44 Works

Data from: How temporal patterns in rainfall determine the geomorphology and carbon fluxes of tropical peatlands

Alexander R. Cobb, Alison M. Hoyt, Laure Gandois, Jangarun Eri, René Dommain, Kamariah Abu Salim, Fuu Ming Kai, Nur Salihah Haji Su'ut & Charles F. Harvey
Tropical peatlands now emit hundreds of megatons of carbon dioxide per year because of human disruption of the feedbacks that link peat accumulation and groundwater hydrology. However, no quantitative theory has existed for how patterns of carbon storage and release accompanying growth and subsidence of tropical peatlands are affected by climate and disturbance. Using comprehensive data from a pristine peatland in Brunei Darussalam, we show how rainfall and groundwater flow determine a shape parameter (the...

Data from: Comparative morphology and evolution of the cnidosac in Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia)

Jessica A. Goodheart, Sabrina Bleidißel, Dorothee Schillo, Ellen E. Strong, Daniel L. Ayres, Angelika Preisfeld, Allen G. Collins, Michael P. Cummings & Heike Wägele
Background: A number of shelled and shell-less gastropods are known to use multiple defensive mechanisms, including internally generated or externally obtained biochemically active compounds and structures. Within Nudipleura, nudibranchs within Cladobranchia possess such a special defense: the ability to sequester cnidarian nematocysts – small capsules that can inject venom into the tissues of other organisms. This ability is distributed across roughly 600 species within Cladobranchia, and many questions still remain in regard to the comparative...

Data from: 346 target gene sequences from Vitaceae for Hyb-Seq

Jun Wen
The Vitaceae (the grape family) consists of 16 genera and ca. 950 species. It is best known for the economically important fruit crop -- the grape Vitis vinifera. The deep phylogenetic relationships and character evolution of the grape family have attracted the attention of researchers in recent years. We herein reconstruct the phylogenomic relationships within Vitaceae using nuclear and plastid genes based on the Hyb-Seq approach and test the newly proposed classification system of the...

Data from: Assessing Progress in Systematics with Continuous Jackknife Function Analysis

Jeremy A. Miller
Systematists expect their hypotheses to be asymptotically precise. As the number of phylogenetically informative characters for a set of taxa increases, the relationships implied should stabilize on some topology. If true, this increasing stability should clearly manifest itself if an index of congruence is plotted against the accumulating number of characters. Continuous Jackknife Function (CJF) analysis is a new graphical method that portrays the extent to which available data converge on a specified phylogenetic hypothesis,...

Data from: Extensive mitochondrial introgression in North American Great Black-backed Gulls (Larus marinus) from the American Herring Gull (Larus smithsonianus) with little nuclear DNA impact

Jean-Marc Pons, Sarah A. Sonsthagen, Carla Dove & Pierre-Andre Crochet
Recent genetic studies have shown that introgression rates among loci may greatly vary according to their location in the genome. In particular, several cases of mito-nuclear discordances have been reported for a wide range of organisms. In the present study, we examine the causes of discordance between mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA introgression detected in North American populations of the Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus), a Holarctic species, from the Nearctic North American Herring Gull...

Data from: Using a comprehensive DNA barcode library to detect novel egg and larval host plant associations in a Cephaloleia Rolled-leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Carlos Garcia-Robledo, Erin K. Kuprewicz, Charles L. Staines, W. John Kress & Terry L. Erwin
To fully understand the ecology and evolution of plant-herbivore interactions, information regarding the life history of both immature and adult insect stages is essential. However, most knowledge of plant-herbivore associations is derived from observations of adults. One reason for this bias is that species identification of immature stages is usually challenging. DNA barcodes can be used to identify immature stages to the species-level. This technique compares short sequences of the appropriate DNA barcode loci (e.g.,...

