14 Works

A role for myosin II cluster and membrane energy in cortex rupture for Dictyostelium discoideum cells

Emmanuel Asante-Asamani, Daniel Grange, Devarshi Rawal, Zully Santiago, John Loustau & Derrick Brazill
Blebs, pressure driven protrusions of the cell membrane, facilitate the movement of eukaryotic cells such as the soil amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, white blood cells and cancer cells. Blebs initiate when the cell membrane separates from the underlying cortex. A local rupture of the cortex, has been suggested as a mechanism by which blebs are initiated. However, much clarity is still needed about how cells inherently regulate rupture of the cortex in locations where blebs are...

Data from: Macroevolutionary analyses suggest that environmental factors, not venom apparatus, play key role in Terebridae marine snail diversification

Maria Vittoria Modica, Juliette Gorson, Alexander E. Fedosov, Gavin Malcolm, Yyves Terryn, Nicolas Puillandre & Mandë Holford
How species diversification occurs remains an unanswered question in predatory marine invertebrates, such as sea snails of the family Terebridae. However, the anatomical disparity found throughput the Terebridae provides a unique perspective for investigating diversification patterns in venomous predators. In this study, a new dated molecular phylogeny of the Terebridae is used as a framework for investigating diversification of the family through time, and for testing the putative role of intrinsic and extrinsic traits, such...

Data from: Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird’s song

Eathan Janney, Hollis Taylor, Constance Scharff, David Rothenberg, Lucas C. Parra & Ofer Tchernichovski
Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the...

Data from: A nanostructural basis for gloss of avian eggshells

Branislav Igic, Daphne Fecheyr-Lippens, Ming Xiao, Andrew Chan, Daniel Hanley, Patricia R. L. Brennan, Tomas Grim, Geoffrey I. N. Waterhouse, Mark E. Hauber & Matthew D. Shawkey
The role of pigments in generating the colour and maculation of birds' eggs is well characterized, whereas the effects of the eggshell's nanostructure on the visual appearance of eggs are little studied. Here, we examined the nanostructural basis of glossiness of tinamou eggs. Tinamou eggs are well known for their glossy appearance, but the underlying mechanism responsible for this optical effect is unclear. Using experimental manipulations in conjunction with angle-resolved spectrophotometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic...

Data from: Encephalization and longevity evolved in a correlated fashion in Euarchontoglires but not in other mammals

Alex R. DeCasien, Nicole A. Thompson, Scott A. Williams & Milena R. Shattuck
Across mammals, encephalization and longevity show a strong correlation. It is not clear, however, whether these traits evolved in a correlated fashion within mammalian orders, or when they do, whether one trait drives changes in the other. Here, we compare independent and correlated evolutionary models to identify instances of correlated evolution within six mammalian orders. In cases of correlated evolution, we subsequently examined transition patterns between small/large relative brain size and short/long lifespan. In four...

Data from: The evolution of eggshell cuticle in relation to nesting ecology

Liliana D'Alba, Rafael Maia, Mark E. Hauber & Matthew D. Shawkey
Avian eggs are at risk of microbial infection prior to and during incubation. A large number of defence mechanisms have evolved in response to the severe costs imposed by these infections. The eggshell's cuticle is an important component of antimicrobial defence, and its role in preventing contamination by microorganisms in domestic chickens is well known. Nanometer-scale cuticular spheres that reduce microbial attachment and penetration have recently been identified on eggs of several wild avian species....

Data from: The perceptual and chemical basis of egg discrimination in communally nesting Greater Anis (Crotophaga major)

Mark E. Hauber, Miri Dainson, Daniel T. Baldassarre, Marouf Hossain, Mande Holford & Christina Riehl
The eggshells of communally breeding Greater Anis (Crotophaga major) consist of a blue-green pigmented calcite matrix overlaid by a chalky white layer of vaterite, both of which are polymorphs of calcium carbonate. The white vaterite layer is intact in freshly laid eggs and may function in protecting the eggs from mechanical damage, but it also abrades during incubation to reveal the blue calcite shell underneath. Previous research has shown that this color change serves a...

Data from: Large‐scale species delimitation method for hyperdiverse groups

Nicolas Puillandre, Maria Vittoria Modica, Y. Zhang, Lawrence Sirovich, Marie-Catherine Boisselier, Corinne Cruaud, Mandë Holford & Sarah Samadi
Accelerating the description of biodiversity is a major challenge as extinction rates increase. Integrative taxonomy combining molecular, morphological, ecological and geographical data is seen as the best route to reliably identify species. Classic molluscan taxonomic methodology proposes primary species hypotheses (PSHs) based on shell morphology. However, in hyperdiverse groups, such as the molluscan family Turridae, where most of the species remain unknown and for which homoplasy and plasticity of morphological characters is common, shell‐based PSHs...

