193 Works

Ensemble synchronization in the reassembly of Hydra's nervous system

Jonathan Lovas & Rafael Yuste
Although much is known about how the structure of the nervous system develops, it is still unclear how its functional modularity arises. A dream experiment would be to observe the entire development of a nervous system, correlating the emergence of functional units with their associated behaviors. This is possible in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris, which, after its complete dissociation into individual cells, can reassemble itself back together into a normal animal. We used calcium imaging...

Multiple cropping alone does not improve year-round food security among smallholders in rural India

Pinki Mondal, Ruth DeFries, Jessica Clark, Nicole Flowerhill, , Aurélie Harou, Shauna Downs & Jessica Fanzo
Achieving and maintaining food and nutrition security is an important Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), especially in countries with largely vulnerable population with high occurrence of hunger and malnutrition. By studying a small-scale agricultural system in India, we aim to understand the current state of dietary diversity and food insecurity among the farmer communities. The study landscape has witnessed a steady rise in multiple cropping along with irrigation over the last two decades. Whether this multiple...

Long-term stability of cortical ensembles

Jesús Pérez-Ortega, Tzitzitlini Alejandre-García & Rafael Yuste
Neuronal ensembles, coactive groups of neurons found in spontaneous and evoked cortical activity, are causally related to memories and perception, but it still unknown how stable or flexible they are over time. We used two-photon multiplane calcium imaging to track over weeks the activity of the same pyramidal neurons in layer 2/3 of the visual cortex from awake mice and recorded their spontaneous and visually evoked responses. Less than half of the neurons were commonly...

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Rio de Janiero, 1795-1811

Herbert S. Klein

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Rio de Janiero, 1825-1830

Herbert S. Klein

Slave Movement -- Records of Slave Ship Movement Between Africa and the Americas, 1817-1843

Philip D. Curtin & Herbert S. Klein

Data from: Vitamin D status and COVID-19 clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients

Betsy Szeto, Jason E. Zucker, Elijah D. LaSota, Mishaela R. Rubin, Marcella D. Walker, Michael T. Yin & Adi Cohen
Context: Populations severely affected by COVID-19 are also at risk for vitamin D deficiency. Common risk factors include older age, chronic illness, obesity, and non-Caucasian race. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with risk for respiratory infections and failure, susceptibility and response to therapy for enveloped virus infection, and immune-mediated inflammatory reaction. Objective: To test the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] deficiency is a risk factor for severity of COVID-19 respiratory and inflammatory complications. Design: We...

Data from: Elevated substitution rates estimated from ancient DNA sequences

Simon Y. W. Ho, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Robin G. Allaby & Simon Y.W Ho
Ancient DNA sequences are able to offer valuable insights into molecular evolutionary processes, which are not directly accessible via modern DNA. They are particularly suitable for the estimation of substitution rates because their ages provide calibrating information in phylogenetic analyses, circumventing the difficult task of choosing independent calibration points. The substitution rates obtained from such datasets have typically been high, falling between the rates estimated from pedigrees and species phylogenies. Many of these estimates have...

Data from: Asymmetric dispersal and colonization success of Amazonian plant-ants queens

Emilio M. Bruna, Thiago J. Izzo, Brian D. Inouye, Maria Uriarte & Heraldo L. Vasconcelos
Background: The dispersal ability of queens is central to understanding ant life-history evolution, and plays a fundamental role in ant population and community dynamics, the maintenance of genetic diversity, and the spread of invasive ants. In tropical ecosystems, species from over 40 genera of ants establish colonies in the stems, hollow thorns, or leaf pouches of specialized plants. However, little is known about the relative dispersal ability of queens competing for access to the same...

Data from: Distinct neural and neuromuscular strategies underlie independent evolution of simplified advertisement calls

Elizabeth C. Leininger & Darcy B. Kelley
Independent or convergent evolution can underlie phenotypic similarity of derived behavioural characters. Determining the underlying neural and neuromuscular mechanisms sheds light on how these characters arose. One example of evolutionarily derived characters is a temporally simple advertisement call of male African clawed frogs (Xenopus) that arose at least twice independently from a more complex ancestral pattern. How did simplification occur in the vocal circuit? To distinguish shared from divergent mechanisms, we examined activity from the...

