65 Works

Conflicting signal in transcriptomic markers leads to a poorly resolved backbone phylogeny of Chalcidoid wasps

Junxia Zhang, Amelia R.I. Lindsey, Ralph S. Peters, John M. Heraty, Keith R. Hopper, John H. Werren, Ellen O. Martinson, James B. Woolley, Matt J. Yoder & Lars Krogmann
Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) are a megadiverse superfamily of wasps with astounding variation in both morphology and biology. Most species are parasitoids and important natural enemies of insects in terrestrial ecosystems. In this study, we explored a transcriptome-based phylogeny of Chalcidoidea and found that poorly resolved relationships could only be marginally improved by adding more genes (a total of 5,591) and taxa (a total of 65), proof-checking for errors of homology and contamination, and decreasing missing data....

Data from: Cross-boundary human impacts compromise the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem

Michiel P. Veldhuis, Mark E. Ritchie, Joseph O. Ogutu, Thomas A. Morrison, Colin M. Beale, Anna B. Estes, William Mwakilema, Gordon O. Ojwang, Catherine L. Parr, James Probert, Patrick W. Wargute, J. Grant C. Hopcraft & Han Olff
Protected areas provide major benefits for humans in the form of ecosystem services, but landscape degradation by human activity at their edges may compromise their ecological functioning. Using multiple lines of evidence from 40 years of research in the Serengeti-Mara ecosystem, we find that such edge degradation has effectively “squeezed” wildlife into the core protected area and has altered the ecosystem’s dynamics even within this 40,000-square-kilometer ecosystem. This spatial cascade reduced resilience in the core...

Carbohydrate depletion in roots impedes phosphorus nutrition of forest trees

Simon Clausing, Rodica Pena, Bin Song, Karolin Müller, Paula Mayer-Gruner, Sven Marhan, Martin Grafe, Stefanie Schulz, Jaane Krüger, Friederike Lang, Michael Schloter, Ellen Kandeler & Andrea Polle
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of belowground plant-derived carbohydrates on P uptake, P concentrations and enzymes activities related to P mobilization in roots, ectomycorrhizas and soil and on the abundances of P-related genes in soil bacteria. We report data from a girdling experiment in two temperate beech forest with contrasting soil phosphorus concentrations. We used soil cores and the fractions of the organic layer and mineral topsoil separately one and...

Larger pollinators deposit more pollen on stigmas across multiple plant species – a meta-analysis

Rita Földesi, Rita Földesi, Brad Howlett, Ingo Grass & Péter Batáry
Abstract 1. Many insect species provide essential pollination services. However, the amount of pollen deposited onto a stigma when visiting a flower (“single visit pollen deposition”, SVD) can vary greatly among taxa depending on morphological traits of pollinators. Further, SVD is commonly measured using one of two methods (‘static’: waiting for an insect to visit a flower present on plant, and ‘active’: removing the flower and presenting it to a flower visitor) that may also...

Data from: Land-use intensification increases richness of native and exotic herbaceous plants, but not endemics, in Malagasy vanilla landscapes

Estelle Raveloaritiana, Annemarie Wurz, Ingo Grass, Kristina Osen, Marie Rolande Soazafy, Dominic A. Martin, Lucien Faliniaina, Nantenaina H. Rakotomalala, Maria S. Vorontsova, Teja Tscharntke & Bakolimalala Rakouth
Aim: North‐eastern Madagascar is a hotspot of plant diversity, but vanilla and rice farming are driving land‐use change, including slash‐and‐burn management. It still remains unknown how land‐use change and land‐use history affect richness and composition of endemic, native and exotic herbaceous plant species. Location: North‐eastern Madagascar. Methods: We assessed herbaceous plants along a land‐use intensification gradient ranging from unburned land‐use types (i.e. old‐growth forest, forest fragment and forest‐derived vanilla agroforest) to burned land‐use types (i.e....

Data from: What’s in a colluvial deposit? New perspectives from archaeopedology.

Sascha Scherer, Katleen Deckers, Jan Dietel, Markus Fuchs, Jessica Henkner, Benjamin Höpfer, Andrea Junge, Ellen Kandeler, Eva Lehndorff, Peter Leinweber, Johanna Lomax, Jan Miera, Christian Poll, Michael Toffolo, Thomas Knopf, Thomas Scholten & Peter Kühn
Colluvial deposits are considered as sedimentary archives for the reconstruction of soil erosion history, Holocene climate, past pedogenesis and land use. However, the human contribution to the formation of colluvial deposits is mainly based on quantitative assumptions derived from the local chronostratigraphy and archaeology. For this reason, there is often a substantial gap in the qualitative identification of specific land use practices that caused prehistoric soil erosion. We use an archaeopedological multi-proxy approach on a...

Data from: The stronger, the better – trait hierarchy is driving alien species interaction

Viktoria Ferenc & Christine Sheppard
Multiple invaders commonly co-occur in native ecosystems and in some cases have been shown to facilitate each other thus exacerbating impacts on native species, while in other cases one invader may reduce the impact of another due to competition. We therefore aimed at identifying mechanisms driving alien species interactions. We conducted a common garden experiment investigating all pairwise combinations of 20 alien annual plant species in Germany. We first tested whether competition or facilitation occurred...

