7 Works

Functional diversity of farmland bees across rural-urban landscapes in a tropical megacity

Gabriel Marcacci, Ingo Grass, Vikas S Rao, Shabarish Kumar S, K.B. Tharini, Vasuki Belavadi, Nils Nölke, Teja Tscharntke & Catrin Westphal
Urbanization is a major threat to biodiversity and food security, as expanding cities, especially in the Global South, increasingly compete with natural and agricultural lands. However, the impact of urban expansion on agricultural biodiversity in tropical regions is overlooked. Here we assessed how urbanization affects the functional response of farmland bees, the most important pollinators for crop production. We sampled bees across three seasons in 36 conventional vegetable-producing farms spread along an urbanization gradient in...

Site impacts nutrient translocation efficiency in intra- and interspecies miscanthus hybrids on marginal lands

Elena Magenau, John Clifton-Brown, Danny Awty-Carroll, Chris Ashman, Andrea Ferrarini, Mislav Kontek, Enrico Martani, Kevin Roderick, Stefano Amaducci, Chris Davey, Vanja Jurišić, Jason Kam, Luisa Trindade, Iris Lewandowski & Andreas Kiesel
Miscanthus, a C4 perennial rhizomatous grass, is capable of growing in varied climates and soil types in Europe, including on marginal lands. It can produce high yields with low nutrient inputs when harvested after complete senescence. Senescence induction and rate depend on complex genetic, environmental, and management interactions. To explore these interactions, we analysed four miscanthus hybrids (two novel seed-based hybrids, GRC 3 (M. sinensis × sinensis) and GRC 14 (M. sacchariflorus × sinensis); GRC...

Floral visitation to alien plants is non-linearly related to their phylogenetic and floral similarity to native plants

Mialy Razanajatovo, Mialy Razanajatovo, Felana Rakoto Joseph, Princy Rajaonarivelo Andrianina & Mark Van Kleunen
Biological invasions are key to understanding ecological processes that determine the formation of novel interactions. Alien species can negatively impact floral visitation to native species, but native species may also facilitate early establishment of closely related alien species by providing a preadapted pollinator community. We tested whether floral visitation to alien species depended on phylogenetic relatedness and floral similarity to native species. In a field experiment, we simulated the early stages of an invasion by...

Sequestration of defenses against predators drives specialized host plant associations in preadapted milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeinae)

Georg Petschenka, Rayko Halitschke, Tobias Züst, Anna Roth, Sabrina Stiehler, Linda Tenbusch, Christoph Hartwig, Juan Francisco Moreno Gámez, Robert Trusch, Jürgen Deckert, Kateřina Chalušová, Andreas Vilcinskas & Alice Exnerová
Host plant specialization across herbivorous insects varies dramatically, but while the molecular mechanisms of host-plant adaptations are increasingly known, we often lack a comprehensive understanding of the selective forces that favor specialization. The milkweed bugs (Heteroptera: Lygaeinae) are engaged in ancestrally specialized associations with plants of the Apocynaceae from which they commonly sequester cardiac glycosides for defense, facilitated by resistant Na+/K+-ATPases and adaptations for transport, storage and discharge of toxins. Here, we show that three...

Abandoned pastures and restored savannahs have distinct patterns of plant-soil feedback and nutrient cycling compared with native Brazilian savannahs.

André D'Angioli, André Giles, Patrícia Costa, Gabriel Wolfsdorf, Luísa Pecoral, Larissa Verona, Fernanda Piccolo, Alexandre Sampaio, Isabel Schmidt, Lucy Rowland, Hans Lambers, Ellen Kandeler, Rafael Oliveira & Anna Abrahão
Around 40% of the original Brazilian savannah territory is occupied by pastures dominated by fast-growing exotic C4 grasses, which impact ecosystem nutrient cycling. The restoration of these areas depends on the re-establishment of soil processes. We assessed how restoration of abandoned pastures through direct seeding of native species and land-management practices (burning and ploughing) affect soil nutrient cycling dynamics compared to native savannahs. We compared the activity of soil enzymes related to carbon (C), nitrogen...

Improving measurements of the falling trajectory and terminal velocity of wind-dispersed seeds

Jinlei Zhu, Carsten Buchmann & Frank Schurr
1. Seed dispersal by wind is one of the most important dispersal mechanisms in plants. The key seed trait affecting seed dispersal by wind is the effective terminal velocity (hereafter “terminal velocity”, Vt), the maximum falling speed of a seed in still air. Accurate estimates of Vt are crucial for predicting intra- and interspecific variation in seed dispersal ability. However, existing methods produce biased estimates of Vt for slow- or fast-falling seeds, fragile seeds, and...

Taxonomic and functional homogenization of farmland birds along an urbanization gradient in a tropical megacity

Gabriel Marcacci, Catrin Westphal, Arne Wenzel, Varsha Raj, Nils Nölke, Teja Tscharntke & Ingo Graß
Urbanization is a major driver of land use change and biodiversity decline. While most of the ongoing and future urbanization hot spots are located in the Global South, the impact of urban expansion on agricultural biodiversity and associated functions and services in these regions has widely been neglected. Additionally, most studies assess biodiversity responses at local scale (α-diversity), however, ecosystem functioning is strongly determined by compositional and functional turnover of communities (β-diversity) at regional scales....

Registration Year

  • 2022
    7

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    7

Affiliations

  • University of Hohenheim
    7
  • University of Göttingen
    2
  • University of Giessen
    2
  • University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore
    2
  • University of Zagreb
    1
  • Aberystwyth University
    1
  • Charles University
    1
  • University of Zurich
    1
  • Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
    1
  • University of Brasília
    1