300 Works

Bidisperse sphere packs generated under gravity

Abhishek Bihani & Hugh Daigle
Bidisperse sphere packs were generated under the effect of gravity to model mudrocks and study the petrophysical properties consisting of small (clay) and large (silt) grains. Multiple, periodic, dense, bidisperse sphere packs were created with large grain volume concentrations (VL) increasing from 0 to 100 %. This was done for large to small grain radius ratios of 2:1, 5:1, 7:1, and 10:1 with constant sphere pack length 10 units in x, y, z directions. The...

Guelph dolomite

Hasan Khan & Gary Pope
Medical CT scans of Guelph dolomite for fracture characterization. The core was imaged in Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering, UT Austin.

Pore scale study of water adsorption and subsequent methane transport in clay in the presence of wettability heterogeneity

Rui Xu, Masa Prodanovic & Christopher Landry

Reversible diffusion-weighted imaging lesions in acute ischemic stroke: a systematic review

Nandakumar Nagaraja, John Forder, Steven Warach & Jośe Merino
Supplemental data: NNagaraja_12292019_DWI_Reversal_In_AIS_Review_Supplemental_File Supplemental Figure e-1: DWI reversal in acute ischemic stroke Supplemental Table e-1: Search Strategy Supplemental Table e-2: Variables extracted for the review Supplemental Table e-3: Imaging protocols for included studies Supplemental Table e-4: DWIR definitions used in the selected studies Supplemental Table e-5: Imaging characteristics of patients Supplemental Table e-6: QUADAS-2 tool for quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies by evaluating risk of bias and applicability concerns.

Ferrofluid displacement in a simple 2.5D micromodel

Ningyu Wang, Yifei Liu, Luming Cha, Masa Prodanovic & Matthew Balhoff
The dataset contains a series of images of a varying-depth converging-diverging single-channel micromodel during ferrofluid flooding without and then with an external magnetic field. One image shows the initial oil saturation after ferrofluid flooding without a magnetic field, and twelve images show the oil saturation after the magnetic field was turned on. Only eight pores in the flow channel are shown in these images, while there are more than 100 pores in the flow channel....

Data from: Metagenetic community analysis of microbial eukaryotes illuminates biogeographic patterns in deep-sea and shallow water sediments

Holly M. Bik, Way Sung, Paul De Ley, James G. Baldwin, Jyotsna Sharma, Axayácatl Rocha-Olivares & W. Kelley Thomas
Microbial eukaryotes (nematodes, protists, fungi, etc., loosely referred to as meiofauna) are ubiquitous in marine sediments and likely play pivotal roles in maintaining ecosystem function. Although the deep-sea benthos represents one of the world’s largest habitats, we lack a firm understanding of the biodiversity and community interactions amongst meiobenthic organisms in this ecosystem. Within this vast environment key questions concerning the historical genetic structure of species remain a mystery, yet have profound implications for our...

Data from: Ontogenetic stage-specific quantitative trait loci contribute to divergence in developmental trajectories of sexually dimorphic fins between medaka populations

Maiko Kawajiri, Kohta Yoshida, Shingo Fujimoto, Daniel Frikli Mokodongan, Mark Ravinet, Mark Kirkpatrick, Kazunori Yamahira & Jun Kitano
Sexual dimorphism can evolve when males and females differ in phenotypic optima. Genetic constraints can, however, limit the evolution of sexual dimorphism. One possible constraint is derived from alleles expressed in both sexes. Because males and females share most of their genome, shared alleles with different fitness effects between sexes are faced with intralocus sexual conflict. Another potential constraint is derived from genetic correlations between developmental stages. Sexually dimorphic traits are often favoured at adult...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity drives a depth gradient in male conspicuousness in threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus

Chad D. Brock, Molly E. Cummings & Daniel I. Bolnick
Signal evolution is thought to depend on both a signal's detectability or conspicuousness (signal design) as well as any extractable information it may convey to a potential receiver (signal content). While theoretical and empirical work in sexual selection has largely focused on signal content, there has been a steady accrual of evidence that signal design is also important for trait evolution. Despite this, relatively little attention has been paid to spatial variation in the conspicuousness...

Data from: Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations

James F. Parham, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Christopher J. Bell, Tyler D. Calway, Jason J. Head, Patricia A. Holroyd, Jun G. Inoue, Randall B. Irmis, Walter G. Joyce, Daniel T. Ksepka, José S. L. Patané, Nathan D. Smith, James E. Tarver, Marcel Van Tuinen, Ziheng Yang, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jenny M. Greenwood, Christy A. Hipsley, Jacobs Louis, Peter J. Makovicky, Johannes Müller, Krister T. Smith, Jessica M. Theodor, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Michael J. Benton … & Louis Jacobs
Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogenetics represents an exciting synthetic approach to this challenge. The first molecular divergence dating analysis (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962) was based on a measure of the amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecule; with replacement rates established (calibrated) using inaccurate paleontological age estimates...