Data from: A new versatile primer set targeting a short fragment of the mitochondrial COI region for metabarcoding metazoan diversity: application for characterizing coral reef fish gut contents

Matthieu Leray, Joy Y. Yang, Christopher P. Meyer, Suzanne C. Mills, Natalia Agudelo, Ranwez Vincent, Joel T. Boehm & Ryuji J. Machida
Introduction: The PCR-based analysis of homologous genes has become one of the most powerful approaches for species detection and identification, particularly with the recent availability of Next Generation Sequencing platforms (NGS) making it possible to identify species composition from a broad range of environmental samples. Identifying species from these samples relies on the ability to match sequences with reference barcodes for taxonomic identification. Unfortunately, most studies of environmental samples have targeted ribosomal markers, despite the...

Data from: The implications of stratigraphic compatibility for character integration among fossil taxa

Peter J. Wagner & George F. Estabrook
Two characters are stratigraphically compatible if some phylogenies indicate that their combinations (state-pairs) evolved without homoplasy and in an order consistent with the fossil record. Simulations assuming independent character change indicate that we expect approximately 95% of compatible character pairs to also be stratigraphically compatible over a wide range of sampling regimes and general evolutionary models. However, two general models of rate heterogeneity elevate expected stratigraphic incompatibility: “early burst” models, where rates of change are...

Data from: Phylogeny and new taxonomy of the Booted Eagles (Accipitriformes: Aquilinae)

Heather R. L. Lerner, Les Christidis, Anita Gamauf, Carole Griffiths, Elisabeth Haring, Christopher J. Huddleston, Sonia Kabra, Annett Kocum, Meade Krosby, Kirsti Kvaloy, David Mindell, Pamela Rasmussen, Nils Rov, Rachel Wadleigh, Michael Wink & Jan Ove Gjershaug
We present a phylogeny of all booted eagles (38 extant and one extinct species) based on analysis of published sequences from seven loci. We find molecular support for five major clades within the booted eagles: Nisaetus (10 species), Spizaetus (4 species), Clanga (3 species), Hieraaetus (6 species) and Aquila (11 species), requiring generic changes for 14 taxa. Additionally, we recommend that the Long-crested Eagle (Lophaetus occipitalis) and the Black Eagle (Ictinaetus malaiensis) remain in their...

Data from: At least some meiofaunal species are not everywhere. Indication of geographic, ecological and geological barriers affecting the dispersion of species of Ototyphlonemertes (Nemertea, Hoplonemertea)

Francesca Leasi, S.C. Andrade & Jon Norenburg
Most meiofaunal species are known to have a broad distribution with no apparent barriers to their dispersion. However, different morphological and/or molecular methods supported patterns of diversity and distribution that may be different among taxa while also conflicting within the same group. We accurately assessed the patterns of geographic distribution in actual genetic species of a marine meiofaunal animal model: Ototyphlonemertes. Specimens were collected from several sites around Europe, Northern and Central America, Southern America,...

Data from: Limited role of character displacement in the coexistence of congeneric Anelosimus spiders in a Madagascan montane forest

Ingi Agnarsson, Nicholas J. Gotelli, Diego Agostini & Matjaž Kuntner
Evolutionary and ecological theory predicts that closely related and similar species should coexist infrequently because speciation is more likely to occur allopatrically than sympatrically, and because co-occurring species with similar traits may compete for limited resources, leading to competitive exclusion or character displacement. Here we study the unusual coexistence of 10 similar congeneric species of Anelosimus spiders within a small forest fragment in Madagascar. We asked if these species radiated in sympatry or allopatry, and...

Data from: Widespread ecomorphological convergence in multiple fish families spanning the marine–freshwater interface

Aaron M. Davis & Ricardo Betancur-R
The theoretical definition and quantification of convergence is an increasingly topical focus in evolutionary research, with particular growing interest on study scales spanning deep phylogenetic divergences and broad geographical areas. While much progress has recently been made in understanding the role of convergence in driving terrestrial (e.g. anole lizards) and aquatic (e.g. cichlids) radiations, little is known about its macroevolutionary effects across environmental gradients. This study uses a suite of recently developed comparative approaches integrating...

