30 Works

Neurofilament light as a biomarker in traumatic brain injury

Pashtun Shahim, Adam Politis, Andre Van Der Merwe, Brian Moore, Yi-Yu Chou, Dzung Pham, John Butman, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Jessica Gill, David Brody, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow & Leighton Chan
Objective: To determine whether serum neurofilament light (NfL) correlates with CSF NfL, traumatic brain injury (TBI) diagnosis, injury severity, brain volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) estimates of traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Methods: Participants were prospectively enrolled in Sweden and the United States between 2011 and 2019. The Swedish cohort included 45 hockey players with acute concussion sampled at 6 days, 31 with repetitive concussion with persistent postconcussive symptoms (PCS) assessed with paired CSF and...

Data from: Gender disparity in physician authorship among commentary articles in high impact medical journals

Mira Mamtani, Frances Shofer, Anita Mudan, Utsha Khatri, Rachael Walker, Jaya Aysola & Jeanmarie Perrone
Background: There is an attrition of women physicians in academic medicine hierarchy. Scholarship in medical journals plays a direct role in career advancement, promotion, and authoritative recognition, and women physician authors are underrepresented in original research articles. Objectives: We sought to determine if women physician authors are similarly underrepresented in commentary articles within high impact journals. Design/Setting/Participants: In this observational study, we abstracted gender, degree, and authorship position from January 1, 2014 to October 16,...

Data from: Unraveling B-lymphocytes in CNS inflammatory diseases: Distinct mechanisms and treatment targets

Bruna Klein Da Costa, Renata Brant De Souza Melo, Giordani Rodrigues Dos Passos, Douglas Gomes Meneses Sevilha Castro, Jefferson Becker, Amit Bar-Or & Douglas Kazutoshi Sato
Specific therapies targeting B lymphocytes in multiple sclerosis (MS) have demonstrated reductions in disease activity and disability progression. Several observational studies have also shown the effects of targeting B lymphocytes in other rare CNS inflammatory diseases, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) and autoimmune encephalitis (AE). However, some drugs targeting cytokine receptors involved in B-lymphocyte maturation and proliferation resulted in negative outcomes in MS. These apparently conflicting findings have stimulated research on the pathophysiologic...

Genomic evidence for correlated trait combinations and antagonistic selection contributing to counterintuitive genetic patterns of adaptive diapause divergence in Rhagoletis flies

McCall Calvert, Meredith Doellman, Jeffrey Feder, Glenn Hood, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Mary Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Patrik Nosil, Dan Hahn & Gregory Ragland
Adaptation to novel environments often results in unanticipated genomic responses to selection. Here, we illustrate how multifarious, correlational selection helps explain a counterintuitive pattern of genetic divergence between the recently derived apple- and ancestral hawthorn-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Apple host race terminate diapause and emerge as adults earlier in the season than the hawthorn host race to coincide with the earlier fruiting phenology of their apple hosts. However, alleles at...

Competition for resources can promote the divergence of social learning phenotypes

R. Tucker Gilman, Fern Johnson & Marco Smolla
Social learning occurs when animals acquire knowledge or skills by observing or interacting with others, and is the fundamental building block of culture. Within populations, some individuals use social learning more frequently than others, but why social learning phenotypes differ among individuals is poorly understood. We modelled the evolution of social learning frequency in a system where foragers compete for resources and there are many different foraging options to learn about. Social learning phenotypes diverged...

Divalent cations bind to phosphoinositides to induce ion and isomer specific propensities for nano-cluster initiation in bilayer membranes

Ravi Radhakrishnan, Ryan Bradley, Paul Janmey & David Slochower
We report all-atom molecular dynamics simulations of physiologically composed asymmetric bilayers containing phosphoinositides in the presence of monovalent and divalent cations. We have characterized the molecular mechanism by which these divalent cations interact with phosphoinositides. Calcium desolvates more readily, consistent with single-molecule calculations, and forms a network of ionic-like bonds that serve as a "molecular glue'' that allows a single ion to coordinate with up to three phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate lipids. The phosphatidylinositol-(3,5)-bisphosphate isomer shows no such...

