17 Works

Genomic landscape of reproductive isolation in Lucania killifish: The role of sex loci and salinity

Genevieve Kozak, Emma Berdan & Becky Fuller
Adaptation to different environments can directly and indirectly generate reproductive isolation between species. Bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) and rainwater killifish (L. parva) are sister species that have diverged across a salinity gradient and are reproductively isolated by habitat, behavioral, extrinsic, and intrinsic postzygotic ­­isolation. We asked if salinity adaptation contributes indirectly to other forms of reproductive isolation via linked selection and hypothesized that low recombination regions, such as sex chromosomes or chromosomal rearrangements, might facilitate...

Root responses to neighbors depend on neighbor identity and resource distribution

Tara Rajaniemi, Kelsey Garlick & Robert Drew
In a complex soil environment, competitive and environmental factors will interact with individual traits to influence a plant’s root growth patterns and ability to compete for resources. Here, we examine how root growth of a focal plant, Plantago lanceolata L., responds to resource heterogeneity and to presence of two neighbor species, Centaurea jacea L.and Poa pratensis L. A full factorial experiment tested the effects of nutrient heterogeneity, neighbors, and their interaction on root responses of...

Elevated temperature increases reproductive investment in less preferred mates in the invasive European corn borer moth

Genevieve Kozak & Arielle Enos
Rapidly changing environments may weaken sexual selection and lead to indiscriminate mating by interfering with the reception of mating signals or by increasing the costs associated with mate choice. If temperature alters sexual selection, it may impact population response and adaptation to climate change. Here, we examine how differences in temperature of the mating environment influence reproductive investment in the European corn borer moth (Ostrinia nubilalis). Mate preference in this species is known to be...

The influence of maternal glucocorticoids on offspring phenotype in high- and low-risk environments

Kirsty J. MacLeod, Tracy Langkilde, Cameron Venable, David Ensminger & Michael Sheriff
Elevated maternal glucocorticoid levels during gestation can lead to phenotypic changes in offspring via maternal effects. Although such effects have traditionally been considered maladaptive, maternally derived glucocorticoids may adaptively prepare offspring for their future environment depending upon the correlation between maternal and offspring environments. Nevertheless, relatively few studies test the effects of prenatal glucocorticoid exposure across multiple environments. We tested the potential for ecologically relevant increases in maternal glucocorticoids in the eastern fence lizard (Sceloporus...

Affiliation history and age similarity predict alliance formation in adult male bottlenose dolphins

Livia Gerber, Richard Connor, Stephanie King, Simon Allen, Samuel Wittwer, Manuela Bizzozzero, Whitney Friedman, Stephanie Kalberer, William Sherwin, Sonja Wild, Erik Willems & Michael Kruetzen
Male alliances are an intriguing phenomenon in the context of reproduction since, in most taxa, males compete over an indivisible resource, female fertilization. Adult male bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) in Shark Bay, Western Australia, form long-term, multi-level alliances to sequester estrus females. These alliances are therefore critical to male reproductive success. Yet, the long-term processes leading to the formation of such complex social bonds are still poorly understood. To identify the criteria by which male...

Acoustic coordination by allied male dolphins in a cooperative context

Bronte Moore, Richard Connor, Simon Allen, Michael Krützen & Stephanie King
Synchronous displays are hallmarks of many animal societies, ranging from the pulsing flashes of fireflies, to military marching in humans. Such displays are known to facilitate mate attraction or signal relationship quality. Across many taxa, synchronous male displays appear to be driven by competition, while synchronous displays in humans are thought to be unique in that they serve a cooperative function. Indeed, it is well established that human synchrony promotes cooperative endeavours and increases success...

Acceleration time histories and road elevation profiles

Arghavan Louhghalam, Meshkat Botshekan, Erfan Asaadi, Jacob Roxon, Franz-Josef Ulm & Mazdak Tootkaboni
Low-cost smartphone-based sensing approaches have recently emerged as an alternative to the traditional and oftentimes expensive or laborious road surface monitoring technologies. We develop an approach, resting on a rigorously derived mechanistic and stochastic model in spectral domain, that relates the vertical acceleration signal measured by a smartphone positioned in a moving car to road surface roughness metrics. We illustrate that the inferred roughness metrics from the acceleration data sets, acquired with different smartphones and...

Data from: Genetic stock composition of marine bycatch reveals disproportional impacts on depleted river herring genetic stocks

Daniel J. Hasselman, Eric C. Anderson, Emily E. Argo, N. David Bethoney, Stephen R. Gephard, David M. Post, Bradley P. Schondelmeier, Thomas F. Schultz, Theodore V. Willis & Eric P. Palkovacs
Bycatch of mid-trophic level anadromous fishes that connect marine and freshwater ecosystems is a growing conservation concern. Anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (A. aestivalis) are important components of coastal freshwater and marine food webs, but have experienced dramatic declines in the abundances of spawning adults. Freshwater-focused restoration efforts have yielded few consistent signs of recovery; raising concerns that bycatch in Northwest Atlantic commercial fisheries may be negating these conservation actions. Using data from...