Data from: Seed size evolution and biogeography of Plukenetia (Euphorbiaceae), a pantropical genus with traditionally cultivated oilseed species

Warren M. Cardinal-McTeague, Kenneth J. Wurdack, Erin M. Sigel & Lynn J. Gillespie
Background: Plukenetia is a small pantropical genus of lianas and vines with variably sized edible oil-rich seeds that presents an ideal system to investigate neotropical and pantropical diversification patterns and seed size evolution. We assessed the biogeography and seed evolution of Plukenetia through phylogenetic analyses of a 5,069 character molecular dataset comprising five nuclear and two plastid markers for 86 terminals in subtribe Plukenetiinae (representing 20 of ~23 Plukenetia species). Two nuclear genes, KEA1 and...

Data from: Prey preference follows phylogeny: evolutionary dietary patterns within the marine gastropod group Cladobranchia (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Nudibranchia)

Jessica A. Goodheart, Adam L. Bazinet, Ángel Valdés, Allen G. Collins & Michael P. Cummings
Background: The impact of predator-prey interactions on the evolution of many marine invertebrates is poorly understood. Since barriers to genetic exchange are less obvious in the marine realm than in terrestrial or freshwater systems, non-allopatric divergence may play a fundamental role in the generation of biodiversity. In this context, shifts between major prey types could constitute important factors explaining the biodiversity of marine taxa, particularly in groups with highly specialized diets. However, the scarcity of...

Data from: Running in circles in phylomorphospace: host environment constrains morphological diversification in parasitic wasps

Bernardo F. Santos, Adrien Perrard & Seán G. Brady
Understanding phenotypic diversification and the conditions that spur morphological novelty or constraint is a major theme in evolutionary biology. Unequal morphological diversity between sister clades can result from either differences in the rate of morphological change or in the ability of clades to explore novel phenotype ranges. We combine an existing phylogenetic framework with new phylogenomic data and geometric morphometrics to explore the relative roles of rate versus mode of morphological evolution for a hyperdiverse...

Data from: Molecular detection of trophic links in a complex insect host-parasitoid food web

Jan Hrcek, Scott E Miller, Donald L J Quicke & M. Alex Smith
Previously, host-parasitoid links have been unveiled almost exclusively by time-intensive rearing, while molecular methods were used only in simple agricultural host-parasitoid systems in the form of species specific primers. Here we present a general method for molecular detection of these links applied to a complex caterpillar-parasitoid food web from tropical rainforest of Papua New Guinea. We DNA barcoded hosts, parasitoids and their tissue remnants and matched the sequences to our extensive library of local species....

Data from: Evolution of stenophagy in spiders (Araneae): evidence based on the comparative analysis of spider diets

Stano Pekár, Jonathan A. Coddington & Todd A. Blackledge
Stenophagy (narrow diet breadth) represents an extreme of trophic specialization in carnivores, but little is known about the forces driving its evolution. We used spiders, the most diversified group of terrestrial predators, to investigate whether stenophagy 1) promoted diversification, 2) was phylogenetically conserved and evolutionarily derived state, and 3) was determined either by geographical distribution and foraging guild. We utilized published data on the prey of almost 600 species. Six categories of stenophagy were found:...

Data from: Divergence estimates and early evolutionary history of Figitidae (Hymenoptera: Cynipoidea)

Matthew L. Buffington, Seán G. Brady, Shelah I. Morita & Simon Van Noort
matrix08REDUCEDBayes04The combined molecular and morphological dataset analyzed using MrBayes.cynipoid_dating_all_calibrationsThe molecular dataset analyzed using BEAST.

Data from: Assessing Progress in Systematics with Continuous Jackknife Function Analysis

Jeremy A. Miller
Systematists expect their hypotheses to be asymptotically precise. As the number of phylogenetically informative characters for a set of taxa increases, the relationships implied should stabilize on some topology. If true, this increasing stability should clearly manifest itself if an index of congruence is plotted against the accumulating number of characters. Continuous Jackknife Function (CJF) analysis is a new graphical method that portrays the extent to which available data converge on a specified phylogenetic hypothesis,...

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