Wolbachia-infected ant colonies have increased reproductive investment and an accelerated life cycle

Rohini Singh & Timothy Linksvayer
Wolbachia is a widespread group of maternally-transmitted endosymbiotic bacteria that often manipulates the reproductive strategy and life history of its hosts to favor its own transmission. Wolbachia mediated phenotypic effects are well characterized in solitary hosts, although evidence of similar effects are rare in eusocial insects, such as ants. The invasive pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis, shows natural variation in Wolbachia infection between colonies and can be readily bred under laboratory conditions. We previously showed that...

Data from: Ant collective behavior is heritable and shaped by selection

Justin Troy Walsh, Simon Garnier & Timothy Arnold Linksvayer
Collective behaviors are widespread in nature and usually assumed to be strongly shaped by natural selection. However, the degree to which variation in collective behavior is heritable and has fitness consequences -- the two prerequisites for evolution by natural selection -- is largely unknown. We used a new pharaoh ant ( Monomorium pharaonis ) mapping population to estimate the heritability, genetic correlations, and fitness consequences of three collective behaviors (foraging, aggression, and exploration) as well...

Data from: Cholesterol and ORP1L dependent clustering of dynein on endolysosmes in cells 2 revealed by super resolution microscopy

Melike Lakadamyali & Shreyasi Thakur
The sub-cellular positioning of endolysosomes is crucial for regulating their function. Particularly, the positioning of endolysosomes between the cell periphery versus the peri-nuclear region impacts autophagy, mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) signaling and other processes. The mechanisms that regulate the positioning of endolysosomes at these two locations are still being uncovered. Here, using quantitative super-resolution microscopy in intact cells, we show that the retrograde motor dynein forms nano-clusters on endolysosomal membranes containing 1-2 dyneins, with...

Auditory cortex shapes sounds responses in the inferior colliculus

Jennifer Blackwell, Winnie Rao, Mariella DeBiasi & Maria Geffen
The extensive feedback from the auditory cortex (AC) to the inferior colliculus (IC) supports critical aspects of auditory behavior, but has not been extensively characterized. Previous studies demonstrated that activity in IC is altered by focal electrical stimulation and pharmacological inactivation of AC, but these methods lack the ability to selectively manipulate projection neurons. We measured the effects of selective optogenetic modulation of cortico-collicular feedback projections on IC sound responses in mice. Activation of feedback...

The rheological behavior of CO2 ice: application to glacial flow on Mars

Andrew Cross, David L. Goldsby, Travis F. Hager & Isaac B. Smith
Vast amounts of solid CO2 reside in topographic basins of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) on Mars and exhibit morphological features indicative of glacial flow. Previous experimental studies showed that coarse-grained CO2 ice is 1–2 orders of magnitude weaker than water ice under Martian polar conditions. Here we present data from a series of deformation experiments on high-purity, fine-grained CO2 ice over a broader range of temperatures than previously explored (158–213 K). The experiments...

Data from: Intranasal administration of dantrolene increased brain concentration and duration

Huafeng Wei, Jintao Wang, Yun Shi, Shuchun Yu, Yan Wang, Qingcheng Meng, Ge Liang & Maryellen F. Eckenhoff
Dantrolene has been demonstrated to be neuroprotective for multiple neurodegenerative diseases. However, dantrolene’s limited penetration into the CNS hampers its effectiveness as a neuroprotective agent. Here, we studied whether the intranasal administration of dantrolene provided better penetration into the brain than the commonly used oral approach. C57BL/6 mice, aged 2-4 months, received a single dose of either intranasal or oral dantrolene (5mg/kg). Inhibition of dantrolene clearance from the brain was examined by co-administration with P-gp/BCRP...

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adults with type 1 diabetes: findings from prospective real-life T1D exchange registry

Nicole Foster, Viral N Shah, Ryan Bailey, Mengdi Wu, Rodica Pop-Busui, Michelle Katz, Jill Crandall, Fida Bacha, Kristen Nadeau, Ingrid Libman, Paul Hiers, Kara Mizokami-Stout, Linda A DiMeglio, Jennifer Sherr, Richard Pratley, Shivani Agarwal, Janet Snell-Bergeon, Eda Cengiz, Sarit Polsky & Sanjeev N Mehta
Context Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in adults with type 1 diabetes. Objective We prospectively evaluated CVD risk factors in a large, contemporary cohort of adults with type 1 diabetes living in the United States. Design Observational study of CVD and CVD risk factors over a median of 5.3 years. Setting The T1D Exchange clinic network. Patients Adults (age ≥18 years) with type 1 diabetes and without known CVD diagnosed before...