Data from: Key ornamental innovations facilitate diversification in an avian radiation

Rafael Maia, Dustin R. Rubenstein & Matthew D. Shawkey
Patterns of biodiversity are often explained by ecological processes, where traits that promote novel ways of interacting with the environment (key innovations) play a fundamental role in promoting diversification. However, sexual selection and social competition can also promote diversification through rapid evolution of ornamental traits. Because selection can operate only on existing variation, the tendency of ornamental traits to constrain or enable the production of novel phenotypes is a crucial but often overlooked aspect of...

Data from: Low plant density enhances gene dispersal in the Amazonian understory herb Heliconia acuminata

Marina Corrêa Côrtes, María Uriarte, Maristerra R. Lemes, Rogério Gribel, W. John Kress, Peter E. Smouse & Emilio M. Bruna
In theory, conservation genetics predicts that forest fragmentation will reduce gene dispersal, but in practice, genetic and ecological processes are also dependent on other population characteristics. We used Bayesian genetic analyses to characterize parentage and propagule dispersal in Heliconia acuminata L. C. Richard (Heliconiaceae), a common Amazonian understory plant that is pollinated and dispersed by birds. We studied these processes in two continuous forest sites and three 1-ha fragments in Brazil's Biological Dynamics of Forest...

Data from: Catechol-O-Methyltransferase moderates effect of stress mindset on affect and cognition

Alia J. Crum, Modupe Akinola, Bradley P. Turnwald, Ted J. Kaptchuk & Kathryn T. Hall
There is evidence that altering stress mindset— the belief that stress is enhancing vs. debilitating —can change cognitive, affective and physiological responses to stress. However individual differences in responsiveness to stress mindset manipulations have not been explored. Given the previously established role of catecholamines in both placebo effects and stress, we hypothesized that genetic variation in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), an enzyme that metabolizes catecholamines, would moderate responses to an intervention intended to alter participants’ mindsets about...

Data from: The COVID-19 trial finder

Yingcheng Sun, Alex Butler, Fengyang Lin, Hao Liu, Latoya Stewart, Jae Hyun Kim, Betina Ross Idnay, Qingyin Ge, Xinyi Wei, Cong Liu, Chi Yuan & Chunhua Weng
Clinical trials are the gold standard for generating reliable medical evidence, but patient search of relevant trials often suffers from information overload. With nearly 700 COVID-19 trials conducted in the United States as of August 2020, it is imperative that trial seekers can search for COVID-related clinical trials efficiently to enable rapid recruitment to these studies. We developed a web application called COVID-19 Trial Finder, which facilitates COVID-19 trial search in the United States, first...

Data from: Entropic bonding of the type 1 pilus from experiment and simulation

Fabiano Corsetti, Alvaro Alonso-Caballero, Simon Poly, Raul Perez-Jimenez & Emilio Artacho
The type 1 pilus is a bacterial filament consisting of a long coiled proteic chain of subunits joined together by non-covalent bonding between complementing β-strands. Its strength and structural stability are critical for its anchoring function in uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. The pulling and unravelling of the FimG subunit of the pilus was recently studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations [A. Alonso-Caballero et al., Nature Commun. 9, 2758...

Genetic Adaptation in New York City Rats

Arbel Harpak, Nandita Garud, Noah Rosenberg, Dmitri Petrov, Pleuni Pennings & Jason Munshi-South
Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) thrive in urban environments by navigating the anthropocentric environment and taking advantage of human resources and by-products. From the human perspective, rats are a chronic problem that causes billions of dollars in damage to agriculture, health and infrastructure. Did genetic adaptation play a role in the spread of rats in cities? To approach this question, we collected whole-genome sequences from 29 brown rats from New York City (NYC) and scanned for...

Social rank modulates how environmental quality influences cooperation and conflict within animal societies

Mark Liu, Bo-Fei Chen, Dustin Rubenstein & Sheng-Feng Shen
Although dominance hierarchies occur in most societies, our understanding of how these power structures influence individual investment in cooperative and competitive behaviors remains elusive. Both conflict and cooperation in animal societies are often environmentally-regulated, yet how individuals alter their cooperative and competitive investments as environmental quality changes remains unclear. Using game theoretic modeling, we predict that individuals of all ranks will invest more in cooperation and less in social conflict in harsh environments than individuals...

