41 Works

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Rio de Janiero, 1795-1811

Herbert S. Klein

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Rio de Janiero, 1825-1830

Herbert S. Klein

Slave Movement -- Records of Slave Ship Movement Between Africa and the Americas, 1817-1843

Philip D. Curtin & Herbert S. Klein

Genetic Adaptation in New York City Rats

Arbel Harpak, Nandita Garud, Noah Rosenberg, Dmitri Petrov, Pleuni Pennings & Jason Munshi-South
Brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) thrive in urban environments by navigating the anthropocentric environment and taking advantage of human resources and by-products. From the human perspective, rats are a chronic problem that causes billions of dollars in damage to agriculture, health and infrastructure. Did genetic adaptation play a role in the spread of rats in cities? To approach this question, we collected whole-genome sequences from 29 brown rats from New York City (NYC) and scanned for...

Social rank modulates how environmental quality influences cooperation and conflict within animal societies

Mark Liu, Bo-Fei Chen, Dustin Rubenstein & Sheng-Feng Shen
Although dominance hierarchies occur in most societies, our understanding of how these power structures influence individual investment in cooperative and competitive behaviors remains elusive. Both conflict and cooperation in animal societies are often environmentally-regulated, yet how individuals alter their cooperative and competitive investments as environmental quality changes remains unclear. Using game theoretic modeling, we predict that individuals of all ranks will invest more in cooperation and less in social conflict in harsh environments than individuals...

Data from: Entropic bonding of the type 1 pilus from experiment and simulation

Fabiano Corsetti, Alvaro Alonso-Caballero, Simon Poly, Raul Perez-Jimenez & Emilio Artacho
The type 1 pilus is a bacterial filament consisting of a long coiled proteic chain of subunits joined together by non-covalent bonding between complementing β-strands. Its strength and structural stability are critical for its anchoring function in uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria. The pulling and unravelling of the FimG subunit of the pilus was recently studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations [A. Alonso-Caballero et al., Nature Commun. 9, 2758...

Data from: The COVID-19 trial finder

Yingcheng Sun, Alex Butler, Fengyang Lin, Hao Liu, Latoya Stewart, Jae Hyun Kim, Betina Ross Idnay, Qingyin Ge, Xinyi Wei, Cong Liu, Chi Yuan & Chunhua Weng
Clinical trials are the gold standard for generating reliable medical evidence, but patient search of relevant trials often suffers from information overload. With nearly 700 COVID-19 trials conducted in the United States as of August 2020, it is imperative that trial seekers can search for COVID-related clinical trials efficiently to enable rapid recruitment to these studies. We developed a web application called COVID-19 Trial Finder, which facilitates COVID-19 trial search in the United States, first...

Data from: Effects of female group size on the number of males in blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis) groups

Marina Cords & Lu Gao
The number of males per group varies substantially in group-living primates, both between and within species. In blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), males may temporarily join groups during annual mating seasons when sexually receptive females are present. A likely determinant of the number of males per group is female group size (the number of adult females in a group). To clarify the role of female group size in driving variation in the number of males per...

Socioeconomic disparities in subway use and COVID-19 outcomes in New York City

Karla Therese L. Sy, Micaela E. Martinez, Benjamin Rader & Laura F. White
Using data from New York City, we found that there was an estimated 28-day lag between the onset of reduced subway use and the end of the exponential growth period of SARS-CoV-2 within New York City boroughs. We also conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the associations between human mobility (i.e., subway ridership), sociodemographic factors, and COVID-19 incidence as of April 26, 2020. Areas with lower median income, a greater percentage of individuals who identify as...

Data from: Daily protein prioritization and longterm nutrient balancing in a dietary generalist, the blue monkey

Maressa Takahashi & Marina Cords
Animals must make dietary choices to achieve adequate nutrient intake, however it is challenging to study in the field such nutritional strategies in wild populations. We explored the nutritional strategy of a generalist social primate, the blue monkey (Cercopithecus mitis). We hypothesized that females balance the intake of nutrients, specifically non-protein energy and available protein (hereafter, protein), both on a daily and long-term basis. When balancing was not possible, we expected subjects to prioritize constant...

