329 Works

Data from: Components of cowpea resistance to the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae)

Frank J. Messina, Alexandra M. Lish & Zachariah Gompert
Cowpea serves as a major source of dietary protein in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world. To identify loci associated with agronomically desirable traits, eight elite cowpea cultivars were systematically inter-crossed for eight generations to yield 305 recombinant inbred lines. Here, we investigated whether these founder parents also possess resistance to the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a highly destructive post-harvest pest. We estimated larval survival in seeds, egg-to-adult development time,...

Data from: A homeotic shift late in development drives mimetic color variation in a bumble bee

Li Tian, Sarthok Rasique Rahman, Briana D. Ezray, Luca Franzini, James P. Strange, Patrick Lhomme & Heather M. Hines
Natural phenotypic radiations, with their high diversity and convergence, are well-suited for informing how genomic changes translate to natural phenotypic variation. New genomic tools enable discovery in such traditionally non-model systems. Here, we characterize the genomic basis of color pattern variation in bumble bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus), a group that has undergone extensive convergence of setal color patterns as a result of Müllerian mimicry. In western North America, multiple species converge on local mimicry patterns...

Data from: Weighting effective number of species measures by abundance weakens detection of diversity responses

Yong Cao & Charles Patrick Hawkins
1. The effective number of species (ENS) has been proposed as a robust measure of species diversity that overcomes several shortcomings of both diversity indices and species richness measures. However, it is not yet clear if ENS improves interpretation and comparison of biodiversity monitoring data, and ultimately resource management decisions. 2. We used simulations of five stream macroinvertebrate assemblages and spatially extensive field data of stream fishes and mussels to show (1) how different ENS...

Data from: Sensitivity of global soil carbon stocks to combined nutrient enrichment

Thomas W. Crowther, Charlotte Riggs, Eric M. Lind, Elizabeth T. Borer, Eric W. Seabloom, Sarah E. Hobbie, E. R. Jasper Wubs, Peter B. Adler, Jennifer Firn, Laureano Gherardi, Nicole Hagenah, Kirsten S. Hofmockel, Johannes M. H. Knops, Rebecca L. McCulley, Andrew MacDougall, Pablo L. Peri, Suzanne M. Prober, Carly J. Stevens & Devin Routh
Soil stores approximately twice as much carbon as the atmosphere and fluctuations in the size of the soil carbon pool directly influence climate conditions. We used the Nutrient Network global change experiment to examine how anthropogenic nutrient enrichment might influence grassland soil carbon storage at a global scale. In isolation, enrichment of nitrogen and phosphorous had minimal impacts on soil carbon storage. However, when these nutrients were added in combination with potassium and micronutrients, soil...

Data from: Plant community responses to stand-level nutrient fertilization in a secondary tropical dry forest

Bonnie G. Waring, Daniel Perez Aviles, Jessica G. Murray & Jennifer S. Powers
The size of the terrestrial carbon (C) sink is mediated by the availability of nutrients that limit plant growth. However, nutrient controls on primary productivity are poorly understood in the geographically extensive yet understudied tropical dry forest biome. To examine how nutrients influence above‐ and belowground biomass production in a secondary, seasonally dry tropical forest, we conducted a replicated, fully factorial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization experiment at the stand scale in Guanacaste, Costa...

Data from: Large niche differences emerge at the recruitment stage to stabilize grassland coexistence

Chengjin Chu & Peter B. Adler
Niche differences and average fitness differences jointly determine coexistence. However, little empirical information about the magnitude of these two mechanisms is available. Using multispecies population models fit to long-term demographic data for common, co-occurring species in five grassland and shrubland plant communities in western North America, we estimated the strength of stabilizing niche differences and average fitness differences. In all five communities, both pairwise and full community comparisons showed evidence for strong stabilizing mechanisms and...