Harvestmen locomotion kinematics

Ignacio Escalante, Marc Badger & Damian Elias
Dataset is the experimental test of changes in biomechanics of Neotropical harvestmen after leg loss. Data includes locomotor performance, as well as postural and stride kinematic variables. Please see the associated manuscript for more details and information (Escalante, I., Badger, M.A. & Elias, D.O. Rapid recovery of locomotor performance after leg loss in harvestmen. Sci Rep 10, 13747 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70557-2).

Data from: Oxidative stress in the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE): role of aging, and DJ-1

Vera Bonilha, Mala Upadhya, Caroline Milliner & Brent Bell
High levels of oxidative radicals generated by daily light exposure and high metabolic rate suggest that the antioxidant machinery of the retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is crucial for their survival. DJ-1 is a redox-sensitive protein that has been shown to have neuroprotective function in the brain in Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we analyzed the role of DJ-1 in the retina during oxidative stress and aging. We induced low-level oxidative stress...

Ant cuticular hydrocarbons are heritable and associated with variation in colony productivity

Justin Walsh, Luigi Pontieri, Patrizia D'Ettorre & Tim Linksvayer
In social insects, cuticular hydrocarbons function in nestmate recognition and also provide a waxy barrier against desiccation, but basic evolutionary features, including the heritability of hydrocarbon profiles and how they are shaped by natural selection are largely unknown. We used a new pharaoh ant (Monomorium pharaonis) laboratory mapping population to estimate the heritability of individual cuticular hydrocarbons, genetic correlations between hydrocarbons, and fitness consequences of phenotypic variation in the hydrocarbons. Individual hydrocarbons had low to...

Application of simultaneous selective pressures slows adaptation

Lauren Merlo, Kathleen Sprouffske, Taylor Howard, Kristin Gardiner, Aleah Caulin, Steven Blum, Perry Evans, Antonio Bedalov, Paul Sniegowski & Carlo Maley
Background and objectives: Beneficial mutations that arise in an evolving asexual population may compete or interact in ways that alter the overall rate of adaptation through mechanisms such as clonal or functional interference. The application of multiple selective pressures simultaneously may allow for a greater number of adaptive mutations, increasing the opportunities for competition between selectively advantageous alterations, and thereby reducing the rate of adaptation. Methodology: We evolved a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that could...

Paired human macrophage RNA sequencing data

Jiaxin Fan, Jian Hu, Chenyi Xue, Hanrui Zhang, Katalin Susztak, Muredach Reilly, Rui Xiao & Mingyao Li
Allele-specific expression (ASE) analysis, which quantifies the relative expression of two alleles in a diploid individual, is a powerful tool for identifying cis-regulated gene expression variations that underlie phenotypic differences among individuals. Existing methods for gene-level ASE detection analyze one individual at a time, therefore failing to account for shared information across individuals. Failure to accommodate such shared information not only reduces power, but also makes it difficult to interpret results across individuals. However, when...

Five-years of ocrelizumab in relapsing multiple sclerosis: OPERA studies open-label extension

Stephen L Hauser, Ludwig Kappos, Douglas L Arnold, Amit Bar-Or, Bruno Brochet, Robert T Naismith, Anthony Traboulsee, Jerry S Wolinsky, Shibeshih Belachew, Harold Koendgen, Victoria Levesque, Marianna Manfrini, Fabian Model, Stanislas Hubeaux, Lahar Mehta & Xavier Montalban
Objective To assess over 3 years of follow-up, the effects of maintaining or switching to ocrelizumab (OCR) therapy on clinical and MRI outcomes and safety measures in the open-label extension (OLE) phase of the pooled OPERA studies in relapsing multiple sclerosis. Methods After 2 years of double-blind, controlled treatment, patients continued OCR (600 mg infusions every 24 weeks) or switched from interferon (IFN) β-1a (44 μg 3 times weekly) to OCR when entering the OLE...

