299 Works

Genomic time-series data show that gene flow maintains high genetic diversity despite substantial genetic drift in a butterfly species

Zachariah Gompert, Amy Springer, Megan Brady, Samridhi Chaturvedi & Lauren Lucas
Effective population size affects the efficacy of selection, rate of evolution by drift, and neutral diversity levels. When species are subdivided into multiple populations connected by gene flow, evolutionary processes can depend on global or local effective population sizes. Theory predicts that high levels of diversity might be maintained by gene flow, even very low levels of gene flow, consistent with species long-term effective population size, but tests of this idea are mostly lacking. Here,...

Risk perceptions of extreme heat events at the state, county, and census tract level in the U.S.

Peter Howe, Jennifer R. Marlon, Xinran Wang & Anthony Leiserowitz
Project summary, description or abstract: This dataset contains model estimates of how Americans perceive the health risks of extreme heat events at the state, county, and census tract level in the U.S. Estimates are produced using a statistical model based on national survey data. These data are associated with the following publication: Howe, Peter D., Jennifer R. Marlon, Xinran Wang, and Anthony Leiserowitz. “Public perceptions of the health risks of extreme heat across U.S. states,...

Data from: Stability, electronic, and optical properties of two-dimensional phosphoborane

Alexander Boldyrev & Nikolay Tkachenko

Data from: Novel Strongly Correlated Europium Superhydrides

Alexander Boldyrev & Nikolay Tkachenko

Dataset for \"Attributes of Phragmites australis in response to climate change using a common garden study\"

Steve Young
The response of plant species to environmental change, including climate, is based on phenotypic plasticity. Empirical research can help in understanding how invasive plants adapt to changing conditions for successful establishment. Our goal was to assess the effect of environment of origin and ecotypic variation on phenotypic response of native and invasive Phragmites australis using morphological and ecophysiological measurements. We established a common garden study using seeds collected from Southwest, Midwest, and Great Lakes regions...

Data from: Boron-Made N2: Realization of a BB Triple Bond in the B2Al3- Cluster

Alexander Boldyrev & Nikita Fedik
Project reports B2Al3- cluster, which mimics triple bond N2 molecule.

Grand Staircase Escalante Economic Effects Data

Paul Jakus & Sherzod Akhundjanov
The designation of landscape-scale national monuments has generated intense debate as to whether their regional economic effects are positive or negative. National monuments can restrict land uses, thus favoring economic development based on the low-wage tourism industry relative to higher-wage extractive industries. Utah’s Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument has been managed for landscape-scale conservation whilst protecting existing valid uses. We assess post-designation trends in the ranching, mining, and tourism industries, after which pre- and post-designation paths...

Thirteen years of vegetation chronosequence data in ex-arable and undisturbed fields near Winthrop, Washington, USA

andrew kulmatiski & Karen Beard
Non-native plants have invaded much of the western United States over the past 100 years. Most of these invasive species are early-successional, yet they appear to persist for decades. The goal of this research was to describe non-native and native plant abundance in ex-arable and adjacent undisturbed fields over time.

MEPS Data Assimilation System

Robert W. Schunk & Larry Gardner
For the current funding opportunity we propose to develop a master system that will enhance the user interface to the MEPS model and enable the scientific community to efficiently use the model. Furthermore, we will build and automate validation tools and improve the efficiency and robustness of the MEPS ensemble averaging scheme. Finally, we will explore the nest step toward a major advancement in MEPS b significantly improving the spatial resolution of one of the...

Data from: Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development

Gareth R. Hopkins, Susannah S. French, & Edmund D. Brodie
The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting road-side habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life-stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be...

