39 Works

Woodlands survey site information 1971-2001

K.J. Kirby, S.M. Smart, H.I.J. Black, R.G.H. Bunce, P.M. Corney, R.J. Smithers & M.W. Shaw
The dataset consists of slope, aspect, locations, descriptions and habitat categories from plots and sites in 103 woodlands surveyed across Great Britain in 1971 and again over the growing seasons of 2000, 2002 and 2003 (referred to as '2001 survey'), using exactly the same field methods. Data were collected under projects managed by The Nature Conservancy (in 1971) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (in 2001).

Coral restoration – a systematic review of current methods, successes, failures and future directions

Lisa Boström-Einarsson, Russell C. Babcock, Elisa Bayraktarov, Daniela Ceccarelli, Nathan Cook, Sebastian C. A. Ferse, Boze Hancock, Peter Harrison, Margaux Hein, Elizabeth Shaver, Adam Smith, David Suggett, Phoebe J. Stewart-Sinclair, Tali Vardi & Ian M. McLeod
Coral reef ecosystems have suffered an unprecedented loss of habitat-forming hard corals in recent decades. While marine conservation has historically focused on passive habitat protection, demand for and interest in active restoration has been growing in recent decades. However, a disconnect between coral restoration practitioners, coral reef managers and scientists has resulted in a disjointed field where it is difficult to gain an overview of existing knowledge. To address this, we aimed to synthesise the...

Winter inputs buffer streamflow sensitivity to snowpack losses in the Salt River Watershed in the Lower Colorado River Basin

Marcos Robles, John C. Hammond, Stephanie K. Kampf, Joel A. Biederman & Eleonora M. C. Demaria
Recent streamflow declines in the Upper Colorado River Basin raise concerns about the sensitivity of water supply for 40 million people to rising temperatures. Yet, other studies in western US river basins present a paradox: streamflow has not consistently declined with warming and snow loss. A potential explanation for this lack of consistency is warming-induced production of winter runoff when potential evaporative losses are low. This mechanism is more likely in basins at lower elevations...

Data from: Optimising monitoring for trend detection after 16 years of woodland-bird surveys

Thomas Prowse, Patrick O'Connor, Stuart Collard, Kristian Peters & Hugh Possingham
1. Long-term biodiversity monitoring programs provide important information about species’ trajectories and broader environmental change. Often constrained by funding and organisational capability and commitment, monitoring programs need to be optimised to maximise ecological and economic efficiencies, as part of sound adaptive management. 2. The monitoring design requirements for detecting biodiversity trends, across assemblages of species with different traits, can be informed by historical datasets. Using data from a landscape-scale (c. 2,500 km2) bird monitoring program...

Resource allocation effects on the timing of reproduction in an avian habitat specialist

Kyle Cutting, Jay Rotella, James Waxe, Aaron O' Harra, Sean Schroff, Lorelle Berkeley, Mark Szczypinski, Andrea Litt & Bok Sowell
Variation in nutrient allocation can influence the timing of breeding and ultimately reproductive output. Time and space constraints might exist, however, if fewer food resources are available to meet the costs of reproduction early during the reproductive season. Here, for the first time, we test whether nutrient allocation strategies for reproduction in a shrub-dependent avian species differs with timing of breeding in different ecoregions: a high-elevation landscape, containing spatially complex vegetation (Rocky Mountains) versus a...

Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate

Enric Sala, Juan Mayorga, Darcy Bradley, Reniel Cabral, Trisha Atwood, Arnaud Auber, William Cheung, Francesco Ferretti, Alan Friedlander, Steven Gaines, Cristina Garilao, Whitney Goodell, Benjamin Halpern, Audra Hinson, Kristin Kaschner, Kathleen Kesner-Reyes, Fabien Leprieur, Jennifer McGowan, Lance Morgan, David Mouillot, Juliano Palacios-Abrantes, Hugh Possingham, Kristin Rechberger, Boris Worm & Jane Lubchenco
The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources, and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue, here we developed a conservation planning framework to prioritize highly protected...

