98 Works

Systematic review reveals multiple sexually antagonistic polymorphisms affecting human disease and complex traits

Jon Alexander Harper
An evolutionary model for sex differences in disease risk posits that alleles conferring higher risk in one sex may be protective in the other. These sexually antagonistic (SA) alleles are predicted to be maintained at frequencies higher than expected under purifying selection against unconditionally deleterious alleles, but there are apparently no examples in humans. Discipline-specific terminology, rather than a genuine lack of such alleles, could explain this disparity. We undertook a two-stage review of evidence...

Large herbivore biomass in protected areas

Camilla Fløjgaard, Pil Birkefeldt Møller Pedersen, Christopher Sandom, Jens-Christian Svenning & Rasmus Ejrnæs
Large herbivores provide key ecosystem processes, but have experienced massive historical losses and are under intense pressure, leaving current ecosystems with dramatically simplified faunas relative to the long-term evolutionary norm. Hampered by a shifting baseline, natural levels of large-herbivore biomass are poorly understood and seldom targeted. Here, we present a collation of large-herbivore biomass data from published sources as well as personal communication. The data includes continent, ecosystem name, latitude, longitude, large herbivore biomass in...

Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Autotrophic and heterotrophic soil respiration fluxes (CO2) were monitored during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, unburnt and burnt black spruce forests, and additional sites.

Data from: Testing the reproductive groundplan hypothesis in ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

Tobias Pamminger & William O. H. Hughes
The evolution of complex societies with obligate reproductive division of labour represents one of the major transitions in evolution. In such societies, functionally sterile individuals (workers) perform many of fitness-relevant behaviours including allomaternal ones, without getting any direct fitness benefits. The question of how such worker division of labour has evolved remains controversial. The reproductive groundplan hypothesis (RGPH) offers a powerful proximate explanation for this evolutionary leap. The RGPH argues that the conserved genetic and...

Data from: Rapid evolution of the inter-sexual genetic correlation for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster

Julie M. Collet, Sara Fuentes, Jack Hesketh, Mark S. Hill, Paolo Innocenti, Edward H. Morrow, Kevin Fowler & Max Reuter
Sexual antagonism (SA) arises when male and female phenotypes are under opposing selection, yet genetically correlated. Until resolved, antagonism limits evolution towards optimal sex-specific phenotypes. Despite its importance for sex-specific adaptation and existing theory, the dynamics of SA resolution are not well understood empirically. Here, we present data from Drosophila melanogaster, compatible with a resolution of SA. We compared two independent replicates of the 'LHM' population in which SA had previously been described. Both had...

Data from: Chronic neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and parasite stress differentially affects learning in honeybees and bumblebees

Saija Piiroinen, David Goulson & Dave Goulson
Learning and memory are crucial functions which enable insect pollinators to efficiently locate and extract floral rewards. Exposure to pesticides or infection by parasites may cause subtle but ecologically important changes in cognitive functions of pollinators. The potential interactive effects of these stressors on learning and memory have not yet been explored. Furthermore, sensitivity to stressors may differ between species, but few studies have compared responses in different species. Here, we show that chronic exposure...

Data from: Insects on plants: explaining the paradox of low diversity within specialist herbivore guilds

Vojtech Novotny, Scott E. Miller, Jan Hrcek, Leontine Baje, Yves Basset, Owen T. Lewis, Alan J. A. Stewart & George D. Weiblen
Classical niche theory explains the coexistence of species through their exploitation of different resources. Assemblages of herbivores coexisting on a particular plant species are thus expected to be dominated by species from host-specific guilds with narrow, coexistence-facilitating niches, rather than by species from generalist guilds. Exactly the opposite pattern is observed for folivores feeding on trees in New Guinea. The least specialized mobile chewers were most species-rich, followed by the moderately specialized semi-concealed and exposed...

Data from: Female responses to experimental removal of sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster

Paolo Innocenti, Ilona Flis & Edward H. Morrow
Background: Despite the common assumption that multiple mating should in general be favored in males, but not in females, to date there is no consensus on the general impact of multiple mating on female fitness. Notably, very little is known about the genetic and physiological features underlying the female response to sexual selection pressures. By combining an experimental evolution approach with genomic techniques, we investigated the effects of single and multiple matings on female fecundity...

Data from: Predicting evolution in response to climate change: the example of sprouting probability in three dormancy-prone orchid species

Richard P. Shefferson, Ryo Mizuta & Michael J. Hutchings
Although many ecological properties of species respond to climate change, their evolutionary responses are poorly understood. Here, we use data from long-term demographic studies to predict evolutionary responses of three herbaceous perennial orchid species, Cypripedium parviflorum, C. candidum and Ophrys sphegodes, to predicted climate changes in the habitats they occupy. We focus on the evolution of sprouting probability, because all three species exhibit long-term vegetative dormancy, i.e. individual plants may not emerge above-ground, potentially for...

