50 Works

Woodlands survey site information 1971-2001

K.J. Kirby, S.M. Smart, H.I.J. Black, R.G.H. Bunce, P.M. Corney, R.J. Smithers & M.W. Shaw
The dataset consists of slope, aspect, locations, descriptions and habitat categories from plots and sites in 103 woodlands surveyed across Great Britain in 1971 and again over the growing seasons of 2000, 2002 and 2003 (referred to as '2001 survey'), using exactly the same field methods. Data were collected under projects managed by The Nature Conservancy (in 1971) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (in 2001).

Coral restoration – a systematic review of current methods, successes, failures and future directions

Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Russell C. Babcock, Elisa Bayraktarov, Daniela Ceccarelli, Nathan Cook, Sebastian C. A. Ferse, Boze Hancock, Peter Harrison, Margaux Hein, Elizabeth Shaver, Adam Smith, David Suggett, Phoebe J. Stewart-Sinclair, Tali Vardi & Ian M. McLeod
Coral reef ecosystems have suffered an unprecedented loss of habitat-forming hard corals in recent decades. While marine conservation has historically focused on passive habitat protection, demand for and interest in active restoration has been growing in recent decades. However, a disconnect between coral restoration practitioners, coral reef managers and scientists has resulted in a disjointed field where it is difficult to gain an overview of existing knowledge. To address this, we aimed to synthesise the...

Winter inputs buffer streamflow sensitivity to snowpack losses in the Salt River Watershed in the Lower Colorado River Basin

Marcos Robles, John C. Hammond, Stephanie K. Kampf, Joel A. Biederman & Eleonora M. C. Demaria
Recent streamflow declines in the Upper Colorado River Basin raise concerns about the sensitivity of water supply for 40 million people to rising temperatures. Yet, other studies in western US river basins present a paradox: streamflow has not consistently declined with warming and snow loss. A potential explanation for this lack of consistency is warming-induced production of winter runoff when potential evaporative losses are low. This mechanism is more likely in basins at lower elevations...

Resource allocation effects on the timing of reproduction in an avian habitat specialist

Kyle Cutting, Jay Rotella, James Waxe, Aaron O' Harra, Sean Schroff, Lorelle Berkeley, Mark Szczypinski, Andrea Litt & Bok Sowell
Variation in nutrient allocation can influence the timing of breeding and ultimately reproductive output. Time and space constraints might exist, however, if fewer food resources are available to meet the costs of reproduction early during the reproductive season. Here, for the first time, we test whether nutrient allocation strategies for reproduction in a shrub-dependent avian species differs with timing of breeding in different ecoregions: a high-elevation landscape, containing spatially complex vegetation (Rocky Mountains) versus a...

Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate

Enric Sala, Juan Mayorga, Darcy Bradley, Reniel Cabral, Trisha Atwood, Arnaud Auber, William Cheung, Francesco Ferretti, Alan Friedlander, Steven Gaines, Cristina Garilao, Whitney Goodell, Benjamin Halpern, Audra Hinson, Kristin Kaschner, Kathleen Kesner-Reyes, Fabien Leprieur, Jennifer McGowan, Lance Morgan, David Mouillot, Juliano Palacios-Abrantes, Hugh Possingham, Kristin Rechberger, Boris Worm & Jane Lubchenco
The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources, and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue, here we developed a conservation planning framework to prioritize highly protected...

Data from: Optimising monitoring for trend detection after 16 years of woodland-bird surveys

Thomas Prowse, Patrick O'Connor, Stuart Collard, Kristian Peters & Hugh Possingham
1. Long-term biodiversity monitoring programs provide important information about species’ trajectories and broader environmental change. Often constrained by funding and organisational capability and commitment, monitoring programs need to be optimised to maximise ecological and economic efficiencies, as part of sound adaptive management. 2. The monitoring design requirements for detecting biodiversity trends, across assemblages of species with different traits, can be informed by historical datasets. Using data from a landscape-scale (c. 2,500 km2) bird monitoring program...