Variable prediction accuracy of polygenic scores within an ancestry group

Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Arbel Harpak, Ipsita Agarwal, Dalton Conley, Jonathan Pritchard & Molly Przeworski
Fields as diverse as human genetics and sociology are increasingly using polygenic scores based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for phenotypic prediction. However, recent work has shown that polygenic scores have limited portability across groups of different genetic ancestries, restricting the contexts in which they can be used reliably and potentially creating serious inequities in future clinical applications. Using the UK Biobank data, we demonstrate that even within a single ancestry group (i.e., when there...

Statistical data from: Cholinergic modulation of hippocampally mediated attention and perception

Nicholas Ruiz, Monica Thieu & Mariam Aly
Attention to the relations between visual features modulates hippocampal representations. Moreover, hippocampal damage impairs discrimination of spatial relations. We explore a mechanism by which this might occur: modulation by the acetylcholine system. Acetylcholine enhances afferent input to the hippocampus and suppresses recurrent connections within it. This biases hippocampal processing toward environmental input, and should improve externally-oriented, hippocampally mediated attention and perception. We examined cholinergic modulation on an attention task that recruits the hippocampus. On each...

Data from: Stressed connections: cortisol levels following acute psychosocial stress disrupt affiliative mimicry in humans

Jonas P. Nitschke, Cecile S. Sunahara, Evan W. Carr, Piotr Winkielman, Jens C. Pruessner & Jennifer A. Bartz
Mimicry, and especially spontaneous facial mimicry, is a rudimentary element of social–emotional experience that is well-conserved across numerous species. Although such mimicry is thought to be a relatively automatic process, research indicates that contextual factors can influence mimicry, especially in humans. Here, we extend this work by investigating the effect of acute psychosocial stress on spontaneous facial mimicry. Participants performed a spontaneous facial mimicry task with facial electromyography (fEMG) at baseline and approximately one month...

Lack of vulnerability segmentation among woody species in a diverse dry sclerophyll woodland community

Chris Smith-Martin, Robert Paul Skelton, Kate Johnson, Christopher Lucani & Tim Brodribb
1. Recent findings suggest that tree mortality and post-drought recovery of gas exchange can be predicted from loss of function within the water transport system. Understanding the susceptibility of plants to hydraulic damage requires knowledge about the vulnerability of different plant organs to stress-induced hydraulic dysfunction. This is particularly important in the context of vulnerability segmentation between plant tissues which is believed to protect more energetically “costly” tissues, such as woody stems, by sacrificing “cheaper”...

Slave Movement -- Internal Slave Trade to Rio de Janiero, 1852

Herbert S. Klein

Data from: Joint phylogenetic estimation of geographic movements and biome shifts during the global diversification of Viburnum

Michael Landis, Deren Eaton, Wendy Clement, Brian Park, Elizabeth Spriggs, Patrick Sweeney, Erika Edwards & Michael Donoghue
Phylogeny, molecular sequences, fossils, biogeography, and biome occupancy are all lines of evidence that reflect the singular evolutionary history of a clade, but they are most often studied separately, by first inferring a fossil-dated molecular phylogeny, then mapping on ancestral ranges and biomes inferred from extant species. Here we jointly model the evolution of biogeographic ranges, biome affinities, and molecular sequences, incorporating fossils to estimate a dated phylogeny for all of the 163 extant species...

Survival benefits of group living in a fluctuating environment

Sarah Guindre-Parker & Dustin Rubenstein
Group living is only predicted to arise when the fitness benefits outweigh the costs of sociality. Group-living species—including cooperatively breeding and family-living birds and mammals—occur most frequently in environments where climatic conditions fluctuate unpredictably from year-to-year. The fitness consequences of group living are thus expected to vary with changing environmental conditions, though few studies have examined this possibility. We examined whether living in large social groups improves adult survivorship in cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis...

Data from: Strong effects of lab-to-field environmental transitions on the bacterial intestinal microbiota of Mus musculus are modulated by Trichuris muris infection

Julian Bär, Jacqueline Leung, Christina Hansen, P'ng Loke, Alex Hall, Laura Conour & Andrea Graham
Studies of controlled lab animals and natural populations represent two insightful extremes of microbiota research. We bridged these two approaches by transferring lab-bred female C57BL/6 mice from a conventional mouse facility to an acclimation room and then to an outdoor enclosure, to investigate how the gut microbiota changes with environment. Mice residing under constant conditions served as controls. Using 16S rRNA sequencing of fecal samples, we found that the shift in temperature and humidity, as...