Data from: Genes and QTLs controlling inflorescence and stem branch architecture in Leymus (Poaceae: Triticeae) wildrye

Steven R. Larson, Elizabeth A. Kellogg & Kevin B. Jensen
Grass inflorescence and stem branches show recognizable architectural differences among species. The inflorescence branches of Triticeae cereals and grasses, including wheat, barley, and 400–500 wild species, are usually contracted into a spike formation, with the number of flowering branches (spikelets) per node conserved within species and genera. Perennial Triticeae grasses of genus Leymus are unusual in that the number of spikelets per node varies, inflorescences may have panicle branches, and vegetative stems may form subterranean...

Data from: Broad-scale patterns of soil carbon (C) pools and fluxes across semiarid ecosystems are linked to climate and soil texture

Kenneth R. Smith & Bonnie G. Waring
Dryland (semiarid and arid) ecosystems are responsible for most of the interannual variation in atmospheric CO2 concentrations and contain a considerable fraction of the globe’s soil carbon (C) stock. Despite their important contribution to the global land C sink, we have a poor mechanistic understanding of the processes that drive C cycling patterns in drylands. In this study in eastern Utah, we examined the natural variation of soil C pools and fluxes along semiorthogonal gradients...

Competition for pollination and isolation from mates differentially impact four stages of pollination in a model grassland perennial

Lea K. Richardson, M. Kate Gallagher, Tracie E. Hayes, Amanda S. Gallinat, Gretel Kiefer, Kristen Manion, Miriam Jenkins, Greg Diersen & Stuart Wagenius
1. Species that persist in small populations isolated by habitat destruction may experience reproductive failure. Self-incompatible plants face dual threats of mate-limitation and competition with co-flowering plants for pollination services. Such competition may lower pollinator visitation, increase heterospecific pollen transfer, and reduce the likelihood that a visit results in successful pollination. 2. To understand how isolation from mates and competition with co-flowering species contribute to reproductive failure in fragmented habitat, we conducted an observational study...

Data from: Experience, but not age, is associated with volumetric mushroom body expansion in solitary alkali bees

Mallory Hagadorn, Makenna Johnson, Adam Smith, Marc Seid & Karen Kapheim
In social insects, changes in behavior are often accompanied by structural changes in the brain. This neuroplasticity may come with experience (experience-dependent) or age (experience-expectant). Yet, the evolutionary relationship between neuroplasticity and sociality is unclear, because we know little about neuroplasticity in the solitary relatives of social species. We used confocal microscopy to measure brain changes in response to age and experience in a solitary halictid bee (Nomia melanderi). First, we compared the volume of...

Protecting the global ocean for biodiversity, food and climate

Enric Sala, Juan Mayorga, Darcy Bradley, Reniel Cabral, Trisha Atwood, Arnaud Auber, William Cheung, Francesco Ferretti, Alan Friedlander, Steven Gaines, Cristina Garilao, Whitney Goodell, Benjamin Halpern, Audra Hinson, Kristin Kaschner, Kathleen Kesner-Reyes, Fabien Leprieur, Jennifer McGowan, Lance Morgan, David Mouillot, Juliano Palacios-Abrantes, Hugh Possingham, Kristin Rechberger, Boris Worm & Jane Lubchenco
The ocean contains unique biodiversity, provides valuable food resources, and is a major sink for anthropogenic carbon. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are an effective tool for restoring ocean biodiversity and ecosystem services but at present only 2.7% of the ocean is highly protected. This low level of ocean protection is due largely to conflicts with fisheries and other extractive uses. To address this issue, here we developed a conservation planning framework to prioritize highly protected...

Empirical tests of habitat selection theory reveal that conspecific density and patch quality, but not habitat amount, drive long-distance immigration in a wild bird

Clark Rushing, Brandt Ryder, Jonathon J. Valente, Scott Sillett & Peter Marra
Individuals that disperse long distances from their natal site must select breeding patches with no prior knowledge of patch suitability. Despite decades of theoretical studies examining which cues dispersing individuals should use to select breeding patches, few empirical studies have tested the predictions of these theories at spatial scales relevant to long-distance dispersal in wild animal populations. Here, we use a novel assignment model based on multiple intrinsic markers to quantify natal dispersal distances of...