Socio-economic and environmental impacts of ants: data to support global assessments

Monica Gruber, Davide Santoro, Meghan Cooling, Philip Lester, Benjamin Hoffmann, Christina Boser & Lori Lach
Risk assessments are fundamental to invasive species management and are underpinned by comprehensive characterization of invasive species impacts. Our understanding of the impacts of invasive species is growing constantly, and several recently developed frameworks offer the opportunity to systematically categorize environmental and socio-economic impacts of invasive species. Invasive ants are among the most widespread and damaging invaders. We provide a global, comprehensive assessment on the impacts of ants and propose a priority list of risk...

Mammals adjust diel activity across gradients of urbanization

Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Brian Gerber, Adam Ahlers, Julia Angstmann, Max Amaya, Amy Concilio, David Drake, Danielle Gray, Elizabeth Lehrer, Maureen Murray, Travis Ryan, Colleen St. Clair, Carmen Salsbury, Heather Sander, Theodore Stankowich, Jaque Williamson, Amy Belaire, Kelly Simone & Seth Magle
Time is a fundamental component of ecological processes. How animal behavior changes over time has been explored through well-known ecological theories like niche partitioning and predator-prey dynamics. Yet, changes in animal behavior within the shorter 24-hour light-dark cycle have largely gone unstudied. Understanding if an animal can adjust their temporal activity to mitigate or adapt to environmental change has become a recent topic of discussion and is important for effective wildlife management and conservation. While...

Data from: Positive relationships between association strength and phenotypic similarity characterize the assembly of mixed-species bird flocks worldwide

Hari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert A. Askins, Julio Cesar Canales Delgadillo, Chao-Chieh Chen, David N. Ewert, George A. Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy K. Gram, Patrick J. Hart, Keith A. Hobson, Richard L. Hutto, Sarath W. Kotagama, Jessie L. Knowlton, Tien Ming Lee, Charles A. Munn, Somchai Nimnuan, B. Z. Nizam, Guillaume Péron, V. V. Robin, Amanda D. Rodewald, Paul G. Rodewald, Robert L. Thomson, Pranav Trivedi, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg … & Kartik Shanker
Competition theory predicts that communities at small spatial scales should consist of species more dissimilar than expected by chance. We find a strikingly different pattern in a multi-continent dataset (55 presence-absence matrices from 24 locations) on the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, important subunits of local bird communities the world over. Using null models and randomization tests followed by meta-analysis, we find the association strength of species in flocks to be strongly related to similarity...

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

Data from: Priorities and motivations of marine coastal restoration research

Elisa Bayraktarov, Shantala Brisbane, Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Keila Stark, Valerie Hagger, Carter S Smith, Kerrie A Wilson, Catherine E Lovelock, Chris Gillies, Andrew D L Steven & Megan I Saunders
Active restoration is becoming an increasingly important conservation intervention to counteract the degradation of marine coastal ecosystems. Understanding what has motivated the scientific community to research the restoration of marine coastal ecosystems and how restoration research projects are funded is essential if we want to scale-up restoration interventions to meaningful extents.Here, we systematically review and synthesize data to understand the motivations for research on the restoration of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, saltmarsh, and oyster reefs....

The use of social attraction techniques to restore seabird colonies on Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico

Jose Luis Herrera-Giraldo, Cielo E Figuerola-Hernandez, Coral A Wolf, Ricardo Colon-Merced, Eduardo Ventosa-Febles, Susan Silander & Nick D Holmes
Desecheo Island (117 ha) was historically an important seabird island in the Caribbean with 15 species recorded of which seven are known to breed, including major populations of brown boobies and red-footed bobbies. The introduction of invasive mammals, plus the use of the island as a bombing range, contributed to the extirpation of five of the seven known breeding populations of seabird species and vastly reduced numbers of the remaining two species. The island became...

Mammals, wildlife trade, and the next global pandemic

Shivaprakash K N, Sandeep Sen, Seema Paul, Joseph M. Kiesecker & Kamaljit S. Bawa
Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans1,2. The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases3,4,5. Yet, there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data of mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and data on mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade6,...

