77 Works

Data from: Incomplete convergence of gliding-mammal skeletons

David Grossnickle
Ecology and biomechanics play central roles in the generation of phenotypic diversity. When unrelated taxa invade a similar ecological niche, biomechanical demands can drive convergent morphological transformations. Thus, identifying and examining convergence helps to elucidate the key catalysts of phenotypic change. Gliding mammals are often presented as a classic case of convergent evolution because they independently evolved in numerous clades, each possessing patagia (‘wing’ membranes) that generate lift during gliding. We use phylogenetic comparative methods...

Appendix: Association between hemostatic profile and migraine: a Mendelian randomization analysis

Yanjun Guo, Pamela Rist, Maria Sabater-Lleal, Paul De Vries, Nicholas Smith, Paul Ridker, Tobias Kurth & Daniel Chasman
Objective: To assess support for a causal relationship between hemostatic measures and migraine susceptibility using genetic instrumental analysis. Methods: Two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) instrumental leveraging available genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics was applied to hemostatic measures as potential causal for migraine and its subtypes, migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO). Twelve blood-based measures of hemostasis were examined, including plasma level or activity of eight hemostatic factors and two fibrinopeptides together with...

Detection histories of mesocarnivores in agricultural areas of Southern Chile

Nicolás Gálvez, José Infante, Adrián Fernandez, Jesús Díaz & Lisanne Petracca
We obtained mesocarnivore detection/non-detection data from 180 sampling units (4 km2 each) located in the agricultural landscapes of southern Chile from January-April of 2019. We used single-species occupancy models to investigate the associations of forest fragmentation, forest loss, and private land ownership subdivision (as a measure of human use intensification) with the occurrence of four mesocarnivores (güiña, grey fox, culpeo fox, and Molina’s hog-nosed skunk), and extended this framework to two-species occupancy models to assess...

Exposure, hazard and vulnerability all contribute to Schistosoma haematobium re-infection in northern Senegal

Andrea Lund, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Chelsea Wood, Sofia Ali, Andrew Chamberlin, Alioune Sy, M. Moustapha Sam, Nicolas Jouanard, Anne-Marie Schacht, Simon Senghor, Assane Fall, Raphael Ndione, Gilles Riveau, Giulio De Leo & David Lopez-Carr
The risk of infectious diseases, including snail-borne schistosomiasis, is determined by three interrelated components: exposure, hazard and vulnerability. For schistosomiasis, exposure occurs through behaviors involving water contact, but not without the environmental hazard of snails and parasites in the water. Socio-economic vulnerability makes it difficult to reduce exposure in the presence of hazard, because it increases reliance on hazardous activities and environments. We aimed to quantify the contributions of exposure, hazard and vulnerability to schistosome...

Tactile active sensing in an insect-plant pollinator

Tanvi Deora, Mahad Ahmed, Thomas Daniel & Bingni Brunton
The interaction between insects and the flowers they pollinate has driven the evolutionary diversity of both insects and flowering plants, two groups with the most numerous species on Earth. Insects use vision and olfaction to localize host plants, but we know relatively little about how they find the tiny nectary opening in the flower, which can be well beyond their visual resolution. Especially when vision is limited, touch becomes crucial in successful insect–plant pollination interactions....

Cryptic diversity across the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of Mexico in the montane bunchgrass lizard Sceloporus subniger (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae)

Robert Bryson, Jared Grummer, Elizabeth Connors, Joseph Tirpak, John McCormack & John Klicka
Sceloporus subniger Poglaygen & Smith is a montane bunchgrass lizard distributed across pine-oak forests of central Mexico. Prompted by the discovery of a new population of this lizard in far western Mexico, and by recent studies suggesting S. subniger may be a composite of several distinct species, we examined in more detail the genetic structure of S. subniger. We generated a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) dataset from 81 specimens and an ultraconserved elements (UCE) dataset representing...