Data from: A genetics-based approach confirms immune associations with life history across multiple populations of an aquatic vertebrate (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

James R. Whiting, Isabel S. Magalhaes, Abdul R. Singkam, Shaun Robertson, Daniele D'Agostino, Janette E. Bradley, Andrew D.C. MacColl & Andrew D. C. MacColl
Understanding how wild immune variation covaries with other traits can reveal how costs and trade-offs shape immune evolution in the wild. Divergent life history strategies may increase or alleviate immune costs, helping shape immune variation in a consistent, testable way. Contrasting hypotheses suggest that shorter life histories may alleviate costs by offsetting them against increased mortality; or increase the effect of costs if immune responses are traded off against development or reproduction. We investigated the...

Data from: A synthetic, catalytic and theoretical investigation of an unsymmetrical SCN pincer palladacycle

Gavin W. Roffe, Sarote Boonseng, Christine B. Baltus, Simon J. Coles, Iain J. Day, Rhiannon N. Jones, Neil J. Press, Mario Ruiz, Graham J. Tizzard, Hazel Cox & John Spencer
The SCN ligand 2-{3-[(methylsulfanyl)methyl]phenyl}pyridine, 1, has been synthesized starting from an initial Suzuki–Miyaura (SM) coupling between 3-((hydroxymethyl)phenyl)boronic acid and 2-bromopyridine. The C–H activation of 1 with in situ formed Pd(MeCN)4(BF4)2 has been studied and leads to a mixture of palladacycles, which were characterized by X-ray crystallography. The monomeric palladacycle LPdCl 6, where L-H = 1, has been synthesized, and tested in SM couplings of aryl bromides, where it showed moderate activity. Density functional theory and...

Data from: A mathematical understanding of how cytoplasmic dynein walks on microtubules

Laurie Trott, Majid Hafezparast & Anotida Madzvamuse
Cytoplasmic dynein 1 is a dimeric motor protein that walks and transports intracellular cargos towards the minus end of microtubules. In this article we formulate, based on physical principles, a mechanical model to describe the stepping behaviour of cytoplasmic dynein walking on microtubules from the cell membrane towards the nucleus. Unlike previous studies on physical models of this nature, we base our formulation on the whole structure of cytoplasmic dynein 1 to include the temporal...

Data from: Targeted agri-environment schemes significantly improve the population size of common farmland bumblebee species

Thomas J. Wood, John M. Holland, William O. H. Hughes & Dave Goulson
Changes in agricultural practice across Europe and North America have been associated with range contractions and local extinction of bumblebees (Bombus spp.). A number of agri-environment schemes have been implemented to halt and reverse these declines, predominantly revolving around the provision of additional forage plants. Although it has been demonstrated that these schemes can attract substantial numbers of foraging bumblebees, it remains unclear to what extent they actually increase bumblebee populations. We used standardized transect...

Data from: Cross-modal individual recognition in wild African lions

Geoffrey Gilfillan, Jessica Vitale, John Weldon McNutt & Karen McComb
Individual recognition is considered to have been fundamental in the evolution of complex social systems and is thought to be a widespread ability throughout the animal kingdom. Although robust evidence for individual recognition remains limited, recent experimental paradigms that examine cross-modal processing have demonstrated individual recognition in a range of captive non-human animals. It is now highly relevant to test whether cross-modal individual recognition exists within wild populations and thus examine how it is employed...

Data from: Bergmann's body size rule operates in facultatively endothermic insects: evidence from a complex of cryptic bumblebee species

Jessica J. Scriven, Penelope R. Whitehorn, Dave Goulson & Matthew C. Tinsley
According to Bergmann’s rule we expect species with larger body size to inhabit locations with a cooler climate, where they may be well adapted to conserve heat and resist starvation. This rule is generally applied to endotherms. In contrast, body size in ectothermic invertebrates has been suggested to follow the reverse ecogeographic trend: these converse Bergmann’s patterns may be driven by the ecological constraints of shorter season length and lower food availability in cooler high...

Data from: Zebrafish retinal ganglion cells asymmetrically encode spectral and temporal information across visual space

Paul A. Roberts, Mingyi Zhou, John Bear, Filip K. Janiak, Julie Semmelhack, Takeshi Yoshimatsu & Tom Baden
In vertebrate vision, the tetrachromatic larval zebrafish permits non-invasive monitoring and manipulating of neural activity across the nervous system in vivo during ongoing behaviour. However, despite a perhaps unparalleled understanding of links between zebrafish brain circuits and visual behaviours, comparatively little is known about what their eyes send to the brain via retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Major gaps in knowledge include any information on spectral coding, and information on potentially critical variations in RGC properties...

Wild zebra finches are attracted towards acoustic cues from conspecific social groups

Corinna Adrian, Simon Griffith, Marc Naguib & Wiebke Schuett
Social information gathered by observing others often supplements personal information collected from direct interactions with the physical environment during decision making. Social information use may be particularly beneficial in harsh environments or if resources are distributed patchily, ephemeral and unpredictable, and hence difficult to locate. We experimentally tested the use of acoustic cues in wild zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) as they flew around their arid habitat as a way of locating conspecifics on the ground,...