Statistical data from: Cholinergic modulation of hippocampally mediated attention and perception

Nicholas Ruiz, Monica Thieu & Mariam Aly
Attention to the relations between visual features modulates hippocampal representations. Moreover, hippocampal damage impairs discrimination of spatial relations. We explore a mechanism by which this might occur: modulation by the acetylcholine system. Acetylcholine enhances afferent input to the hippocampus and suppresses recurrent connections within it. This biases hippocampal processing toward environmental input, and should improve externally-oriented, hippocampally mediated attention and perception. We examined cholinergic modulation on an attention task that recruits the hippocampus. On each...

Data from: Daily protein prioritization and longterm nutrient balancing in a dietary generalist, the blue monkey

Maressa Takahashi & Marina Cords
Animals must make dietary choices to achieve adequate nutrient intake, however it is challenging to study in the field such nutritional strategies in wild populations. We explored the nutritional strategy of a generalist social primate, the blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis). We hypothesized that females balance the intake of nutrients, specifically non-protein energy and available protein (hereafter, protein), both on a daily and long-term basis. When balancing was not possible, we expected subjects to prioritize constant...

Data from: Stressed connections: cortisol levels following acute psychosocial stress disrupt affiliative mimicry in humans

Jonas P. Nitschke, Cecile S. Sunahara, Evan W. Carr, Piotr Winkielman, Jens C. Pruessner & Jennifer A. Bartz
Mimicry, and especially spontaneous facial mimicry, is a rudimentary element of social–emotional experience that is well-conserved across numerous species. Although such mimicry is thought to be a relatively automatic process, research indicates that contextual factors can influence mimicry, especially in humans. Here, we extend this work by investigating the effect of acute psychosocial stress on spontaneous facial mimicry. Participants performed a spontaneous facial mimicry task with facial electromyography (fEMG) at baseline and approximately one month...

Data from: Effects of female group size on the number of males in blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) groups

Marina Cords & Lu Gao
The number of males per group varies substantially in group-living primates, both between and within species. In blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), males may temporarily join groups during annual mating seasons when sexually receptive females are present. A likely determinant of the number of males per group is female group size (the number of adult females in a group). To clarify the role of female group size in driving variation in the number of males per...

Variable prediction accuracy of polygenic scores within an ancestry group

Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Arbel Harpak, Ipsita Agarwal, Dalton Conley, Jonathan Pritchard & Molly Przeworski
Fields as diverse as human genetics and sociology are increasingly using polygenic scores based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for phenotypic prediction. However, recent work has shown that polygenic scores have limited portability across groups of different genetic ancestries, restricting the contexts in which they can be used reliably and potentially creating serious inequities in future clinical applications. Using the UK Biobank data, we demonstrate that even within a single ancestry group (i.e., when there...

Lack of vulnerability segmentation among woody species in a diverse dry sclerophyll woodland community

Chris Smith-Martin, Robert Paul Skelton, Kate Johnson, Christopher Lucani & Tim Brodribb
1. Recent findings suggest that tree mortality and post-drought recovery of gas exchange can be predicted from loss of function within the water transport system. Understanding the susceptibility of plants to hydraulic damage requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different plant organs to stress-induced hydraulic dysfunction. This is particularly important in the context of vulnerability segmentation between plant tissues which is believed to protect more energetically “costly” tissues, such as woody stems, by sacrificing “cheaper”...

Data from: Quantifying the human impacts on Papua New Guinea reef fish communities across space and time

Joshua A. Drew, Ruth A. Hufbauer & Kathryn L. Amatangelo
Describing the drivers of species loss and of community change are important goals in both conservation and ecology. However, it is difficult to determine whether exploited species decline due to direct effects of harvesting or due to other environmental perturbations brought about by proximity to human populations. Here we quantify differences in species richness of coral reef fish communities along a human population gradient in Papua New Guinea to understand the relative impacts of fishing...

Data from: Etiology of respiratory tract infections in the community and clinic in Ilorin, Nigeria

Olatunji Kolawole, Michael Oguntoye, Tina Dam & Rumi Chunara
Objective: Recognizing increasing interest in community disease surveillance globally, the goal of this study was to investigate whether respiratory viruses circulating in the community may be represented through clinical (hospital) surveillance in Nigeria. Results: Children were selected via convenience sampling from communities and a tertiary care center (n = 91) during spring 2017 in Ilorin, Nigeria. Nasal swabs were collected and tested using polymerase chain reaction. The majority (79.1%) of subjects were under 6 years...

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