Blood biomarkers of traumatic brain injury and cognitive impairment in older veterans

Carrie Peltz, Kimbra Kenney, Jessica Gill, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Raquel Gardner & Kristine Yaffe
Objective: To determine whether blood-based biomarkers can differentiate older veterans with and without traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cognitive impairment (CI). Methods: We enrolled 155 veterans from two veterans’ retirement homes: 90 without TBI and 65 with TBI history. Participants were further separated into CI groups: Controls (no TBI, no CI), n=60; no TBI with CI, n=30; TBI without CI, n=30; and TBI with CI, n=35. TBI was determined by the Ohio State University TBI...

Unique genetic signatures of local adaptation over space and time for diapause, an ecologically relevant complex trait, in Drosophila melanogaster

Priscilla A Erickson, Cory A Weller, Daniel Y Song, Paul Schmidt, Alan O Bergland & Alyssa Bangerter
Organisms living in seasonally variable environments utilize cues such as light and temperature to induce plastic responses, enabling them to exploit favorable seasons and avoid unfavorable ones. Local adapation can result in variation in seasonal responses, but the genetic basis and evolutionary history of this variation remains elusive. Many insects, including Drosophila melanogaster, are able to undergo an arrest of reproductive development (diapause) in response to unfavorable conditions. In D. melanogaster, the ability to diapause...

Common power laws for cities and spatial fractal structures

Tomoya Mori, Tony Smith & Wen-Tai Hsu
SI Datasets S1 for "Common power laws for cities and spatial fractal structures" i) cities.zip : This file includes six CSV files. For each country, there is a corresponding file containing the population sizes and location information of cities. In each file, there are four columns: city ID (UA), population size (POP), longitude (LON) and latitude (LAT) of the the most densely inhabited location in the city according to the geodetic reference system, WGS1984. ii)...

Data from: Thalamus and focal to bilateral seizures: a multi-scale cognitive imaging study

Lorenzo Caciagli, Luke A. Allen, Xiaosong He, Karin Trimmel, Sjoerd B. Vos, Maria Centeno, Marian Galovic, Meneka K. Sidhu, Pamela J. Thompson, Danielle S. Bassett, Gavin P. Winston, John S. Duncan, Matthias J. Koepp & Michael R. Sperling
Objective To investigate the functional correlates of recurrent secondarily generalized seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), using task-based fMRI as a framework to test for epilepsy-specific network rearrangements. As the thalamus modulates propagation of temporal-lobe onset seizures and promotes cortical synchronization during cognition, we hypothesized that occurrence of secondarily generalized, i.e. focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures (FBTCS), would relate to thalamic dysfunction, altered connectivity and whole-brain network centrality. Methods FBTCS occur in a third of...

Data from: A multiscale biophysical model for the recruitment of actin nucleating proteins at the membrane interface

Ravi Radhakrishnan, Ololade Fatunmbi, Ryan Bradley, Sreeja Kandy, Paul Janmey & Robert Bucki
The dynamics and organization of the actin cytoskeleton are crucial to many cellular events such as motility, polarization, cell shaping, and cell division. The intracellular and extracellular signaling associated with this cytoskeletal network is communicated through cell membranes. Hence the organization of membrane macromolecules and actin filament assembly are highly interdependent. Although the actin-membrane linkage is known to happen through many routes, the major class of interactions is through the direct interaction of actin-binding proteins...

Data from: Integrative genomic analysis in African American children with asthma finds 3 novel loci associated with lung function

Pagé Goddard, Kevin Keys, Angel Mak, Eunice Lee, Amy Liu, Lesly-Anne Samedy-Bates, Oona Risse-Adams, Maria Contreras, Jennifer Elhawary, Donglei Hu, Sam Oh, Sandra Salazar, Celeste Eng, Blanca Himes, Marquitta White & Esteban Burchard
Bronchodilator drugs are commonly prescribed for treatment and management of obstructive lung function present with diseases such as asthma. Administration of bronchodilator medication can partially or fully restore lung function as measured by pulmonary function tests. The genetics of baseline lung function measures taken prior to bronchodilator medication has been extensively studied, and the genetics of the bronchodilator response itself has received some attention. However, few studies have focused on the genetics of post-bronchodilator lung...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Pennsylvania
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of Florida
  • University of Nevada, Las Vegas
  • University of California, San Francisco
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  • Binghamton University
  • Rice University
  • Roche (Switzerland)
  • Stanford University