Data from: Geographic determinants of gene flow in two sister species of tropical Andean frogs

Carlos E. Guarnizo & David C. Cannatella
Complex interactions between topographic heterogeneity, climatic and environmental gradients, and thermal niche conservatism are commonly assumed to indicate the degree of biotic diversification in montane regions. Our aim was to investigate factors that disrupt gene flow between populations and to determine if there is evidence of downslope asymmetric migration in highland frogs with wide elevational ranges and thermal niches. We determined the role of putative impediments to gene flow (as measured by least-cost path (LCP)...

Data from: Poison frog colors are honest signals of toxicity, particularly for bird predators

Martine E. Maan & Molly E. Cummings
Antipredator defenses and warning signals typically evolve in concert. However, the extensive variation across taxa in both these components of predator deterrence, and the relationship between them, are poorly understood. Here we test whether there is a predictive relationship between visual conspicuousness and toxicity levels across 10 populations of the color polymorphic strawberry poison frog, Dendrobates pumilio. Using a mouse-based toxicity assay, we find extreme variation in toxicity between frog populations. This variation is significantly...

Data from: Rapid microsatellite isolation from a butterfly by de novo transcriptome sequencing: performance and a comparison with AFLP-derived distances

Alexander S. Mikheyev, Tanya Vo, Brian Wee, Michael C. Singer & Camille Parmesan
BACKGROUND: The isolation of microsatellite markers remains laborious and expensive. For some taxa, such as Lepidoptera, development of microsatellite markers has been particularly difficult, as many markers appear to be located in repetitive DNA and have nearly identical flanking regions. We attempted to circumvent this problem by bioinformatic mining of microsatellite sequences from a de novo-sequenced transcriptome of a butterfly (Euphydryas editha). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By searching the assembled sequence data for perfect microsatellite repeats we...

Data from: Matrix context and patch quality jointly determine diversity in a landscape-scale experiment

Robert A. Deans & David R. Chalcraft
The biodiversity of a habitat patch is predicted to be driven in part by interactions between patch quality and landscape context (i.e., type of regional matrix), but these interactions are rarely explored experimentally. Understanding the interaction between patch quality and matrix context can provide insight into the kind of dynamics that best describe a metacommunity and help predict how the diversity of a patch will respond to environmental change at different scales. We conducted a...

Data from: Stronger selective constraint on downstream genes in the oxidative phosphorylation pathway of cetaceans

Ran Tian, Shixia Xu, Simin Chai, Daiqing Yin, Harold Zakon & Guang Yang
The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) pathway is an efficient way to produce energy via adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is critical for sustaining an energy supply for cetaceans in a hypoxic environment. Several studies have shown that natural selection may shape the evolution of the genes involved in OXPHOS. However, how network architecture drives OXPHOS protein sequence evolution remains poorly explored. Here, we investigated the evolutionary patterns of genes in the OXPHOS pathway across six cetacean genomes...

Data from: Conflicting phylogenomic signals reveal a pattern of reticulate evolution in a recent high-Andean diversification (Asteraceae: Astereae: Diplostephium)

Oscar M. Vargas, Edgardo M. Ortiz & Beryl B. Simpson
High-throughput sequencing is helping biologists to overcome the difficulties of inferring the phylogenies of recently diverged taxa. The present study analyzes the phylogenetic signal of genomic regions with different inheritance patterns using genome skimming and ddRAD-seq in a species-rich Andean genus (Diplostephium) and its allies. We analyzed the complete nuclear ribosomal cistron, the complete chloroplast genome, a partial mitochondrial genome, and a nuclear-ddRAD matrix separately with phylogenetic methods. We applied several approaches to understand the...

Data from: Optimisation of next generation sequencing transcriptome annotation for species lacking sequenced genomes

Nina F. Ockendon, Lauren A. O'Connell, Stephen J. Bush, Jimena Monzon-Sandoval, Holly Barnes, Tamás Székely, Hans A. Hofmann, Steve Dorus & Araxi O. Urrutia
Next generation sequencing methods, such as RNA-seq, have permitted the exploration of gene expression in a range of organisms which have been studied in ecological contexts but lack a sequenced genome. However, the efficacy and accuracy of RNA-seq annotation methods using reference genomes from related species have yet to be robustly characterised. Here we conduct a comprehensive power analysis employing RNA-seq data from Drosophila melanogaster in conjunction with 11 additional genomes from related Drosophila species...

Data from: Heritable differences in fitness-related traits among populations of the mustard hill coral, Porites astreoides

Carly D. Kenkel, Samantha P. Setta & Mikhail V. Matz
A population’s potential for rapid evolutionary adaptation can be estimated from the amount of genetic variation in fitness-related traits. Inshore populations of the mustard hill coral (Porites astreoides) have been shown to be more tolerant to thermal stress than offshore populations, but it is unclear whether this difference is due to long-term physiological acclimatization or genetic adaptation. Here, we evaluated variation in growth rate and survival among 38 families of juvenile recruits of P. astreoides...