Data associated with 'Metformin rescues Parkinson’s disease phenotypes caused by hyperactive mitochondria'

Danielle Mor, Salman Sohrabi, Rachel Kaletsky, William Keyes, Alp Tartici, Vrinda Kalia, Gary Miller & Coleen Murphy
Metabolic dysfunction occurs in many age-related neurodegenerative diseases, yet its role in disease etiology remains poorly understood. We recently discovered a potential causal link between the branched-chain amino acid transferase, BCAT-1, and the neurodegenerative movement disorder, Parkinson’s disease (PD). RNAi-mediated knockdown of C. elegans bcat-1 recapitulates PD-like features, including progressive motor deficits and neurodegeneration with age, yet the underlying mechanisms have remained unknown. Using transcriptomic, metabolomic, and imaging approaches, we show here that bcat-1 knockdown...

Data from - Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic

Gil Bohrer, Sarah Davidson, Eliezer Gurarie, Scott LaPoint, Peter Mahoney, Emma Grier, Ophélie Couriot, Allicia Kelly, Bryan Bedrosian, Jerrold Belant, Travis Booms, Bridget Borg, Stan Boutin, Erica Craig, Tracy Davison, Robert Domenech, James Hodson, Kyle Joly, Nicholas Larter, A. David M. Latham, Stephen Lewis, Carol McIntyre, Tricia Miller, Kelsey Russell, Dale Seip … & Judy Williams
We provide here the data used in analysis of 3 test cases, presented in the manuscript "Ecological insights from three decades of animal movement tracking across a changing Arctic". We utilized the new Arctic Animal Movement Archive (AAMA), a growing collection of 201 standardized terrestrial and marine animal tracking studies from 1991–present. The AAMA supports public data discovery, preserves fundamental baseline data for the future, and facilitates efficient, collaborative data analysis. With three AAMA-based case...

Slave Movement -- Slave Trade to Jamaica, 1782-1788, 1805-1808

Herbert S. Klein & Stanley L. Engerman

Slave Movement -- Angola Slave Trade in the Eighteenth Century, 1723-1771

Herbert S. Klein

The effect of interactive ozone chemistry on weak and strong stratospheric polar vortex events

Gabriel Chiodo, Jessica Oehrlein & Lorenzo M. Polvani
Modeling and observational studies have reported effects of stratospheric ozone extremes on Northern Hemisphere spring climate. Recent work has further suggested that the coupling of ozone chemistry and dynamics amplifies the surface response to midwinter sudden stratospheric warmings (SSWs). Here we study the importance of interactive ozone chemistry in representing the stratospheric polar vortex and Northern Hemisphere winter surface climate variability. We contrast two simulations from the interactive and specified chemistry (and thus ozone) versions...

Source data for: Antagonistic effects of intraspecific cooperation and interspecific competition on thermal performance

Sheng-Feng Shen, Hsiang-Yu Tsai, Dustin Rubenstein, Bo-Fei Chen, Mark Liu, Shih-Fan Chan, De-Pei Chen, Syuan-Jyun Sun & Tzu-Neng Yuan
Understanding how climate-mediated biotic interactions shape thermal niche width is critical in an era of global change. Yet, most previous work on thermal niches has ignored detailed mechanistic information about the relationship between temperature and organismal performance, which can be described by a thermal performance curve. Here, we develop a model that predicts the width of thermal performance curves will be narrower in the presence of interspecific competitors, causing a species’ optimal breeding temperature to...

Data from: Anxiety and depressive symptoms are associated with poor sleep health during a period of COVID-19 induced nation-wide lockdown: a cross-sectional analysis of adults in the Middle East

Yazan Al-Ajlouni
Background: Jordan, a Middle Eastern country, declared a state of national emergency due to the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) and a strict nation-wide lockdown on March 17, 2020, banning all travel and movement around the country, potentially impacting mental health. This study sought to investigate the association between mental health (e.g., anxiety and depressive symptoms) and sleep health among a sample of Jordanians living through a state of COVID-19 induced nation-wide lockdown. Methods: Using Facebook, participants...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    41

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    41

Affiliations

  • Columbia University
    41
  • Stanford University
    3
  • Princeton University
    3
  • The Ohio State University
    2
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • New York University
    2
  • Fordham University
    2
  • Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica
    2
  • University of California Los Angeles
    2
  • Northwestern University
    1