Data from: Positive relationships between association strength and phenotypic similarity characterize the assembly of mixed-species bird flocks worldwide

Hari Sridhar, Umesh Srinivasan, Robert A. Askins, Julio Cesar Canales Delgadillo, Chao-Chieh Chen, David N. Ewert, George A. Gale, Eben Goodale, Wendy K. Gram, Patrick J. Hart, Keith A. Hobson, Richard L. Hutto, Sarath W. Kotagama, Jessie L. Knowlton, Tien Ming Lee, Charles A. Munn, Somchai Nimnuan, B. Z. Nizam, Guillaume Péron, V. V. Robin, Amanda D. Rodewald, Paul G. Rodewald, Robert L. Thomson, Pranav Trivedi, Steven L. Van Wilgenburg … & Kartik Shanker
Competition theory predicts that communities at small spatial scales should consist of species more dissimilar than expected by chance. We find a strikingly different pattern in a multi-continent dataset (55 presence-absence matrices from 24 locations) on the composition of mixed-species bird flocks, important subunits of local bird communities the world over. Using null models and randomization tests followed by meta-analysis, we find the association strength of species in flocks to be strongly related to similarity...

Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth’s remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems

Jason Riggio, Jonathan E. M. Baillie, Steven Brumby, Erle Ellis, Christina M. Kennedy, James R. Oakleaf, Alex Tait, Therese Tepe, David M. Theobald, Oscar Venter, James E.M. Watson & Andrew P. Jacobson
Leading up to the 2020 Convention on Biological Diversity there is momentum around setting bold conservation targets. Yet it remains unclear how much of Earth’s land area remains without significant human influence and where this land is located. We compare four recent global maps of human influences across Earth’s land, Anthromes, Global Human Modification, Human Footprint, and Low Impact Areas, to answer these questions. Despite using various methodologies and data, these different spatial assessments independently...

Data from: Priorities and motivations of marine coastal restoration research

Elisa Bayraktarov, Shantala Brisbane, Phoebe J Stewart-Sinclair, Audrey Van Herwaarden, Keila Stark, Valerie Hagger, Carter S Smith, Kerrie A Wilson, Catherine E Lovelock, Chris Gillies, Andrew D L Steven & Megan I Saunders
Active restoration is becoming an increasingly important conservation intervention to counteract the degradation of marine coastal ecosystems. Understanding what has motivated the scientific community to research the restoration of marine coastal ecosystems and how restoration research projects are funded is essential if we want to scale-up restoration interventions to meaningful extents.Here, we systematically review and synthesize data to understand the motivations for research on the restoration of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, saltmarsh, and oyster reefs....

The use of social attraction techniques to restore seabird colonies on Desecheo Island, Puerto Rico

Jose Luis Herrera-Giraldo, Cielo E Figuerola-Hernandez, Coral A Wolf, Ricardo Colon-Merced, Eduardo Ventosa-Febles, Susan Silander & Nick D Holmes
Desecheo Island (117 ha) was historically an important seabird island in the Caribbean with 15 species recorded of which seven are known to breed, including major populations of brown boobies and red-footed bobbies. The introduction of invasive mammals, plus the use of the island as a bombing range, contributed to the extirpation of five of the seven known breeding populations of seabird species and vastly reduced numbers of the remaining two species. The island became...

Mammals, wildlife trade, and the next global pandemic

Shivaprakash K N, Sandeep Sen, Seema Paul, Joseph M. Kiesecker & Kamaljit S. Bawa
Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans1,2. The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases3,4,5. Yet, there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data of mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and data on mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade6,...

Disease-driven mass mortality event leads to widespread extirpation and variable recovery potential of a marine predator across the eastern Pacific

Sara Hamilton, Vienna Saccomanno, Walter Heady, Alyssa-Lois Gehman, Steve Lonhart, Rodrigo Beas-Luna, Fiona Francis, Lynn Lee, Laura Rogers-Bennett, Anne Salomon & Sarah Gravem
The prevalence of disease-driven mass mortality events is increasing, but our understanding of spatial variation in their magnitude, timing, and triggers are often poorly resolved. Here, we use a novel range-wide dataset comprised of 48,810 surveys to quantify how Sea Star Wasting Disease affected Pycnopodia helianthoides, the sunflower sea star, across its range from Baja California, Mexico to the Aleutian Islands, USA. We found that the outbreak occurred more rapidly, killed a greater percentage of...