HadCM3 and HadGEM3 LIG model outputs: A sea ice-free Arctic

Maria Vittoria Guarino & Louise Sime
The HadGEM3 (HadGEM3-GC3.1 or HadGEM3-GC3.1-N96ORCA1) PI simulation was initialized using the standard CMIP6 protocol using constant 1850 GHGs, ozone, solar, tropospheric aerosol, stratospheric volcanic aerosol and land-use forcing. The PI spin-up was 700 model-years, which allowed the land and oceanic masses to attain approximate steady state. The HadGEM3 LIG (Last Interglacial) simulation was initialized from the end of the spin-up phase of the equivalent pre-industrial (PI) simulation. After initialization, the LIG was run for 350...

Comparing diversification rates in lakes, rivers, and the sea

Elizabeth Miller
The diversity of species inhabiting freshwater relative to marine habitats is striking, given that freshwater habitats encompass <1% of Earth’s water. The most commonly proposed explanation for this pattern is that freshwater habitats are more fragmented than marine habitats, allowing more opportunities for allopatric speciation and thus increased diversification rates in freshwater. However, speciation may be generally faster in sympatry than in allopatry, as illustrated by lacustrine radiations such as African cichlids. Differences between rivers...

Data from: A burning issue: Savanna fire management can generate enough carbon revenue to help restore Africa’s rangelands and fill protected area funding gaps

Timothy Tear, Nicholas Wolff, Geoffrey Lipsett-Moore, Mark Ritchie, Natasha Ribeiro, Lisanne Petracca, Peter Lindsey, Luke Hunter, Andrew Loveridge & Franziska Steinbruch
Many savanna-dependent species in Africa including large herbivores and apex predators are at increasing risk of extinction. Achieving effective management of protected areas (PAs) in Africa where lions live will cost an estimated USD >$1-2 B/year in new funding. We explored the potential for fire management-based carbon-financing programs to fill this funding gap and benefit degrading savanna ecosystems. We demonstrated how introducing early dry season fire management programs could produce potential carbon revenues (PCR) from...

Optimal test-assisted quarantine strategies for COVID-19

Bo Peng, Wen Zhou, Rowland Pettit, Patrick Yu, Peter Matos, Alexander Greninger, Julie McCashin & Christopher Amos
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of SARS-CoV-2 testing on shortening the duration of quarantines for COVID-19 and to identify the most effective choices of testing schedules. Design: We performed extensive simulations to evaluate the performance of quarantine strategies when one or more SARS-CoV-2 tests were administered during the quarantine. Simulations were based on statistical models for the transmissibility and viral loads of SARS-CoV-2 infections and the sensitivities of available testing methods. Sensitivity analyses were performed...

Site fidelity and behavioral plasticity regulate an ungulate’s response to extreme disturbance

Samantha Kreling, Kaitlyn Gaynor, Alex McInturff, Kendall Calhoun & Justin Brashares
1. With rapid global change, the frequency and severity of extreme disturbance events are increasing worldwide. The ability of animal populations to survive these stochastic events depends on how individual animals respond to their altered environments, yet our understanding of the immediate and short-term responses of animals to acute disturbances remains poor. 2. We focused on animal responses to the environmental disturbance created by megafire. Specifically, we explored the effects of the 2018 Mendocino Complex...

Diverse arsenic-containing lipids in the surface ocean

Katherine Heal, Ashley Maloney, Anitra Ingalls & Randelle Bundy
Arsenic is present at nanomolar levels throughout the ocean, and microbes assimilate this potentially toxic element due to its similarity to inorganic phosphorus. Although dissolved arsenic has been a focus of several oceanographic studies, the size and chemical character of the particulate arsenic pool is poorly understood. We measured particulate arsenic in five samples from the open ocean and determined the contribution of arsenic-containing lipids to this pool. Here we show that the accumulation of...

Scaling and structural properties of juvenile bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana) Data

Stephanie Crofts & Katie Dobkowski
Bull kelp (Nereocystis luetkeana), the only canopy-forming kelp in the Salish Sea, provides primary production in the nearshore subtidal environment and serves as important habitat for economically and ecologically important species. An annual species, each year juvenile bull kelp sporophytes must grow from the hydrodynamically more benign benthos to the water column, where they experience substantial drag at the surface. Because of the differences in morphology and ecology across life stages, and the fact that...