Data from: Limited alpine climatic warming and modeled phenology advancement for three alpine species in the Northeast United States

Kenneth D. Kimball, Michael L. Davis, Douglas M. Weihrauch, Georgia L. D. Murray & Kenneth Rancourt
Premise of the study: Most alpine plants in the Northeast United States are perennial and flower early in the growing season, extending their limited growing season. Concurrently, they risk the loss of reproductive efforts to late frosts. Quantifying long-term trends in northeastern alpine flower phenology and late-spring/early-summer frost risk is limited by a dearth of phenology and climate data, except for Mount Washington, New Hampshire (1916 m a.s.l.). Methods: Logistic phenology models for three northeastern...

Data from: Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison

Daniel R. MacNulty, Aimee Tallian, Daniel R. Stahler & Douglas W. Smith
An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most...

Data from: Phylogenomic insights into the evolution of stinging wasps and the origins of ants and bees

Michael G. Branstetter, Bryan N. Danforth, James P. Pitts, Brant C. Faircloth, Philip S. Ward, Matthew L. Buffington, Michael W. Gates, Robert R. Kula & Seán G. Brady
The stinging wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) are an extremely diverse lineage of hymenopteran insects, encompassing over 70,000 described species and a diversity of life history traits, including ectoparasitism, cleptoparasitism, predation, pollen feeding (bees [Anthophila] and Masarinae) and eusociality (social vespid wasps, ants, and some bees) [1]. The most well-studied lineages of Aculeata are the ants, which are ecologically dominant in most terrestrial ecosystems [2], and the bees, the most important lineage of angiosperm-pollinating insects [3]. Establishing...

Data from: Distance, elevation, and environment as drivers of diversity and divergence in bumble bees across latitude and altitude

Jason M. Jackson, Meaghan L. Pimsler, Kennan Jeannet Oyen, Jonathan B. Koch-Uhuad, James D. Herndon, James P. Strange, Michael E. Dillon & Jeffrey D. Lozier
Identifying drivers of dispersal limitation and genetic differentiation is a key goal in biogeography. We examine patterns of population connectivity and genetic diversity using Restriction-site Associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) in two bumble bee species, Bombus vosnesenskii and Bombus bifarius across latitude and altitude in mountain ranges from California, Oregon, and Washington, U.S.A. Bombus vosnesenskii, which occurs across a broader elevational range at most latitudes, exhibits little population structure while B. bifarius, which occupies a relatively...

Data from: Intraspecific variability and reaction norms of forest understory plant species traits

Julia I. Burton, Steven S. Perakis, Sean C. McKenzie, Caitlin E. Lawrence & Klaus J. Puettmann
1.Trait-based models of ecological communities typically assume intraspecific variation in functional traits is not important, though such variation can change species trait rankings along gradients in resources and environmental conditions, and thus influence community structure and function. 2. We examined the degree of intraspecific relative to interspecific variation, and reaction norms of 11 functional traits for 57 forest understory plant species, including: intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), Δ15N, 5 leaf traits, 2 stem traits and 2...

Data from: Evolutionary history of a complex adaptation: tetrodotoxin resistance in salamanders

Charles T. Hanifin & William F. Gilly
Understanding the processes that generate novel adaptive phenotypes is central to evolutionary biology. We used comparative analyses to reveal the history of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in TTX-bearing salamanders. Resistance to TTX is a critical component of the ability to use TTX defensively but the origin of the TTX-bearing phenotype is unclear. Skeletal muscle of TTX-bearing salamanders (modern newts, family: Salamandridae) is unaffected by TTX at doses far in excess of those that block action potentials...

Data from: Deconstruction of a plant-arthropod community reveals influential plant traits with nonlinear effects on arthropod assemblages

Joshua G. Harrison, Casey Philbin, Zach Gompert, Glen Forister, Leonardo Hernandez, Benjamin W. Sullivan, Ian Wallace, Lyra Beltran, Craig D. Dodson, Jacob S. Francis, Amie Schlageter, Oren Shelef, Su'ad Yoon, Matthew L. Forister, Ian S. Wallace, Su'ad A. Yoon, Zachariah Gompert, Casey S. Philbin, Leonardo Hernandez-Espinoza & Glen W. Forister
1. Studies of herbivores and secondary consumer communities rarely incorporate a comprehensive characterization of primary producer trait variation, thus limiting our understanding of how plants mediate community assembly of consumers. 2. We took advantage of recent technological developments for efficient generation of phytochemical, microbial, and genomic data to characterize individual alfalfa plants (Medicago sativa; Fabaceae) growing in an old-field, semi-naturalized state for 770 traits (including 753 chemical features). Using random forest modeling, we investigated the...