Data from: A burning issue: Savanna fire management can generate enough carbon revenue to help restore Africa’s rangelands and fill protected area funding gaps

Timothy Tear, Nicholas Wolff, Geoffrey Lipsett-Moore, Mark Ritchie, Natasha Ribeiro, Lisanne Petracca, Peter Lindsey, Luke Hunter, Andrew Loveridge & Franziska Steinbruch
Many savanna-dependent species in Africa including large herbivores and apex predators are at increasing risk of extinction. Achieving effective management of protected areas (PAs) in Africa where lions live will cost an estimated USD >$1-2 B/year in new funding. We explored the potential for fire management-based carbon-financing programs to fill this funding gap and benefit degrading savanna ecosystems. We demonstrated how introducing early dry season fire management programs could produce potential carbon revenues (PCR) from...

Woodlands survey tree diameter data 1971-2001

K.J. Kirby, S.M. Smart, H.I.J. Black, R.G.H. Bunce, P.M. Corney, R.J. Smithers & M.W. Shaw
The dataset consists of diameter at breast height (DBH) measurements taken from trees and shrubs recorded in plots in 103 woodland sites surveyed across Great Britain in 1971 and again over the growing seasons of 2000, 2002 and 2003 (referred to as '2001 survey'), using exactly the same field methods. Data were collected under projects managed by The Nature Conservancy (in 1971) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (in 2001).

Woodlands survey soil data 1971-2001

K.J. Kirby, S.M. Smart, H.I.J. Black, R.G.H. Bunce, P.M. Corney, R.J. Smithers & M.W. Shaw
The dataset consists of pH, Loss on ignition (Soil organic matter) measurements and soil group information taken from soil samples from plots in 103 woodland sites surveyed across Great Britain in 1971 and again over the growing seasons of 2000, 2002 and 2003 (referred to as '2001 survey'), using exactly the same field methods. Data were collected under projects managed by The Nature Conservancy (in 1971) and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology (in 2001).

Vegetation map of the Moor House National Nature Reserve

A. Eddy, D. Welch & M. Rawes
This is a spatial dataset containing polygons representing areas of vegetation mapped within the Moor House National Nature Reserve in the northern Pennines, England. The map was created by staff of The Nature Conservancy in the 1960s.

Are Tidal Salt Marshes Exposed to Nutrient Pollution more Vulnerable to Sea Level Rise?

Johannes Krause, Elizabeth Watson, Cathleen Wigand & Nicole Maher
Over the past four decades, Long Island, NY, USA, has lost coastal wetlands at a rate of 4% per decade due to submergence. In this study, we examined relationships between the rate of tidal salt marsh loss and environmental factors, including marsh elevation, tidal range, and wastewater exposure through analysis of stable isotope ratios of marsh soils and biota. Our goal was to identify factors that increase vulnerability of marshes to sea level rise, with...

Data from: Planning for climate change through additions to a national protected area network: implications for cost and configuration

Joshua Lawler, D. Scott Rinnan, Julia Michalak, John Withey & Hugh Possingham
Expanding the network of protected areas is a core strategy for conserving biodiversity in the face of climate change. Here we explore the impacts on reserve network cost and configuration associated with planning for climate change in the United States using networks that prioritize areas projected to be climatically suitable for 1,460 species both today and into the future, climatic refugia, and areas likely to facilitate climate-driven species movements. For 14% of the species, networks...

Agricultural intensification heightens food safety risks posed by wild birds

Olivia Smith, Amanda Edworthy, Joseph Taylor, Matthew Jones, Aaron Tormanen, Christina M. Kennedy, Zhen Fu, Christopher Latimer, Kevin Cornell, Lucas Michelotti, Chika Sato, Tobin Northfield, William Snyder & Jeb Owen
1. Agricultural intensification and simplification are key drivers of recent declines in wild bird populations, heightening the need to better balance conservation with food production. This is hindered, however, by perceptions that birds threaten food safety. While birds are known reservoirs of foodborne pathogens, there remains uncertainty about the links between landscape context, farming practices, and actual crop contamination by birds. 2. Here, we examine relationships between landscape context, farming practices, and pathogen contamination by...