Disease-driven mass mortality event leads to widespread extirpation and variable recovery potential of a marine predator across the eastern Pacific

Sara Hamilton, Vienna Saccomanno, Walter Heady, Alyssa-Lois Gehman, Steve Lonhart, Rodrigo Beas-Luna, Fiona Francis, Lynn Lee, Laura Rogers-Bennett, Anne Salomon & Sarah Gravem
The prevalence of disease-driven mass mortality events is increasing, but our understanding of spatial variation in their magnitude, timing, and triggers are often poorly resolved. Here, we use a novel range-wide dataset comprised of 48,810 surveys to quantify how Sea Star Wasting Disease affected Pycnopodia helianthoides, the sunflower sea star, across its range from Baja California, Mexico to the Aleutian Islands, USA. We found that the outbreak occurred more rapidly, killed a greater percentage of...

Complex landscapes stabilize farm bird communities and their expected ecosystem services

Olivia Smith, Christina M. Kennedy, Alejandra Echeverri, Daniel Karp, Christopher Latimer, Joseph Taylor, Erin Wilson-Rankin, Jeb Owen & William Snyder
1. Birds play many roles within agroecosystems including as consumers of crops and pests, carriers of pathogens, and beloved icons. Birds are also rapidly declining across North America, in part due to agricultural intensification. Thus, it is imperative to identify how to manage agroecosystems to best support birds for multi-functional outcomes (e.g., crop production and conservation). Both the average amounts of services/disservices provided and their temporal stability are important for effective farm planning. 2. Here,...

Connectivity strategy mapping in California

D. Richard Cameron, Carrie Schloss, David Theobald & Scott Morrison
Protecting or restoring habitat connectivity in landscapes undergoing rapid environmental change requires multiple conservation and restoration strategies. These strategies have different risk profiles, costs, and require various types of technical expertise to conduct. This diversity in landscape context and strategic approach requires more nuance and flexibility than traditional connectivity conservation plans have supported. We present a novel, spatially-explicit framework for developing connectivity conservation priorities and strategies based on Omniscape, an adaptation of Circuitscape, a common...

Data from: A burning issue: Savanna fire management can generate enough carbon revenue to help restore Africa’s rangelands and fill protected area funding gaps

Timothy Tear, Nicholas Wolff, Geoffrey Lipsett-Moore, Mark Ritchie, Natasha Ribeiro, Lisanne Petracca, Peter Lindsey, Luke Hunter, Andrew Loveridge & Franziska Steinbruch
Many savanna-dependent species in Africa including large herbivores and apex predators are at increasing risk of extinction. Achieving effective management of protected areas (PAs) in Africa where lions live will cost an estimated USD >$1-2 B/year in new funding. We explored the potential for fire management-based carbon-financing programs to fill this funding gap and benefit degrading savanna ecosystems. We demonstrated how introducing early dry season fire management programs could produce potential carbon revenues (PCR) from...

Data from: Denser and greener cities

Robert McDonald
Green spaces in urban areas-- like remnant habitat, parks, constructed wetlands, and street trees-- supply multiple benefits. Many studies show green spaces in and near urban areas play important roles harboring biodiversity and promoting human well-being. On the other hand, evidence suggests that greater human population density enables compact, low-carbon cities that spare habitat conversion at the fringes of expanding urban areas, while also allowing more walkable and livable cities. How then can urban areas...

Woodlands survey flora data 1971-2001

K.J. Kirby, S.M. Smart, H.I.J. Black, R.G.H. Bunce, P.M. Corney, R.J. Smithers & M.W. Shaw
This dataset consists of the vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens recorded in plots in 103 woodland sites surveyed across Great Britain in 1971 and again over the growing seasons of 2000, 2002 and 2003 (referred to as '2001 survey'), using exactly the same field methods. Data were collected under projects managed by The Nature Conservancy (in 1971) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (in 2001).

An empirical evaluation of camera trap study design: how many, how long, and when?