Data from: Herbivory and eutrophication mediate grassland plant nutrient responses across a global climatic gradient

T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg & Elizabeth T. Borer
Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and...

Data from: The predictability of genomic changes underlying a recent host shift in Melissa blue butterflies

Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren K. Lucas, Chris C. Nice, James A. Fordyce, Matt L. Forister, Zachariah Gompert & Matthew L. Forister
Despite accumulating evidence that evolution can be predictable, studies quantifying the predictability of evolution remain rare. Here, we measured the predictability of genome-wide evolutionary changes associated with a recent host shift in the Melissa blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa). We asked whether and to what extent genome-wide patterns of evolutionary change in nature could be predicted (1) by comparisons among instances of repeated evolution, and (2) from SNP $\times$ performance associations in a lab experiment. We...

Data from: Genotyping-by-sequencing for Populus population genomics: an assessment of genome sampling patterns and filtering approaches

Martin P. Schilling, Paul G. Wolf, Aaron M. Duffy, Hardeep S. Rai, Carol A. Rowe, Bryce A. Richardson & Karen E. Mock
Continuing advances in nucleotide sequencing technology are inspiring a suite of genomic approaches in studies of natural populations. Researchers are faced with data management and analytical scales that are increasing by orders of magnitude. With such dramatic advances comes a need to understand biases and error rates, which can be propagated and magnified in large-scale data acquisition and processing. Here we assess genomic sampling biases and the effects of various population-level data filtering strategies in...

Data from: Stick insect genomes reveal natural selection's role in parallel speciation

Victor Soria-Carrasco, Zachariah Gompert, Aaron A. Comeault, Timothy E. Farkas, Thomas L. Parchman, J. Spencer Johnston, C. Alex Buerkle, Jeffrey L. Feder, Jens Bast, Tanja Schwander, Scott P. Egan, Bernard J. Crespi & Patrik Nosil
Natural selection can drive the repeated evolution of reproductive isolation, but the genomic basis of parallel speciation remains poorly understood. We analyzed whole-genome divergence between replicate pairs of stick insect populations that are adapted to different host plants and undergoing parallel speciation. We found thousands of modest-sized genomic regions of accentuated divergence between populations, most of which are unique to individual population pairs. We also detected parallel genomic divergence across population pairs involving an excess...

Data from: Developmental and evolutionary history affect survival in stressful environments

Gareth R. Hopkins, , Susannah S. French & Edmund D. Brodie
The world is increasingly impacted by a variety of stressors that have the potential to differentially influence life history stages of organisms. Organisms have evolved to cope with some stressors, while with others they have little capacity. It is thus important to understand the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival in stressful environments. We present evidence of the effects of both developmental and evolutionary history on survival of a freshwater vertebrate, the...

Data from: Warming alters food web-driven changes in the CO2 flux of experimental pond ecosystems

Trisha B. Atwood, Edd Hammill, Pavel Kratina, Hamish S. Greig, Jonathan B. Shurin & John S. Richardson
Evidence shows the important role biota play in the carbon cycle, and strategic management of plant and animal populations could enhance CO2 uptake in aquatic ecosystems. However, it is currently unknown how management-driven changes to community structure may interact with climate warming and other anthropogenic perturbations to alter CO2 fluxes. Here we showed that under ambient water temperatures, predators (three-spined stickleback) and nutrient enrichment synergistically increased primary producer biomass, resulting in increased CO2 uptake by...

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