Data from: The importance of delineating networks by activity type in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in Cedar Key, Florida

Stefanie Gazda, Swami Iyer, Timothy Killingback, Richard Connor & Solange Brault
Network analysis has proved to be a valuable tool for studying the behavioural patterns of complex social animals. Often such studies either do not distinguish between different behavioural states of the organisms or simply focus attention on a single behavioural state to the exclusion of all others. In either of these approaches it is impossible to ascertain how the behavioural patterns of individuals depend on the type of activity they are engaged in. Here we...

Data from: Shaped by the past, acting in the present: transgenerational plasticity of anti-predatory traits

Lynne E. Beaty, Jillian D. Wormington, Bart J. Kensinger, Kristen N. Bayley, Scott R. Goeppner, Kyle D. Gustafson & Barney Luttbeg
Phenotypic expression can be altered by direct perception of environmental cues (within-generation phenotypic plasticity) and by the environmental cues experienced by previous generations (transgenerational plasticity). Few studies, however, have investigated how the characteristics of phenotypic traits affect their propensity to exhibit plasticity within and across generations. We tested whether plasticity differed within and across generations between morphological and behavioral anti-predator traits of Physa acuta, a freshwater snail. We reared 18 maternal lineages of P. acuta...

Data from: Scented nectar and the challenge of measuring honest signals in pollination

Amy Parachnowitsch, Rosalie Burdon, Rob Raguso, Robert Gegear, Ellen Pierce & André Kessler
1. Nectar scents are thought to function as honest signals of reward used by pollinators, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. 2. Using Penstemon digitalis, we examined honest signalling of the nectar volatile (S)-(+)-linalool and pollinator responses to linalool in both field and laboratory settings. Because our previous work showed that linalool emission was associated with higher female fitness and that nectar is scented with linalool, we hypothesized that linalool was an honest signal...

Cooperation-based concept formation in male bottlenose dolphins

Stephanie King, Richard Connor, Michael Krützen & Simon Allen
In Shark Bay, Western Australia, male bottlenose dolphins form a complex nested alliance hierarchy. At the first level, pairs or trios of unrelated males cooperate to herd single females. Multiple first-order alliances cooperate in teams (second-order alliances) in the pursuit and defense of females, and multiple teams also work together (third-order alliances). Yet it remains unknown how dolphins classify these nested alliance relationships. We used 30 years of behavioural data combined with 40 contemporary sound...

Data from: Geographic extent of introgression in Sebastes mentella and its effect on genetic population structure

Atal Saha, Torild Johansen, Rasmus Hedeholm, Einar E. Nielsen, Jon-Ivar Westgaard, Lorenz Hauser, Benjamin Planque, Steven X. Cadrin & Jesper Boje
Genetic population structure is often used to identify management units in exploited species, but the extent of genetic differentiation may be inflated by geographic variation in the level of hybridization between species. We identify the genetic population structure of Sebastes mentella and investigate possible introgression within the genus by analyzing 13 microsatellites in 2,562 redfish specimens sampled throughout the North Atlantic. The data support an historical divergence between the “shallow” and “deep” groups, beyond the...

Responses from an expert elicitation of lynx viability and persistence in the continental United States

Jonathan Cummings
The data and code provided here is associated with an October 13-15 Lnyx expert elicitation workshop that assessed the viability and persistence of lynx in the continental United States. The expert elicitation captured the knowledge, professional judgments, and opinions of lynx experts to assess the status of, and the drivers influencing, these lynx populations. We elicited the likelihood and level of uncertainty regarding future persistence over several time frames (at years 2025, 2050, and 2100)....

Genetic structuring in Atlantic haddock contrasts with current management regimes

Paul R. Berg, Per E. Jorde, Kevin A. Glover, Geir Dahle, John B. Taggart, Knut Korsbrekke, Gjert E. Dingsør, Jon E. Skjæraasen, Peter J. Wright, Steven X. Cadrin, Halvor Knutsen & Jon-Ivar Westgaard
The advent of novel genetic methods has made it possible to investigate population structure and connectivity in mobile marine fish species: knowledge of which is essential to ensure a sustainable fishery. Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) is a highly exploited marine teleost distributed along the coast and continental shelf on both sides of the North Atlantic Ocean. However, little is known about its population structure. Here, we present the first study using single nucleotide polymorphism markers to...

Temporally varying disruptive selection in the medium ground finch (Geospiza fortis).

Marc-Olivier Beausoleil, Luke Frishkoff, Leithen M'Gonigle, Joost Raeymaekers, Sarah Knutie, Luis De León, Sarah Huber, Jaime Chaves, Dale Clayton, Jennifer Koop, Jeffrey Podos, Diana Sharpe, Andrew Hendry & Rowan Barrett
Disruptive natural selection within populations exploiting different resources is considered to be a major driver of adaptive radiation and the production of biodiversity. Fitness functions, which describe the relationships between trait variation and fitness, can help to illuminate how this disruptive selection leads to population differentiation. However, a single fitness function represents only a particular selection regime over a single specified time period (often a single season or a year), and therefore might not capture...

Root allocation and foraging precision in heterogeneous soils

Tara Rajaniemi
Root growth patterns respond to small-scale resource heterogeneity and the presence of roots of neighboring plants, but how a plant integrates its responses to these cues is not well understood. In the presence of neighbors, plants may shift allocation to roots as a consequence of plant size and root:shoot allometry, as a response to resource depletion by neighbors, or through a direct response to neighbor presence. The same response pathways also have the potential to...

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