Data from: Metatranscriptomics of the human oral microbiome during health and disease

Peter Jorth, Keith H. Turner, Pinar Gumus, Nejat Nizam, Nurcan Buduneli & Marvin Whiteley
The human microbiome plays important roles in health, but when disrupted these same indigenous microbes can cause disease. The composition of the microbiome changes during the transition from health to disease; however, these changes are often not conserved among patients. Since microbiome-associated diseases like periodontitis cause similar patient symptoms despite inter-patient variability in microbial community composition, we hypothesized that human-associated microbial communities undergo conserved changes in metabolism during disease. Here we used patient-matched healthy and...

Data from: A genomic approach for distinguishing between recent and ancient admixture as applied to cattle

Emily Jane McTavish & David M. Hillis
Genomic data facilitate opportunities to track complex population histories of divergence and gene flow. We developed a metric, scaled block size (SBS), that uses the unrecombined block size of introgressed regions of chromosomes to differentiate between recent and ancient admixture, and applied it to reconstructing admixture in cattle. Cattle are descendants of two independently domesticated lineages, taurine and indicine, that diverged 200,000 or more years ago. Several breeds have hybrid ancestry between these divergent lineages....

Data from: Transcriptome dynamics over a lunar month in a broadcast spawning Acroporid coral

Matthew J. Oldach, Matthew Workentine, Mikhail V. Matz, Tung-Yung Fan & Peter D. Vize
On one night per year, at a specific point in the lunar cycle, one of the most extraordinary reproductive events on the planet unfolds as hundreds of millions of broadcast spawning corals release their trillions of gametes into the waters of the tropical seas. Each species spawns on a specific night within the lunar cycle, typically from full moon to third quarter moon, and in a specific time window after sunset. This accuracy is essential...

Data from: How bird clades diversify in response to climatic and geographic factors

Genoveva Rodriguez-Castaneda, Anouschka R. Hof & Roland Jansson
While the environmental correlates of global patterns in standing species richness are well understood, it is poorly known which environmental factors promote diversification (speciation minus extinction) in clades. We tested several hypotheses for how geographic and climatic variables should affect diversification using a large dataset of bird sister genera endemic to the New World. We found support for the area, evolutionary speed, environmental predictability and climatic stability hypotheses, but productivity and topographic complexity were rejected...

Data from: Partitioning the effects of isolation by distance, environment, and physical barriers on genomic divergence between parapatric threespine stickleback

Jesse N. Weber, Gideon S. Bradburd, Yoel E. Stuart, William E. Stutz & Daniel I. Bolnick
Genetic divergence between populations is shaped by a combination of drift, migration, and selection, yielding patterns of isolation-by-distance (IBD) and isolation-by-environment (IBE). Unfortunately, IBD and IBE may be confounded when comparing divergence across habitat boundaries. For instance, parapatric lake and stream threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) may have diverged due to selection against migrants (IBE), or mere spatial separation (IBD). To quantitatively partition the strength of IBE and IBD, we used recently-developed population genetic software (BEDASSLE)...

Data from: Body temperature distributions of active diurnal lizards in three deserts: skewed up or skewed down?

Raymond B. Huey & Eric R. Pianka
1. The performance of ectotherms integrated over time depends in part on the position and shape of the distribution of body temperatures (Tb) experienced during activity. For several complementary reasons, physiological ecologists have long expected that Tb distributions during activity should have a long left tail (left-skewed); but only infrequently have they quantified the magnitude and direction of Tb skewness in nature. 2. To evaluate whether left-skewed Tb distributions are general for diurnal desert lizards,...

Data from: Genome-wide association study of Arabidopsis thaliana identifies determinants of natural variation in seed oil composition

Sandra E. Branham, Sara J. Wright, Aaron Reba & C. Randal Linder
The renewable source of highly reduced carbon provided by plant triacylglycerols (TAGs) fills an ever increasing demand for food, biodiesel, and industrial chemicals. Each of these uses requires different compositions of fatty acid proportions in seed oils. Identifying the genes responsible for variation in seed oil composition in nature provides targets for bioengineering fatty acid proportions optimized for various industrial and nutrition goals. Here, we characterized the seed oil composition of 391 world-wide, wild accessions...

Data from: The within-host dynamics of infection in trans-generationally primed flour beetles

Ann T. Tate, Peter Andolfatto, Jeffery P. Demuth & Andrea L. Graham
Many taxa exhibit plastic immune responses initiated after primary microbial exposure that provide increased protection against disease-induced mortality and the fitness costs of infection. In several arthropod species, this protection can even be passed from parents to offspring through a phenomenon called trans-generational immune priming. Here, we first demonstrate that trans-generational priming is a repeatable phenomenon in flour beetles (Tribolium castaneum) primed and infected with Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). We then quantify the within-host dynamics of...

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