from: Effect of expanded variation in anther position on pollinator visitation to wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum

Yuval Sapir, Keith Karoly, Vanessa A. Koelling, Heather F. Sahli, Frances N. Knapczyk & Jeffrey K. Conner
Background and Aims: Plant-pollinator interactions shape the evolution of flowers. Floral attraction and reward traits have often been shown to affect pollinator behavior, but the possible effect of efficiency traits on visitation behavior has rarely been addressed. Here we tested for the effect of anther position, usually considered a trait that influences efficiency of pollen deposition on pollinators, on pollinator visitation rates and visit duration in flowers of wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum. Methods: We used...

Resolving the consequences of gradual phenotypic plasticity for populations in variable environments

Samuel Fey, Colin Kremer, Tamara Layden & David Vasseur
Phenotypic adjustments following environmental change are ubiquitous and trait changes arising through phenotypic plasticity often lag behind their environmental stimuli. Evolutionary biologists seeking to understand how adaptive plasticity can evolve have extensively studied this phenomenon. However, the ecological consequences of common features of plastic responses to environmental variability, including gradual phenotypic change (i.e., slower than the pace of environmental change), are underappreciated. We present a framework based on the unifying concept of phenotype x environment...

Data from: A stochastic neuronal model predicts random search behaviors at multiple spatial scales in C. elegans

William M. Roberts, Steven B. Augustine, Kristy J. Lawton, Theodore H. Lindsay, Tod R. Thiele, Eduardo J. Izquierdo, Serge Faumont, Rebecca A. Lindsay, Matthew Cale Britton, Navin Pokala, Cornelia I. Bargmann & Shawn R. Lockery
Random search is a behavioral strategy used by organisms from bacteria to humans to locate food that is randomly distributed and undetectable at a distance. We investigated this behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, an organism with a small, well-described nervous system. Here we formulate a mathematical model of random search abstracted from the C. elegans connectome and fit to a large-scale kinematic analysis of C. elegans behavior at submicron resolution. The model predicts behavioral...

Supporting data for Formation of Highly Oxidized Molecules from NO3 Radical Oxidation of Δ-3-Carene: A Computational Mechanism

Danielle Draper, Nanna Myllys, Noora Hyttinen, Kristian Moller, Henrik Kjaergaard, Juliane Fry, James Smith & Theo Kurten
NO3 radical oxidation of most monoterpenes is a significant source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in many regions influenced by both biogenic and anthropogenic emissions, but there are very few published mechanistic studies of NO3 chemistry beyond simple 1st generation products. Here, we present a computationally-derived mechanism detailing the unimolecular pathways available to the 2nd generation of peroxy radicals following NO3 oxidation of Δ-3-carene, defining generations based on the sequence of peroxy radicals formed rather...

Data from: Fruit flies diversify their offspring in response to parasite infection

Nadia D. Singh, Dallas R. Criscoe, Shelly Skolfield, Kathryn P. Kohl, Erin S. Keebaugh & Todd A. Schlenke
The evolution of sexual reproduction is often explained by Red Queen dynamics: Organisms must continually evolve to maintain fitness relative to interacting organisms, such as parasites. Recombination accompanies sexual reproduction and helps diversify an organism’s offspring, so that parasites cannot exploit static host genotypes. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster plastically increases the production of recombinant offspring after infection. The response is consistent across genetic backgrounds, developmental stages, and parasite types but is not induced...

Filtered phytoplankton movement data

Hannah Meier, Isaac Schuman, Tamara Layden, Anna Ritz, Colin Kremer & Samuel Fey
A prerequisite for the survival and reproduction of organisms is to successfully navigate thermal environmental conditions that unfold over time and space. While effective movement behaviour has been highlighted as a key mechanism by which organisms and populations may persist amidst the backdrop of directional environmental warming, it remains unclear how behavioural plasticity may mediate such effects, particularly across timescales that span multiple generations. Here, we examine the capacity for transgenerational plasticity to alter the...

Strong evidence for positive and negative correlational selection revealed by recreating ancestral variation

Robin Waterman, Heather Sahli, Vanessa Koelling, Kieth Karoly & Jeffrey Conner
The study of adaptation helps explain the incredible diversity of life and predict future evolution. Yet the process of adaptation can be difficult to observe due to limited phenotypic variation in contemporary populations. Furthermore, in plants, the scarcity of male fitness estimates has made it difficult to both understand adaptation and evaluate theoretical predictions on sexual conflict. We addressed both issues in our study of two anther position traits in wild radish (Raphanus raphanistrum): anther...