Data from: Age-related mushroom body expansion in male sweat bees and bumble bees

Mallory Hagadorn, Karlee Eck, Matthew Del Grosso, Xavier Haemmerle, William Wcislo & Karen Kapheim
A well-documented phenomenon among social insects is that brain changes occur prior to or at the onset of certain experiences, potentially serving to prime the brain for specific tasks. This insight comes almost exclusively from studies considering developmental maturation in females. As a result, it is unclear whether age-related brain plasticity is consistent across sexes, and to what extent developmental patterns differ. Using confocal microscopy and volumetric analyses, we investigated age-related brain changes coinciding with...

Relationships between plant-soil feedbacks and functional traits

Nianxun Xi, Peter Adler, Dongxia Chen, Hangyu Wu, Jane Catford, Peter Van Bodegom, Michael Bahn, Kerri Crawford & Chengjin Chu
Plant-soil feedbacks (PSF) and functional traits are two active but not well theoretically integrated areas of research. However, PSF and traits are both affected by life history evolution, so the two should theoretically be related. We provide a conceptual framework to link plant functional traits to two types of PSF metrics, and hypothesize that individual PSF (plant performance in conspecific versus heterospecific soil) should be related to the fast-slow trait spectrum, while pairwise PSF (the...

Adaptive zones shape the magnitude of premating reproductive isolation in Timema stick insects

Moritz Muschick, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Jeffrey Feder, Zachariah Gompert & Patrik Nosil
Simpson's fossil-record inspired model of ‘adaptive zones’ proposes that evolution is dominated by small fluctuations within adaptive zones, occasionally punctuated by larger shifts between zones. This model can help explain why the process of population divergence often results in weak or moderate reproductive isolation (RI), rather than strong RI and distinct species. Applied to the speciation process, the adaptive zones hypothesis makes two inter-related predictions: (i) large shifts between zones are relatively rare, (ii) when...

Data for Integrated Step Selection Analysis of translocated female greater sage-grouse in the 60 days post-release, North Dakota 2018-2020

Simona Picardi
The data include used and random available steps at 11-hour resolution generated for 26 female greater sage-grouse in the 60 days post-translocation to North Dakota, with associated environmental predictors and individual information. The code fits individual habitat selection models in an Integrated Step Selection Analysis framework. Data used to fit the models described in: Picardi, S., Ranc, N., Smith, B.J., Coates, P.S., Mathews, S.R., Dahlgren, D.K. Individual variation in temporal dynamics of post-release habitat selection....

Recent hybrids recapitulate ancient hybrid outcomes

Zachariah Gompert, Samridhi Chaturvedi, Lauren Lucas, C. Alex Buerkle, James Fordyce, Matthew Forister & Chris Nice
Genomic outcomes of hybridization depend on selection and recombination in hybrids. Whether these processes have similar effects on hybrid genome composition in contemporary hybrid zones versus ancient hybrid lineages is unknown. Here we show that patterns of introgression in a contemporary hybrid zone in Lycaeides butterflies predict patterns of ancestry in geographically adjacent, older hybrid populations. We find a particularly striking lack of ancestry from one of the hybridizing taxa, Lycaeides melissa, on the Z...

Banks grass mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) suppression may add to the benefit of drought-tolerant corn hybrids exposed to water-stress

Cody Barnes, Ricardo Ramirez, Alice Ruckert & Julian Golec
Spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) outbreaks are common on corn grown in the arid West. Hot and dry conditions reduce mite development time, increase fecundity, and accelerate egg hatch. Climate change is predicted to increase drought incidents and produce more intense temperature patterns. Together, these environmental shifts may cause more frequent and severe spider mite infestations. Spider mite management is difficult as many commercially-available acaricides are ineffective due to the development of resistance traits in field...

Data from: Vascular epiphytes show low physiological resistance and high recovery capacity to episodic, short-term drought in Monteverde, Costa Rica

Cameron Williams, Jessica Murray, Andrew Glunk, Todd Dawson, Nalini Nadkarni & Sybil Gotsch
Tropical montane cloud forests support abundant epiphytic vascular plant communities that serve important ecosystem functions, but their reliance on atmospheric inputs of water may make them susceptible to the drying effects of rising cloud bases and more frequent droughts. We conducted a common garden experiment to explore the combined effects of decreasing cloud influence—lower humidity, warmer temperature, brighter light—and meteorological drought (i.e., absence of rain) on the physiology and morphology of vascular epiphytes native to...