Roland Kays, Brian Arbogast, Megan Baker-Whatton, Chris Beirne, Hailey Boone, Mark Bowler, Santiago Burneo, Michael Cove, Ping Ding, Santiago Espinosa, André Gonçalves, Christopher Hansen, Patrick Jansen, Joseph Kolowski, Travis Knowles, Marcela Lima, Joshua Millspaugh, William McShea, Krishna Pacifici, Arielle Parsons, Brent Pease, Francesco Rovero, Fernanda Santos, Stephanie Schuttler, Douglas Sheil … & Wilson Spironello
1. Camera traps deployed in grids or stratified random designs are a well-established survey tool for wildlife but there has been little evaluation of study design parameters. 2. We used an empirical subsampling approach involving 2225 camera deployments run at 41 study areas around the world to evaluate three aspects of camera trap study design (number of sites, duration and season of sampling) and their influence on the estimation of three ecological metrics (species richness,...

Data from: Translocation with targeted vaccination is the most effective strategy to protect an island endemic bird threatened by West Nile virus

Victoria Bakker, T. Sillett, Walter Boyce, Daniel Doak, T. Winston Vickers, William Reisen, Brian Cohen, Michael Hallworth & Scott Morrison
Aim Invasive pathogens are a growing conservation challenge and often occur in tandem with rapid environmental transformation, such as climate change, drought, and habitat loss. Climate change appears to have facilitated the spread of West Nile virus (WNV), a cause of widespread avian mortality. WNV is considered the primary threat to island scrub-jays (Aphelocoma insularis), endemic to Santa Cruz Island, California. Two approaches have been proposed to safeguard island scrub-jays: (1) vaccination and (2) conservation...

Data from: Challenges in the conservation of wide-ranging nomadic species

Dejid Nandintsetseg, Chloe Bracis, Kirk A. Olson, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Justin M. Calabrese, Buyanaa Chimeddorj, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming, Michael Heiner, Petra Kaczensky, Peter Leimgruber, Dalannast Munkhnast, Theresa Stratmann & Thomas Mueller
1. Conservation of nomadic ungulates presents significant conservation challenges because of unpredictability in their movements and space use. Long-term studies on nomadic ungulates offering insights into the variability in space use within and between years are largely missing but are necessary to develop effective conservation strategies. 2. We examined the temporal variability in space-use of 22 Mongolian gazelle, tracked for one to three years with GPS and used the resulting movement patterns to evaluate conservation...

Relationships between a common Caribbean corallivorous snail and protected area status, coral cover, and predator abundance

Elizabeth Shaver, Julianna Renzi, Maite Bucher & Brian Silliman
As coral populations decline across the Caribbean, it is becoming increasingly important to understand the forces that inhibit coral survivorship and recovery. Predation by corallivores, such as the short coral snail Coralliophila abbreviata,are one threat to the health of reefs worldwide, but understanding of the factors controlling corallivore populations, and therefore corallivore predation pressure, remains limited. To examine the extent to which bottom-up (i.e., coral prey) and top-down (i.e., predators) forces relate to C. abbreviata...

Spatial scaling properties of coral reef benthic communities

Helen Ford, Jamison Gove, Andrew Davies, Nicholas Graham, John Healey, Eric Conklin & Gareth Williams
The spatial structure of ecological communities on tropical coral reefs across seascapes and geographies have historically been poorly understood. Here we addressed this for the first time using spatially expansive and thematically resolved benthic community data collected around five uninhabited central Pacific oceanic islands, spanning 6° latitude and 17° longitude. Using towed-diver digital image surveys over ~140 linear km of shallow (8 – 20 m depth) tropical reef, we highlight the autocorrelated nature of coral...

Data from: The utility of environmental DNA from sediment and water samples for recovery of observed plant and animal species from four Mojave Desert springs

MAURA PALACIOS MEJIA, Emily Curd, Kiumars Edalati, Mark Renshaw, Roy Dunn, Daniel Potter, Naomi Fraga, Jenna Moore, Justin Saiz, Robert Wayne & Sophie Parker
Background: Mojave Desert springs are fragile ecosystems, hosting endemic plants and animals, which are threatened by the increasing human demand for water and climate change. To develop management practices that will protect the groundwater-dependent ecosystems at Mojave Desert springs, real-time, low cost biodiversity monitoring and assessments are required. Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding uses DNA shed from organisms (e.g. skin cells, feces, pollen, etc.) that is present in water, air, soil, or sediment samples to assess...

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