Longitudinal variation in the nutritional quality of basal food sources and its effect on invertebrates and fish in subalpine rivers

Fen Guo, Nadine Ebm, Stuart Bunn, Michael Brett, Hannes Hager & Martin Kainz
1. There is growing recognition of the importance of food quality over quantity for aquatic consumers. In streams and rivers, most previous studies considered this primarily in terms of the quality of terrestrial leaf litter and importance of microbial conditioning. However, many recent studies suggest that algae are a more nutritional food source for riverine consumers than leaf litter. To date, few studies have quantified longitudinal shifts in the nutritional quality of basal food resources...

Data from: Latitudinal embryonic thermal tolerance and plasticity shape the vulnerability of oviparous species to climate change

Bao-Jun Sun, Liang Ma, Yang Wang, Chun-Rong Mi, Lauren Buckley, Ofir Levy, Hong-Liang Lu & Wei-Guo Du
Heat tolerance at the immobile embryonic stage is expected to be critical in determining species vulnerability to climate change. However, how the mean and developmental plasticity of embryonic heat tolerance vary geographically, and how these geographic variations affect species’ vulnerability under climate change remain unknown. We experimentally determined the mean and developmental plasticity of embryonic acute heat tolerance (EAHT, i.e., heat shock temperature at which embryonic heartbeats ceased) for three latitudinally-distributed populations of an oviparous...

COMSOL models of fluid flow in the sarcomere

Sage Malingen, Kaitlyn Hood, Eric Lauga, Anette Hosoi & Thomas Daniel
A highly organized and densely packed lattice of molecular machinery within the sarcomeres of muscle cells powers contraction. Although many of the proteins that drive contraction have been studied extensively, the mechanical impact of fluid shearing within the lattice of molecular machinery has received minimal attention. It was recently proposed that fluid flow augments substrate transport in the sarcomere, however, this analysis used analytical models of fluid flow in the molecular machinery that could not...

Phylogeny of Citharexyleae

Laura Frost, Nataly O'Leary, Laura Lagomarsino, David Tank & Richard Olmstead
As a family of Neotropical origin and primarily Neotropical distribution, the Verbenaceae are a good but understudied system with which to understand Neotropical evolution. Tribe Citharexyleae comprises three genera: Baillonia, Citharexylum—one of the largest genera in Verbenaceae—and Rehdera. A molecular phylogenetic approach was taken to resolve intergeneric relationships in Citharexyleae and infrageneric relationships in Citharexylum. The phylogeny is used to elucidate character evolution in a widespread, morphologically diverse Neotropical genus. Seven plastid regions, two nuclear...

Long-term change in the parasite burden of shore crabs (Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus) on the northwestern Pacific coast of North America

Jessica Quinn, Sarah Lee, Duncan Greeley, Alyssa Gehman, Armand Kuris & Chelsea Wood
The abundances of free-living species have changed dramatically in recent decades, but little is known about change in the abundance of parasitic species. We investigated whether populations of several parasites have shifted over time in two shore crab hosts, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and H. nudus, by comparing the prevalence and abundance of three parasite taxa in a historical dataset (1969–1970) to contemporary parasite abundance (2018–2020) for hosts collected from 11 intertidal sites located from Oregon, USA...

Rare missense functional variants at COL4A1 and COL4A2 in sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage

Jaeyoon Chung, Graham Hamilton, Minsup Kim, Sandro Marini, Bailey Montgomery, Jonathan Henry, Art Cho, Devin Brown, Bradford Worrall, James Meschia, Scott Silliman, Magdy Selim, David Tirschwell, Chelsea Kidwell, Brett Kissela, Steven Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan, Joshua Goldstein, Carl Langefeld, Kristiina Rannikmae, Catherine Sudlow, Neshika Samarasekera, Mark Rodrigues, Rustam Salman, James Prendergast … & Christopher Anderson
Objective To test the genetic contribution of rare missense variants in COL4A1 and COL4A2 in which common variants are genetically associated with sporadic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), we performed rare variant analysis in multiple sequencing data for the risk for sporadic ICH. Methods We performed sequencing across 559Kbp at 13q34 including COL4A1 and COL4A2 among 2,133 individuals (1,055 ICH cases; 1,078 controls) in US-based and 1,492 individuals (192 ICH cases; 1,300 controls) from Scotland-based cohorts, followed...