Data from: Egg discrimination along a gradient of natural variation in eggshell coloration

Daniel Hanley, Tomas Grim, Branislav Igic, Peter Samaš, Analía V. López, Matthew D. Shawkey & Mark E. Hauber
Accurate recognition of salient cues is critical for adaptive responses, but the underlying sensory and cognitive processes are often poorly understood. For example, hosts of avian brood parasites have long been assumed to reject foreign eggs from their nests based on the total degree of dissimilarity in colour to their own eggs, regardless of the foreign eggs' colours. We tested hosts' responses to gradients of natural (blue-green to brown) and artificial (green to purple) egg...

Data from: Novel opsin gene variation in large-bodied, diurnal lemurs

Rachel L. Jacobs, Tammie S. MacFie, Amanda N. Spriggs, Andrea L. Baden, Toni Lyn Morelli, Mitchell T. Irwin, Richard R. Lawler, Jennifer Pastorini, Mireya Mayor, Runhua Lei, Ryan Culligan, Melissa T. R. Hawkins, Peter M. Kappeler, Patricia C. Wright, Edward E. Louis, Nicholas I. Mundy & Brenda J. Bradley
Some primate populations include both trichromatic and dichromatic (red–green colour blind) individuals due to allelic variation at the X-linked opsin locus. This polymorphic trichromacy is well described in day-active New World monkeys. Less is known about colour vision in Malagasy lemurs, but, unlike New World monkeys, only some day-active lemurs are polymorphic, while others are dichromatic. The evolutionary pressures underlying these differences in lemurs are unknown, but aspects of species ecology, including variation in activity...

Data from: Not so colourful after all: eggshell pigments constrain avian eggshell colour space

Daniel Hanley, Tomáš Grim, Phillip Cassey & Mark E. Hauber
Birds' eggshells are renowned for their striking colours and varied patterns. Although often considered exceptionally diverse, we report that avian eggshell coloration, sampled here across the full phylogenetic diversity of birds, occupies only 0.08–0.10% of the avian perceivable colour space. The concentrations of the two known tetrapyrrole eggshell pigments (protoporphyrin and biliverdin) are generally poor predictors of colour, both intra- and interspecifically. Here, we show that the constrained diversity of eggshell coloration can be accurately...

Divergent water requirements partition exposure risk to parasites in wild equids

Kaia Tombak, Laurel Easterling, Lindsay Martinez, Monica Seng, Liana Wait & Daniel Rubenstein
For grazing herbivores, dung density in feeding areas is an important determinant of exposure risk to faecal-orally transmitted parasites. When host species share the same parasite species, a non-random distribution of their cumulative dung density and/or non-random ranging and feeding behaviour may skew exposure risk and the relative selection pressure parasites impose on each host. The arid-adapted Grevy’s zebra (Equus grevyi) can range more widely than the water-dependent plains zebra (Equus quagga), with which it...

Large Herbivore Nemabiomes: Patterns of Diversity and Sharing

Georgia Titcomb, Johan Pansu, Matthew Hutchinson, Kaia Tombak, Christina Hansen, Chris Baker, Tyler Kartzinel, Hillary Young & Robert Pringle
Amidst global shifts in the distribution and abundance of wildlife and livestock, we have only a rudimentary understanding of ungulate parasite communities and parasite-sharing patterns. We used qPCR and DNA metabarcoding of fecal samples to characterize gastrointestinal nematode (Strongylida) community composition and sharing among 17 sympatric species of wild and domestic large mammalian herbivore in central Kenya. We tested a suite of hypothesis-driven predictions about the role of host traits and phylogenetic relatedness in describing...

Apolipoprotein L-1 renal risk variants form active channels at the plasma membrane driving cytotoxicity

Joseph Giovinazzo, Joseph A Giovinazzo, Russell P Thomson, Nailya Khalizova, Patrick Zager, Nirav Malani, Enrique Javier Rodriguez-Boulan, Jayne Raper & Ryan Schreiner
Recently evolved alleles of Apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1) provide increased protection against African trypanosome parasites while also significantly increasing the risk of developing kidney disease in humans. APOL1 protects against trypanosome infections by forming ion channels within the parasite, causing lysis. While the correlation to kidney disease is robust, there is little consensus concerning the underlying disease mechanism. We show in human cells that the APOL1 renal risk variants have a population of active channels at...

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