Data from: 200 million years of anuran body size evolution in relation to geography, ecology, and life history

Molly Womack & Rayna Bell
Surprisingly little is known about body-size evolution within the most diverse amphibian order, anurans (frogs and toads), despite known effects of body size on the physiological, ecological, and life-history traits of animals more generally. Here we examined anuran body-size evolution among 2434 species with over 200 million years of shared evolutionary history. We found clade-specific evolutionary shifts to new body-size optima along with numerous independent transitions to gigantic and miniature body sizes, despite the upper...

Data from: The geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution is closely matched to prey population structure

Michael Hague, Amber Stokes, Chris Feldman, Edmund Brodie &
Reciprocal adaptation is the hallmark of arms race coevolution. Local coadaptation between natural enemies should generate a geographic mosaic pattern where both species have roughly matched abilities across their shared range. However, mosaic variation in ecologically relevant traits can also arise from processes unrelated to reciprocal selection, such as population structure or local environmental conditions. We tested whether these alternative processes can account for trait variation in the geographic mosaic of arms race coevolution between...

Data from: Large-scale mutation in the evolution of a gene complex for cryptic coloration

Zachariah Gompert, Romain Villoutreix, Clarissa De Carvalho, Victor Soria-Carrasco, Dorothea Lindtke, Marisol De-La-Mora, Moritz Muschick, Jeffrey Feder, Thomas Parchman & Patrik Nosil
The types of mutations affecting adaptation in the wild are only beginning to be understood. In particular, whether structural changes shape adaptation by suppressing recombination or by creating new mutations is unresolved. Here we show that multiple, linked but recombining loci underlie cryptic color morphs of Timema chumash stick insects. In a related species, these loci are found in a region of suppressed recombination, forming a supergene. However, in seven species of Timema we find...

Ecosystem services enhanced through soundscape management link people and wildlife

Mitch Levenhagen, Zachary Miller, Alissa Petrelli, Lauren Ferguson, Yau-Huo Shr, Dylan Gomes, Derrick Taff, Crow White, Kurt Fristrup, Christopher Monz, Christopher McClure, Peter Newman, Clinton Francis & Jesse Barber
Burgeoning urbanization, development and human activities have led to reduced opportunities for nature experience in quiet acoustic environments. Increasing noise affects both humans and wildlife alike. We experimentally altered human-caused sound levels in a paired study using informational signs that encouraged quiet behaviours in week-on, week-off blocks on the trail system of Muir Woods National Monument, California, USA to test if the soundscape influences both wildlife and human experiences. Using continuous measurements from acoustic recording...

Natural selection drives genome-wide evolution via chance genetic associations

Zachariah Gompert, Jeff Feder & Patrik Nosil
Understanding selection's impact on the genome is a major theme in biology. Functionally-neutral genetic regions can be affected indirectly by natural selection, via their statistical association with genes under direct selection. The genomic extent of such indirect selection, particularly across loci not physically linked to those under direct selection, remains poorly understood, as does the time scale at which indirect selection occurs. Here we use field experiments and genomic data in stick insects, deer mice...

UCE phylogenomics of New World Cryptopone (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) elucidates genus boundaries, species boundaries, and the vicariant history of a temperate-tropical disjunction

Michael G. Branstetter & John T. Longino
The genus Cryptopone Emery contains 25 species of litter and soil ants, 5 of which occur in the Americas. Cryptoponegilva occurs in the southeastern U.S.A. and cloud forests of Mesoamerica, exhibiting an uncommon biogeographic disjunction observed most often in plants. We used phylogenomic data from ultraconserved elements (UCEs), as well as mitogenomes and legacy markers, to investigate phylogenetic relationships, species boundaries, and divergence dates among New World Cryptopone. Species delimitation was conducted using a standard...

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