165 Works

Data from: Competitive history shapes rapid evolution in a seasonal climate

Tess Grainger, Seth Rudman, Paul Schmidt & Jonathan Levine
Eco-evolutionary dynamics will play a critical role in determining species’ fates as climatic conditions change. Unfortunately, we have little understanding of how rapid evolutionary responses to climate play out when species are embedded in the competitive communities that they inhabit in nature. We tested the effects of rapid evolution in response to interspecific competition on subsequent ecological and evolutionary trajectories in a seasonally changing climate using a field-based evolution experiment with Drosophila melanogaster. Populations of...

Data from: Integrative genomic analysis in African American children with asthma finds 3 novel loci associated with lung function

Pagé Goddard, Kevin Keys, Angel Mak, Eunice Lee, Amy Liu, Lesly-Anne Samedy-Bates, Oona Risse-Adams, Maria Contreras, Jennifer Elhawary, Donglei Hu, Sam Oh, Sandra Salazar, Celeste Eng, Blanca Himes, Marquitta White & Esteban Burchard
Bronchodilator drugs are commonly prescribed for treatment and management of obstructive lung function present with diseases such as asthma. Administration of bronchodilator medication can partially or fully restore lung function as measured by pulmonary function tests. The genetics of baseline lung function measures taken prior to bronchodilator medication has been extensively studied, and the genetics of the bronchodilator response itself has received some attention. However, few studies have focused on the genetics of post-bronchodilator lung...

Neurexin Photometry

Opeyemi Alabi
Goal-directed behaviors are essential for normal function and significantly impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders. Despite extensive associations between genetic mutations and these disorders, the molecular contributions to goal-directed dysfunction remain unclear. We examined mice with constitutive and brain region-specific mutations in Neurexin1α, a neuropsychiatric disease-associated synaptic molecule, in value-based choice paradigms. We found Neurexin1α knockouts exhibited reduced selection of beneficial outcomes and impaired avoidance of costlier options. Reinforcement modeling suggested this was driven by deficits in...

Post-eclosion temperature effects on insect cuticular hydrocarbon profiles

Subhash Rajpurohit, Vladimír Vrkoslav, Robert Hanus, Allen Gibbs, Josef Cvačka & Paul Schmidt
The insect cuticle is the interface between internal homeostasis and the often harsh external environment. Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are key constituents of this hard cuticle and are associated with a variety of functions including stress response and communication. CHC production and deposition on the insect cuticle vary among natural populations and are affected by developmental temperature; however, little is known about CHC plasticity in response to the environment experienced following eclosion, during which time the...

Ex Vivo MRI in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration

Dylan Tisdall
Ex vivo MRI of 7 human hemispheres, acquired at 7 T using multi-echo gradient recalled echo imaging. Details of these samples are presented in the associated manuscript.

Phase response analyses support a relaxation oscillator model of locomotor rhythm generation in Caenorhabditis elegans

Hongfei Ji, Anthony Fouad, Shelly Teng, Alice Liu, Pilar Alvarez-Illera, Bowen Yao, Zihao Li & Christopher Fang-Yen
This dataset contains all data and codes that are used in the manuscript entitled "Phase response analyses support a relaxation oscillator model of locomotor rhythm generation in Caenorhabditis elegans". The data include raw videos and intermediate data for optogenetic experiments of all strains, experimental conditions (illumination duration, illuminated region, fluid viscosity and date). Within the parent folder 'Videos', each subfolder represents data of a group of experiments using the same strain under the same condition,...

Supplementary results for stroke, timing of atrial fibrillation diagnosis, and risk of death

Rajat Deo
Objective: To evaluate the prognosis of ischemic stroke patients according to the timing of an atrial fibrillation (AF) diagnosis, we created an inception cohort of incident stroke events and compared the risk of death between stroke patients with a) sinus rhythm; b) known atrial fibrillation (KAF); and c) AF diagnosed after stroke (AFDAS). Methods: We utilized the Penn AF Free study to create an inception cohort of patients with incident stroke. Mortality events were identified...

Capital gains on common stock for respondents of the surveys of financial characteristics, 1963, and of changes in family finances, 1964

His and Her Earnings Following Parenthood in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom

Kelly Musick, Megan Doherty Bea & Pilar Gonalon-Pons

Load-Bearing Entanglements in Polymer Glasses

Cynthia Bukowski, Tianren Zheng, Robert Riggleman & Alfred Crosby

Individual and collective encoding of risk in animal groups

Matthew M.G. Sosna, Colin R. Twomey, Joseph Bak-Coleman, Winnie Poel, Bryan C. Daniels, Pawel Romanczuk & Iain D. Couzin
The need to make fast decisions under risky and uncertain conditions is a widespread problem in the natural world. While there has been extensive work on how individual organisms dynamically modify their behavior to respond appropriately to changing environmental conditions (and how this is encoded in the brain), we know remarkably little about the corresponding aspects of collective information processing in animal groups. For example, many groups appear to show increased “sensitivity” in the presence...

Divergent water requirements partition exposure risk to parasites in wild equids

Kaia Tombak, Laurel Easterling, Lindsay Martinez, Monica Seng, Liana Wait & Daniel Rubenstein
For grazing herbivores, dung density in feeding areas is an important determinant of exposure risk to faecal-orally transmitted parasites. When host species share the same parasite species, a non-random distribution of their cumulative dung density and/or non-random ranging and feeding behaviour may skew exposure risk and the relative selection pressure parasites impose on each host. The arid-adapted Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) can range more widely than the water-dependent plains zebra (Equus quagga), with which it...

Data from: Prevalence of disability associated with head injury with loss of consciousness: a population-based study

Andrea Lauren Christman Schneider
Objective: To provide nationally representative prevalence estimates of disability associated with prior head injury with loss of consciousness in the U.S. and to examine associations between prior head injury and disability. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 7,390 participants aged ³40 years in the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). Head injury with loss of consciousness was assessed by self-report. Domains of disability were assessed using a standardized structured questionnaire and measured grip strength. Logistic...

Wind and route choice affect performance of bees flying above versus within a cluttered obstacle field

Nicholas Burnett, Marc Badger & Stacey Combes
Bees flying through natural landscapes encounter physical challenges, such as wind and cluttered vegetation. The influence of these factors on the flight performance of bees remains unknown. We analyzed 548 videos of wild-caught honeybees (Apis mellifera) flying through an enclosure containing a field of vertical obstacles that bees could fly within (through open corridors, without maneuvering) or above. We examined how obstacle field height, wind presence and direction (headwinds or tailwinds) affected altitude, ground speed,...

No evidence that grooming is exchanged for coalitionary support in the short- or long-term via direct or generalized reciprocity in unrelated rhesus macaques

William O'Hearn, Angelina Ruiz-Lambides, Michael Platt & Lauren Brent
Reciprocity is a prominent explanation for cooperation between non-kin. Studies seeking to demonstrate reciprocity often focus on direct reciprocity in the timescale of minutes to hours, whereas alternative mechanisms like generalised reciprocity and the possibility of reciprocation over longer timescales of months and years are less often explored. Using a playback experiment, we tested for evidence of direct and generalised reciprocity, across short and longer timescales. We examined the exchange of grooming for coalitionary support...

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