Data from: Gene duplication in an African cichlid adaptive radiation

Heather E. Machado, Ginger Jui, Domino A. Joyce, Christian R. L. Reilly, David H. Lunt & Suzy C. P. Renn
Background: Gene duplication is a source of evolutionary innovation and can contribute to the divergence of lineages; however, the relative importance of this process remains to be determined. The explosive divergence of the African cichlid adaptive radiations provides both a model for studying the general role of gene duplication in the divergence of lineages and also an exciting foray into the identification of genomic features that underlie the dramatic phenotypic and ecological diversification in this...

Data from: Uncertainty in geographic estimates of performance and fitness

H. Arthur Woods, Joel G. Kingsolver, Samuel B. Fey & David A. Vasseur
1. Thermal performance curves (TPCs) have become key tools for predicting geographic distributions of performance by ectotherms. Such TPC-based predictions, however, may be sensitive to errors arising from diverse sources. 2. We analyzed potential errors that arise from common choices faced by biologists integrating TPCs with climate data by constructing case studies focusing on experimental sets of TPCs and simulating geographic patterns of mean performance. We first analyzed differences in geographic patterns of performance derived...

Photoperiod influences the shape and scaling of freshwater phytoplankton responses to light and temperature

Meredith Theus, Tamara Layden, Nancy McWilliams, Stephen Crafton-Tempel, Colin Kremer & Samuel Fey
Light fluctuations are ubiquitous, exist across multiple spatial and temporal scales, and directly affect the physiology and ecology of photoautotrophs. However, the indirect effects of light fluctuations on the sensitivity of organisms to other key environmental factors are unclear. Here, we evaluate how photoperiod regime (period of time each day where organisms receive light), a dynamic element of aquatic ecosystems, can influence the interactive effects of temperature and irradiance (intensity of light) on the growth...

Data from: Artificial selection on anther exsertion in wild radish, Raphanus raphanistrum

Jeffrey K. Conner, Cynthia J. Mills, Vanessa A. Koelling & Keith Karoly
To study the genetic architecture of anther exsertion, a trait under stabilizing selection in wild radish, artificial selection on anther exsertion was applied for 11 generations. Two replicate lines each of increased and decreased exsertion plus two randomly-mated controls were included. Full pedigree information is available from generation five. To estimate correlated responses to selection, 571 plants from all lines and matrilines were grown in the greenhouse and a number of floral, growth, and phenology...

Tests of search image and learning in the wild: insights from sexual conflict in damselflies

Silvana Piersanti, Gianandrea Salerno, Manuela Rebora, Albyn Jones, Leonardo Giontella, Vivana Di Pietro & Ola Fincke
Search image formation, a proximal mechanism to maintain genetic polymorphisms by negative frequency-dependent selection, has rarely been tested under natural conditions. Females of many non-territorial damselflies resemble either conspecific males or background vegetation. Mate-searching males are assumed to form search images of the majority female type, sexually harassing it at rates higher than expected from its frequency, thus selectively favoring the less common morph. We tested this and how morph coloration and behavior influenced male...

Confronting assumptions about prey selection by lunge-feeding whales using a process-based model

Ellen Chenoweth, Kevin Boswell, Ari Friedlaender, Megan McPhee, Julia Burrows, Ron Heintz & Jan Straley
The relative energetic benefits of foraging on one type of prey rather than another are not easily measured, particularly for large free-ranging predators. Nonetheless, assumptions about preferred and alternative prey are frequently made when predicting how a predator may impact its environment, adapt to environmental change, or interact with human activities. We developed and implemented a process-based model to investigate the potential energetic benefit (PEB) of in situ foraging opportunities in rorqual whales. The model...

Data from: Trematode parasites exceed aquatic insect biomass in Oregon stream food webs

Daniel Preston, Tamara Layden, Leah Segui, Landon Falke, Sara Brant & Mark Novak
1) Although parasites are increasingly recognized for their ecosystem roles, it is often assumed that free-living organisms dominate animal biomass in most ecosystems and therefore provide the primary pathways for energy transfer. 2) To examine the contributions of parasites to ecosystem energetics in freshwater streams, we quantified the standing biomass of trematodes and free-living organisms at nine sites in three streams in western Oregon, USA. We then compared rates of biomass flow from snails (Juga...

Effects of thermal fluctuations on biological processes: A meta-analysis of experiments manipulating thermal variability

Margaret Slein, Joey Bernhardt, Mary O'Connor & Samuel Fey
Thermal variability is a key driver of ecological processes, affecting organisms and populations across multiple temporal scales. Despite the ubiquity of variation, biologists lack a quantitative synthesis of the observed ecological consequences of thermal variability across a wide range of taxa, phenotypic traits, and experimental designs. Here, we conduct a meta-analysis to investigate how properties of organisms, their experienced thermal regime, and whether thermal variability is experienced in either the past (prior to an assay)...

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