Bulk density, carbon and nitrogen content in soil profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset consists of measurements of bulk density, carbon and nitrogen content in soil profiles from permafrost in subarctic Canada. Soil cores were sampled during early summer in 2013 and 2014. Soil cores were sampled from a peatland plateau and thawing features of the peatland plateau, and from an unburnt and burnt black spruce forest, and additional sites in Yukon and Northwest Territories.

Soil respired radiocarbon as CO2 and CH4 from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada

C. Estop-Aragones, J.P. Fisher, M.A. Cooper, A. Thierry, R. Treharne, J.B. Murton, G.K. Phoenix, D.J. Charman, M. Williams & I.P. Hartley
This dataset contains measures of soil respired radiocarbon as CO2 and CH4 from peatland plateaus and thawing peatland plateaus and from burnt and unburnt forests from permafrost in subarctic Canada. The radiocarbon content of soil respired CO2 and CH4 was measured during summer in 2013 and 2014 in Yukon and Northwest Territories. Monitored sites included peatland plateaus, thawing features of peatland plateaus and unburnt and burnt black spruce forests.

The effectiveness of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control, pollination services and crop yield: a quantitative synthesis

Matthias Albrecht, David Kleijn, Neal Williams, Matthias Tschumi, Brett Blaauw, Riccardo Bommarco, Alistair Campbell, Matteo Dainese, Frank Drummond, Martin Entling, Dominik Ganser, Arjen De Groot, David Goulson, Heather Grab, Hannah Hamilton, Felix Herzog, Rufus Isaacs, Katja Jacot, Philippe Jeanneret, Mattias Jonsson, Eva Knop, Claire Kremen, Doug Landis, Greg Loeb, Lorenzo Marini … & Louis Sutter
Floral plantings are promoted to foster ecological intensification of agriculture through provisioning of ecosystem services. However, a comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of different floral plantings, their characteristics and consequences for crop yield is lacking. Here we quantified the impacts of flower strips and hedgerows on pest control (18 studies) and pollination services (17 studies) in adjacent crops in North America, Europe and New Zealand. Flower strips, but not hedgerows, enhanced pest control services in...

Lateralisation of short- and long-term visual memories in an insect

Ana Sofia David Fernandes & Jeremy Niven
The formation of memories within the vertebrate brain is lateralised between hemispheres across multiple modalities, however, in invertebrates evidence for lateralisation is restricted to olfactory memories, primarily from social bees. Here we use a classical conditioning paradigm with a visual conditioned stimulus to show that visual memories are lateralised in the wood ant, Formica rufa. We show that a brief contact between a sugar reward and either the right or left antenna (reinforcement) is sufficient...

Data from: Emergent global patterns of ecosystem structure and function from a mechanistic General Ecosystem Model

Michael Brian James Harfoot, Tim Newbold, Derek P. Tittensor, Stephen Emmott, Jon Hutton, Vassily Lyutsarev, Matthew J. Smith, Jorn P. W. Scharlemann & Drew W. Purves
Anthropogenic activities are causing widespread degradation of ecosystems worldwide, threatening the ecosystem services upon which all human life depends. Improved understanding of this degradation is urgently needed to improve avoidance and mitigation measures. One tool to assist these efforts is predictive models of ecosystem structure and function that are mechanistic: based on fundamental ecological principles. Here we present the first mechanistic General Ecosystem Model (GEM) of ecosystem structure and function that is both global, and...

Data from: Rewilding in the English Uplands: policy and practice

Christopher J. Sandom, Benedict Dempsey, David Bullock, Adrian Ely, Paul Jepson, Stefan Jimenez-Wisler, Adrian Newton, Nathalie Pettorelli & Rebecca A. Senior
Rewilding is gaining momentum as a new approach to restore and conserve biodiversity and ecosystem services, despite being imprecisely defined, controversial, and with limited explicit empirical supporting evidence (Lorimer et al., 2015; Pettorelli et al., 2018; Svenning et al., 2016). In a case study region (the English uplands), we discuss what rewilding means to practitioners and policy makers; the risks, opportunities, and barriers to implementation, and potential paths for policy and practice.

Data from: Fractionation of parietal function in bistable perception probed with concurrent TMS-EEG

Georg Schauer, Acer Chang, David Schwartzman, Charlotte L. Rae, Heather Iriye, Anil K. Seth & Ryota Kanai
When visual input has conflicting interpretations, conscious perception can alternate spontaneously between these possible interpretations. This is called bistable perception. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated the involvement of two right parietal areas in resolving perceptual ambiguity (ant-SPLr and post-SPLr). Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies that selectively interfered with the normal function of these regions suggest that they play opposing roles in this type of perceptual switch. In the present study, we investigated this fractionation of...

Data from: Sexual selection and assortative mating: an experimental test

Allan Debelle, Michael G. Ritchie & Rhonda R. Snook
Mate choice and mate competition can both influence the evolution of sexual isolation between populations. Assortative mating may arise if traits and preferences diverge in step, and, alternatively, mate competition may counteract mating preferences and decrease assortative mating. Here, we examine potential assortative mating between populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura that have experimentally evolved under either increased (‘polyandry’) or decreased (‘monogamy’) sexual selection intensity for 100 generations. These populations have evolved differences in numerous traits, including...

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