Heterogeneous genetic basis of age at maturity in salmonid fishes

Charles Waters, Anthony Clemento, Tutku Aykanat, John Garza, Kerry-Ann Naish, Shawn Narum & Craig Primmer
Understanding the genetic basis of repeated evolution of the same phenotype across taxa is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology and has applications to conservation and management. However, the extent to which interspecific life-history trait polymorphisms share evolutionary pathways remains under-explored. We address this gap by studying the genetic basis of a key life-history trait, age at maturity, in four species of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) that exhibit intra- and interspecific variation in this trait...

Supplemental Tables for Heal et al: Marine community metabolomes carry fingerprints of phytoplankton community composition

Katherine Heal
Phytoplankton transform inorganic carbon into thousands of biomolecules that represent an important pool of fixed carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur in the surface ocean. Metabolite production differs between phytoplankton, and the flux of these molecules through the microbial food web depends on compound-specific bioavailability to members of a wider microbial community. Yet relatively little is known about the diversity or concentration of metabolites within marine plankton. Here we compare 313 polar metabolites in 21 cultured phytoplankton...

Size-driven preservational and macroecological biases in the latest Maastrichtian terrestrial vertebrate assemblages of North America

Caleb Brown, Nicolas Campione, Gregory Wilson Mantilla & David Evans
The end-Cretaceous (K/Pg) mass-extinction event is the most recent and well-understood of the “Big Five” and triggered establishment of modern terrestrial ecosystem structure. Despite the depth of research into this event, our knowledge of upper Maastrichtian terrestrial deposits globally relies primarily on assemblage-level data limited to a few well-sampled formations in North America, the Hell Creek and Lance formations. These assemblages disproportionally affect our interpretations of this important interval. Multiple investigations have quantified diversity patterns...

Appendices interview formats

Una Cunningham, Aoife De Brún, Willgerodt Mayumi, Erin Blakeney & Eilish McAuliffe
Background: Literature on multi-disciplinary healthcare team interventions to improve quality and safety of care in acute hospital contexts tends to focus on evaluating the success of the intervention by assessing patient outcomes. In contrast, there is little focus on the team who delivered the intervention, how the team worked to deliver the intervention or the context in which it was delivered. In practice, there is a poor understanding of why some interventions work and are...

Data from: Functional genetic diversity in an exploited marine species and its relevance to fisheries management

Eleni L. Petrou
The timing of reproduction influences key evolutionary and ecological processes in wild populations. Variation in reproductive timing may be an especially important evolutionary driver in the marine environment, where the high mobility of many species and few physical barriers to migration provide limited opportunities for spatial divergence to arise, and where many species synchronize their reproduction to seasonal cycles of planktonic productivity. Using genomic data collected from spawning aggregations of Pacific herring (Clupea pallasii) across...

Resource allocation to a structural biomaterial: induced production of byssal threads decreases growth of a marine mussel

Emily Roberts, Laura Newcomb, Michelle McCartha, Katie Harrington, Sam LaFramboise, Emily Carrington & Kenneth Sebens
1. Specialized mechanical structures produced by organisms provide crucial fitness advantages. The energetic cost associated with producing these structural materials and the resulting energetic trade-off with growth, however, is rarely quantified. We evaluate resource allocation to structural material production within the context of an energetic framework by combining an experimental manipulation with an energetic model. 2. Mytilid bivalves produce byssus, a network of collagen-like threads that tethers individuals to hard substrate. We hypothesized that a...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Washington
  • University of Cambridge
  • Stanford University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • University of California, Santa Barbara
  • University of British Columbia
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • University of Glasgow
  • University of California, San Diego
  • The University of Texas at Arlington