Data from: They like it cold, but only in winter: climate‐mediated effects on a hibernator

Joanna Fietz, Franz Langer & Wolfgang Schlund
Variations in ambient temperature (Ta) profoundly influence energy consumption in endotherms and therefore their survival and fitness. But depending on whether endotherms are hibernating or active, the same changes in Ta may have opposing consequences for their energy consumption. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate how variations in Ta, occurring during hibernation and during the active period of a hibernator, affect different fitness relevant traits. To understand whether changes in Ta impact...

Data from: Decreasing predation rates and shifting predator compositions along a land-use gradient in Madagascar’s vanilla landscapes

Dominik Schwab, Annemarie Wurz, Ingo Grass, Anjaharnony A.N.A. Rakotomalala, Kristina Osen, Marie Rolande Soazafy, Dominic A. Martin & Teja Tscharntke
1. Land-use change is the main driver of deforestation and land degradation resulting in the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in north-eastern Madagascar. Vanilla, the region’s main cash crop, is grown in agroforestry systems and may provide an opportunity for the conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. 2. We used dummy caterpillars to assess predation rates and predator communities along a land-use gradient including unburned old-growth and forest fragments, herbaceous and woody fallows after...

Data from: Spontaneous forest regrowth in South-West Europe: consequences for nature’s contributions to people

Irene Martín-Forés, Sandra Magro, Andres Bravo-Oviedo, Raquel Alfaro-Sánchez, Josep M. Espelta, Theresa Frei, Elena Valdés-Correcher, Carmen Rodríguez Fernández-Blanco, Georg Winkel, Gabriel Gerzabek, Arndt Hampe & Fernando Valladares
Context European forests are expanding and becoming denser following the widespread abandonment of farmland and rural areas. Yet, little is known about the goods and services that spontaneous forest regrowth provide to people. Aims We assessed the changes in nature’s contributions to people (NCP) from spontaneous forest regrowth, i.e. forest expansion and densification, in South-West Europe. Methods We investigated 65 forest plots in four different landscapes with contrasting ecological and societal contexts. Two landscapes are...

The emergence of ecotypes in a parasitoid wasp: a case of incipient sympatric speciation in Hymenoptera?

Pawel Malec, Justus Weber, Marc Fiebig, Denise Meinert, Carolin Rein, Ronja Reinisch, Maik Henrich, Viktoria Polyvas, Marie Pollmann, Lea Von Berg, Christian König, Johannes L.M. Steidle & Robin Böhmer
Background To understand which reproductive barriers initiate speciation is a major question in evolutionary research. Despite their high species numbers and specific biology, there are only few studies on speciation in Hymenoptera. This study aims to identify very early reproductive barriers in a local, sympatric population of Nasonia vitripennis (Walker 1836), a hymenopterous parasitoid of fly pupae. We studied ecological barriers, sexual barriers, and the reduction in F1-female offspring as a postmating barrier, as well...

Taxonomic and functional homogenization of farmland birds along an urbanization gradient in a tropical megacity

Gabriel Marcacci, Catrin Westphal, Arne Wenzel, Varsha Raj, Nils Nölke, Teja Tscharntke & Ingo Graß
Urbanization is a major driver of land use change and biodiversity decline. While most of the ongoing and future urbanization hot spots are located in the Global South, the impact of urban expansion on agricultural biodiversity and associated functions and services in these regions has widely been neglected. Additionally, most studies assess biodiversity responses at local scale (α-diversity), however, ecosystem functioning is strongly determined by compositional and functional turnover of communities (β-diversity) at regional scales....

Data from: Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant

Sariel Hübner, Torsten Günther, Andrew Flavell, Eyal Fridman, Andreas Graner, Abraham Korol & Karl J. Schmid
The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analyzing a collection of 896...

Data from: Comparison of biometrical models for joint linkage association mapping

Wenxin Liu, Manje Gowda, Hans Peter Maurer, Sandra Fischer, Axel Schechert, Jochen C. Reif & Tobias Würschum
Joint linkage association mapping (JLAM) combines the advantages of linkage mapping and association mapping, and is a powerful tool to dissect the genetic architecture of complex traits. The main goal of this study was to use a cross-validation strategy, resample model averaging and empirical data analyses to compare seven different biometrical models for JLAM with regard to the correction for population structure and the quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection power. Three linear models and four...

Data from: QTL detection power of multi-parental RIL populations in Arabidopsis thaliana

Jonas R. Klasen, Hans-Peter Piepho, Benjamin Stich, H-P Piepho, J R Klasen & B Stich
A major goal of today's biology is to understand the genetic basis of quantitative traits. This can be achieved by statistical methods that evaluate the association between molecular marker variation and phenotypic variation in different types of mapping populations. The objective of this work was to evaluate the statistical power of QTL detection of various multi-parental mating designs as well as to assess the reasons for the observed differences. Our study was based on empirical...

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  • University of Hohenheim
  • University of Göttingen
  • University of Bayreuth
  • University of Tübingen
  • German Center for Integrative Biodiversity Research
  • University of Haifa
  • University of Adelaide
  • University of Würzburg
  • University of Glasgow
  • Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology