32 Works

Data from: Diversification and gene flow in nascent lineages of island and mainland North American tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus)

Andreas S. Chavez, George James Kenagy, Sean P. Maher & Brian S. Arbogast
Pleistocene climate cycles and glaciations had profound impacts on taxon diversification in the Boreal Forest Biome. Using population genetic analyses with multilocus data we examined diversification, isolation, and hybridization in two sibling species of tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus douglasii and T. hudsonicus) with special attention to the geographically and genetically enigmatic population of T. hudsonicus on Vancouver Island, Canada. The two species differentiated only about 500,000 years ago, in the late Pleistocene. The island population is...

Data from: Genetic and morphometric divergence in threespine stickleback in the Chignik catchment, Alaska

Annette Taugbøl, Claudia Junge, Thomas P. Quinn, Anders Herland & Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad
Divergent selection pressures induced by different environmental conditions typically lead to variation in life history, behaviour and morphology. When populations are locally adapted to their current environment, selection may limit movement into novel sites, leading to neutral and adaptive genetic divergence in allopatric populations. Subsequently, divergence can be reinforced by development of pre- or post-zygotic barriers to gene flow. The threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, is a primarily marine fish that has invaded freshwater repeatedly in...

Data from: Three keys to the radiation of angiosperms into freezing environments

Amy E. Zanne, David C. Tank, William K. Cornwell, Jonathan M. Eastman, Stephen A. Smith, Richard G. FitzJohn, Daniel J. McGlinn, Brian C. O'Meara, Angela T. Moles, Peter B. Reich, Dana L. Royer, Douglas E. Soltis, Peter F. Stevens, Mark Westoby, Ian J. Wright, Lonnie Aarssen, Robert I. Bertin, Andre Calaminus, Rafaël Govaerts, Frank Hemmings, Michelle R. Leishman, Jacek Oleksyn, Pamela S. Soltis, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman … & Alejandro Ordonez
Early flowering plants are thought to have been woody species restricted to warm habitats1, 2, 3. This lineage has since radiated into almost every climate, with manifold growth forms4. As angiosperms spread and climate changed, they evolved mechanisms to cope with episodic freezing. To explore the evolution of traits underpinning the ability to persist in freezing conditions, we assembled a large species-level database of growth habit (woody or herbaceous; 49,064 species), as well as leaf...

Data from: Genetic evidence for landscape effects on dispersal in the army ant Eciton burchellii

Thomas W. Soare, Anjali Kumar, Kerry A. Naish & Sean O'Donnell
Inhibited dispersal, leading to reduced gene flow, threatens populations with inbreeding depression and local extinction. Fragmentation may be especially detrimental to social insects because inhibited gene flow has important consequences for cooperation and competition within and among colonies. Army ants have winged males and permanently wingless queens; these traits imply male-biased dispersal. However, army ant colonies are obligately nomadic and have the potential to traverse landscapes. Eciton burchellii, the most regularly nomadic army ant, is...

Data from: The influence sampling design on species tree inference: a new relationship for the New World chickadees (Aves: Poecile)

Rebecca Brown Harris, Matthew D. Carling & Irby J. Lovette
In this study, we explore the long-standing issue of how many loci are needed to infer accurate phylogenetic relationships, and whether loci with particular attributes (i.e., parsimony informativeness, variability, gene tree resolution) outperform others. To do so, we use an empirical dataset consisting of the seven species of chickadees (Aves: Paridae), an analytically tractable, recently diverged group, and well studied ecologically but lacking a nuclear phylogeny. We estimate relationships using 40 nuclear loci and mitochondrial...

Data from: Taller plants have lower rates of molecular evolution

Robert Lanfear, Simon Y. W. Ho, T. Jonathan Davies, Angela T. Moles, Lonnie Aarssen, Nathan G. Swenson, Laura Warman, Amy E. Zanne & Andrew P. Allen
Rates of molecular evolution have a central role in our understanding of many aspects of species’ biology. However, the causes of variation in rates of molecular evolution remain poorly understood, particularly in plants. Here we show that height accounts for about one-fifth of the among-lineage rate variation in the chloroplast and nuclear genomes of plants. This relationship holds across 138 families of flowering plants, and when accounting for variation in species richness, temperature, ultraviolet radiation,...

Data from: Mammals across the K/Pg boundary in northeastern Montana, U.S.A.: dental morphology and body-size patterns reveal extinction selectivity and immigrant-fueled ecospace filling

Gregory P. Wilson
The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/Pg) mass extinction has long been viewed as a pivotal event in mammalian evolutionary history, in which the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs allowed mammals to rapidly expand from small-bodied, generalized insectivores to a wide array of body sizes and ecological specializations. Many studies have used global- or continental-scale taxonomic databases to analyze this event on coarse temporal scales, but few studies have documented morphological diversity of mammalian paleocommunities on fine spatiotemporal scales in...

Data from: Bacterial endosymbiont infections in ‘living fossils’: a case study of North American vaejovid scorpions

& Robert W. Bryson
Bacterial endosymbionts are common among arthropods, and maternally inherited forms can affect the reproductive and behavioural traits of their arthropod hosts. The prevalence of bacterial endosymbionts and their role in scorpion evolution have rarely been investigated. In this study, 61 samples from 40 species of scorpion in the family Vaejovidae were screened for the presence of the bacterial endosymbionts Cardinium, Rickettsia, Spiroplasma and Wolbachia. No samples were infected by these bacteria. However, one primer pair...

Data from: Species delimitation using Bayes factors: simulations and application to the Sceloporus scalaris species group (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae)

Jared A. Grummer, , Tod W. Reeder & Robert W. Bryson
Current molecular methods of species delimitation are limited by the types of species delimitation models and scenarios that can be tested. Bayes factors allow for more flexibility in testing non-nested species delimitation models and hypotheses of individual assignment to alternative lineages. Here, we examined the efficacy of Bayes factors in delimiting species through simulations and empirical data from the Sceloporus scalaris species group. Marginal likelihood scores of competing species delimitation models, from which Bayes factor...

Data from: A phylogeny and revised classification of Squamata, including 4161 species of lizards and snakes

R. Alexander Pyron, Frank T. Burbrink & John J. Wiens
Background: The extant squamates (>9400 known species of lizards and snakes) are one of the most diverse and conspicuous radiations of terrestrial vertebrates, but no studies have attempted to reconstruct a phylogeny for the group with large-scale taxon sampling. Such an estimate is invaluable for comparative evolutionary studies, and to clarify their taxonomy. Here, we present the first large-scale phylogenetic estimate for Squamata. Results: The estimated phylogeny contains 4161 species representing all currently recognized families...

Data from: Phylogeographic diversification of antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus) across North American deserts

Stacy J. Mantooth, David J. Hafner, , Brett R. Riddle & Robert W. Bryson
We investigated the biogeographic history of antelope squirrels, genus Ammospermophilus, which are widely distributed across the deserts and other arid lands of western North America. We combined range-wide sampling of all currently recognized species of Ammospermophilus with a multilocus data set to infer phylogenetic relationships. We then estimated divergence times within identified clades of Ammospermophilus using fossil-calibrated and rate-calibrated molecular clocks. Lastly, we explored generalized distributional changes of Ammospermophilus since the last glacial maximum using...

Data from: Biogeography of scorpions in the Pseudouroctonus minimus complex (Vaejovidae) from south-western North America: implications of ecological specialization for pre-Quaternary diversification

Robert W. Bryson, Warren E. Savary & Lorenzo Prendini
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of pre-Quaternary tectonics and orogeny relative to that of Pleistocene climate change on diversification within the Pseudouroctonus minimus complex, a group of vaejovid scorpions with stenotopic habitat requirements. Location: South-western North America (United States and Mexico). Methods: Multilocus sequence data (1899 base pairs from two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes) were generated from 65 samples of scorpions in the minimus complex. Phylogeographical structure within...

Data from: Projected climate-driven faunal movement routes

Joshua J. Lawler, Aaron S. Ruesch, Julian D. Olden & Brad H. McRae
Historically, many species moved great distances as climates changed. However, modern movements will be limited by the patterns of human-dominated landscapes. Here, we use a combination of projected climate-driven shifts in the distributions of 2903 vertebrate species, estimated current human impacts on the landscape, and movement models, to determine through which areas in the western hemisphere species will likely need to move to track suitable climates. Our results reveal areas with projected high densities of...

Data from: How stock of origin affects performance of individuals across a meta-ecosystem: an example from Sockeye salmon

Jennifer R. Griffiths, Daniel E. Schindler & Lisa W. Seeb
Connectivity among diverse habitats can buffer populations from adverse environmental conditions, influence the functioning of meta-ecosystems, and ultimately affect the reliability of ecosystem services. This stabilizing effect on populations is proposed to derive from complementarity in growth and survival conditions experienced by individuals in the different habitats that comprise meta-ecosystems. Here we use the fine scale differentiation of salmon populations between diverse lake habitats to assess how rearing habitat and stock of origin affect the...

Data from: Diversification across the New World within the ‘blue’ cardinalids (Aves: Cardinalidae)

, Jaime Chaves, Brian Tilston Smith, Matthew J. Miller, Kevin Winker, Jorge L. Pérez-Emán, John Klicka & Robert W. Bryson
Aim: To examine the history of diversification of ‘blue’ cardinalids (Cardinalidae) across North and South America. Location: North America (including Middle America) and South America. Methods: We collected 163 individuals of the 14 species of blue cardinalids and generated multilocus sequence data (3193 base pairs from one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes) to infer phylogeographical structure and reconstruct time-calibrated species trees. We then estimated the ancestral range at each divergence event and tested for temporal...

Data from: Phylogeography of the Trans-Volcanic bunchgrass lizard (Sceloporus bicanthalis) across the highlands of southeastern Mexico

Adam D. Leaché, Julia A. Palacios, Vladimir N. Minin, & Robert W. Bryson
We quantify the population divergence processes that shaped population genetic structure in the Trans-Volcanic bunchgrass lizard (Sceloporus bicanthalis) across the highlands of south-eastern Mexico. Multilocus genetic data from nine nuclear loci and mitochondrial (mt)DNA were used to estimate the population divergence history for 47 samples of S. bicanthalis. Bayesian clustering methods partitioned S. bicanthalis into three populations: (1) a southern population in Oaxaca and southern Puebla; (2) a population in western Puebla; and (3) a...

Data from: Multilocus phylogeny and biogeography of the New World Pheucticus grosbeaks (Aves: Cardinalidae)

Paulo C. Pulgarín-R, Brian Tilston Smith, , Garth M. Spellman, John Klicka & Robert W. Bryson
Using a multilocus approach, we investigated the tempo and pattern of diversification in a widely distributed New World songbird, the cardinalid genus Pheucticus. Each of the three geographic groups recovered (North American, Middle American, and South American) was comprised of a pair of currently recognized species, and four, three, and three geographically and genetically distinct phylogeographic lineages respectively. Diversification within Pheucticus appears to have occurred at a relatively constant pace throughout the Pleistocene and evenly...

Data from: Task-switching costs promote the evolution of division of labor and shifts in individuality

Heather J. Goldsby, Anna Dornhaus, Benjamin Kerr & Charles Ofria
From microbes to humans, the success of many organisms is achieved by dividing tasks among specialized group members. The evolution of such division of labor strategies is an important aspect of the major transitions in evolution. As such, identifying specific evolutionary pressures that give rise to group-level division of labor has become a topic of major interest among biologists. To overcome the challenges associated with studying this topic in natural systems, we use actively evolving...

Data from: The cross-bridge spring: can cool muscles store elastic energy?

Nicole T. George, Thomas C. Irving, Charles D. Williams & Thomas L. Daniel
Muscles not only generate force. They may act as springs, providing energy storage to drive locomotion. Although extensible myofilaments are implicated as sites of energy storage, we show that intramuscular temperature gradients may enable molecular motors (cross-bridges) to store elastic strain energy. Using time-resolved small-angle X-ray diffraction paired with in situ measurements of mechanical energy exchange in flight muscle of Manduca sexta we produced high-speed movies of X-ray equatorial reflections indicating cross-bridge association with myofilaments....

Data from: Hybridization between genetically modified Atlantic salmon and wild brown trout reveals novel ecological interactions

Krista B. Oke, Peter A. H. Westley, Darek T. R. Moreau & Ian A. Fleming
Interspecific hybridization is a route for transgenes from genetically modified (GM) animals to invade wild populations, yet the ecological effects and potential risks that may emerge from such hybridization are unknown. Through experimental crosses, we demonstrate transmission of a growth hormone transgene via hybridization between a candidate for commercial aquaculture production, GM Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and closely related wild brown trout (S. trutta). Transgenic hybrids were viable and grew more rapidly than transgenic salmon...

Data from: Does nasal echolocation influence the modularity of the mammal skull?

Sharlene E. Santana & Sarah E. Lofgren
In vertebrates, changes in cranial modularity can evolve rapidly in response to selection. However, mammals have apparently maintained their pattern of cranial integration throughout their evolutionary history and across tremendous morphological and ecological diversity. Here, we use phylogenetic, geometric morphometric and comparative analyses to test the hypothesis that the modularity of the mammalian skull has been remodelled in rhinolophid bats due to the novel and critical function of the nasal cavity in echolocation. We predicted...

Data from: Critically endangered island endemic or peripheral population of a widespread species? Conservation genetics of Kikuchi’s gecko and the global challenge of protecting peripheral oceanic island endemic vertebrates

Cameron D. Siler, Jamie R. Oaks, Kerry Cobb, Hidetoshi Ota & Rafe M. Brown
Aim: To highlight the significant conservation challenge of evaluating peripheral endemic vertebrates in island archipelago systems and to assess empirically the complexities of approaches to conservation genetic studies across political and biogeographic boundaries. To demonstrate the poignant need for international collaboration and coordination when species delimitation problems with high conservation concern involve island endemics with biogeographically peripheral ranges. Location: Southeast Asia, Lanyu Island, Taiwan, and the Philippines. Methods: Genetic samples were collected and sequenced for...

Data from: Secondary contact and changes in coastal hydrology influence the nonequilibrium population structure of a salmonid (Oncorhynchus keta)

Eleni L. Petrou, Lorenz Hauser, Robin S. Waples, Jim E. Seeb, William D. Templin, Daniel Gomez-Uchida & Lisa W. Seeb
Numerous empirical studies have reported lack of migration–drift equilibrium in wild populations. Determining the causes of nonequilibrium population structure is challenging because different evolutionary processes acting at a variety of spatiotemporal scales can produce similar patterns. Studies of contemporary populations in northern latitudes suggest that nonequilibrium population structure is probably caused by recent colonization of the region after the last Pleistocene ice age ended ~13 000 years ago. The chum salmon's (Oncorhynchus keta) range was...

Data from: The soundscapes of lakes across an urbanization gradient

Lauren M. Kuehne, Britta Padgham, Julian D. Olden & Britta L. Padgham
Background/Methodology: A significant implication of increasing urbanization is anthropogenic noise pollution. Although noise is strongly associated with disruption of animal communication systems and negative health effects for humans, the study of these consequences at ecologically relevant spatial and temporal scales (termed ‘soundscape ecology’) is in early stages of application. In this study, we examined the above- and below-water soundscape of recreational and residential lakes in the region surrounding a large metropolitan area. Using univariate and...

Data from: Rise and fall of a hybrid zone: implications for the roles of aggression, mate choice, and secondary succession

Travis R. Robbins, Lorelei E. Walker, Kelvin D. Gorospe, Stephen A. Karl, Aaron W. Schrey, Earl D. McCoy & Henry R. Mushinsky
Hybridization can be an important evolutionary force by generating new species and influencing evolution of parental species in multiple ways, including introgression and the consequences of hybrid vigor. Determining the ecological processes underlying evolution in hybrid zones is difficult however because it requires examining changes in both genotypic frequencies over time and corresponding ecological information, data that are rarely collected together. Here, we describe genetic and ecological aspects of a hybrid zone between the Eastern...

Registration Year

  • 2013

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Washington
  • Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture
  • Alaska Department of Fish and Game
  • Department of Plant Biology
  • McGill University
  • Macquarie University
  • Queen's University
  • University of Arizona
  • Louisiana State University of Alexandria
  • Environmental Earth Sciences