Connectivity for climate change adaptation in California

Carrie Schloss, D. Richard Cameron, Brad McRae, David Theobald & Aaron Jones
This spatial data identifies connectivity potential between natural lands in the present climate and natural lands with future analogous climate following topo-climatically diverse routes. Present-day land use, topographic diversity, and projections of shifting climate regimes were combined into a single connectivity modeling approach to identify pathways for mid-century shifts in species ranges. Climate linkages, or areas important for climate change-driven movement, were identified as the areas where the Omniscape model indicated more current flow than...

Body size is associated with yearling breeding and extra-pair mating in the Island Scrub-Jay

Michelle A. Desrosiers, Kathryn M. Langin, W. Chris Funk, T. Scott Sillett, Scott A. Morrison, Cameron K. Ghalambor & Lisa M. Angeloni
Large body size is an important determinant of individual fitness in many animal species, especially in island systems where habitat saturation may result in strong intraspecific competition for mates and breeding territories. Here we show that large body size is associated with benefits to yearling breeding and extra-pair mating in the Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis), endemic to Santa Cruz Island, California. This species is approximately 20% larger than its mainland congener, consistent with the island...

Both real-time and long-term environmental data perform well in predicting shorebird distributions in managed habitat

Erin Conlisk, Gregory Golet, Mark Reynolds, Blake Barbaree, Kristin Sesser, Kristin Byrd, Sam Veloz & Matthew Reiter
Highly mobile species, such as migratory birds, respond to seasonal and inter-annual variability in resource availability by moving to better habitats. Despite the recognized importance of resource thresholds, species distribution models typically rely on long-term average habitat conditions, mostly because large-extent, temporally-resolved, environmental data are difficult to obtain. Recent advances in remote sensing make it possible to incorporate more frequent measurements of changing landscapes; however, there is often a cost in terms of model building...

Response of Avian communities to edges of tropical montane forests: Implications for the future of endemic habitat specialists

Jill Jankowski, Keiller Kyle, Matthew Gasner, Anna Ciecka & Kerry Rabenold
Tropical montane landscapes harbor diverse flora and fauna, and many species there are ecological specialists with narrow elevational distributions, limited geographic ranges, and small global populations. Along elevational gradients, environmental conditions and community composition change dramatically over small spatial scales. As forests are disturbed and edges formed with modified habitat, natural communities could be affected differently across elevations by the many physical and biotic changes at edges. We asked whether forest edges produced altered patterns...

Data from: Comanaging fresh produce for nature conservation and food safety

Daniel S. Karp, Sasha Gennet, Christopher Kilonzo, Melissa Partyka, Nicolas Chaumont, Edward R. Atwill & Claire Kremen
Fresh produce has become the primary cause of foodborne illness in the United States. A widespread concern that wildlife vector foodborne pathogens onto fresh produce fields has led to strong pressure on farmers to clear noncrop vegetation surrounding their farm fields. We combined three large datasets to demonstrate that pathogen prevalence in fresh produce is rapidly increasing, that pathogens are more common on farms closer to land suitable for livestock grazing, and that vegetation clearing...

A new approach to map landscape variation in forest restoration success in tropical and temperate forest biomes

Renato Crouzeilles, Felipe S. M. Barros, Paulo G. Molin, Mariana S. Ferreira, André B. Junqueira, Robin L. Chazdon, David B. Lindenmayer, Julio R. C. Tymus, Bernardo B. N. Strassburg & Pedro H. S. Brancalion
A high level of variation of biodiversity recovery within a landscape during forest restoration presents obstacles to ensure large‐scale, cost‐effective and long‐lasting ecological restoration. There is an urgent need to predict landscape variation in forest restoration success at a global scale. We conducted a meta‐analysis comprising 135 study landscapes to predict and map landscape variation in forest restoration success in tropical and temperate forest biomes. Our analysis was based on the amount of forest cover...

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Resource Types

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Affiliations

  • The Nature Conservancy
    39
  • University of Queensland
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  • UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology
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  • Duke University
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  • Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
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