39 Works

Multiple cropping alone does not improve year-round food security among smallholders in rural India

Pinki Mondal, Ruth DeFries, Jessica Clark, Nicole Flowerhill, , Aurélie Harou, Shauna Downs & Jessica Fanzo
Achieving and maintaining food and nutrition security is an important Sustainable Development Goal (SDG), especially in countries with largely vulnerable population with high occurrence of hunger and malnutrition. By studying a small-scale agricultural system in India, we aim to understand the current state of dietary diversity and food insecurity among the farmer communities. The study landscape has witnessed a steady rise in multiple cropping along with irrigation over the last two decades. Whether this multiple...

Data from: Vitamin D status and COVID-19 clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients

Betsy Szeto, Jason E. Zucker, Elijah D. LaSota, Mishaela R. Rubin, Marcella D. Walker, Michael T. Yin & Adi Cohen
Context: Populations severely affected by COVID-19 are also at risk for vitamin D deficiency. Common risk factors include older age, chronic illness, obesity, and non-Caucasian race. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with risk for respiratory infections and failure, susceptibility and response to therapy for enveloped virus infection, and immune-mediated inflammatory reaction. Objective: To test the hypothesis that 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] deficiency is a risk factor for severity of COVID-19 respiratory and inflammatory complications. Design: We...

Long-term stability of cortical ensembles

Jesús Pérez-Ortega, Tzitzitlini Alejandre-García & Rafael Yuste
Neuronal ensembles, coactive groups of neurons found in spontaneous and evoked cortical activity, are causally related to memories and perception, but it still unknown how stable or flexible they are over time. We used two-photon multiplane calcium imaging to track over weeks the activity of the same pyramidal neurons in layer 2/3 of the visual cortex from awake mice and recorded their spontaneous and visually evoked responses. Less than half of the neurons were commonly...

Prenatal environmental conditions underlie alternative reproductive tactics that drive the formation of a mixed-kin cooperative society

Shailee Shah & Dustin Rubenstein
Although animal societies often evolve due to limited natal dispersal that results in kin clustering and facilitates cooperation among relatives, many species form cooperative groups with low kin structure. Such groups often comprise residents and immigrants of the same sex that compete for breeding opportunities. To understand how such mixed-kin societies form, we investigated the causes and fitness consequences of dispersal decisions in male cooperatively breeding superb starlings (Lamprotornis superbus) inhabiting a climatically unpredictable environment....

Ensemble synchronization in the reassembly of Hydra's nervous system

Jonathan Lovas & Rafael Yuste
Although much is known about how the structure of the nervous system develops, it is still unclear how its functional modularity arises. A dream experiment would be to observe the entire development of a nervous system, correlating the emergence of functional units with their associated behaviors. This is possible in the cnidarian Hydra vulgaris, which, after its complete dissociation into individual cells, can reassemble itself back together into a normal animal. We used calcium imaging...

Identification of a Resting Bold Connectome Associated with Cognitive Reserve - Data and code archive

Christian Habeck, Eleanna Varangis & Stern Yaakov
The concept of cognitive reserve proposes that specific life experiences result in more flexible or resilient cognitive processing that allows some people to cope better than others with age- or disease-related brain changes. Imaging studies seeking to understand the neural implementation of cognitive reserve have most often used task-related fMRI studies. Using that approach, we recently described a task-invariant cognitive reserve network whose expression correlated with IQ and that moderated between cortical thickness and cognitive...

Data from: Effects of arousal and movement on secondary somatosensory and visual thalamus

Gordon Petty, Amanda Kinnischtzke, Y. Hong & Randy Bruno
Neocortical sensory areas have associated primary and secondary thalamic nuclei. While primary nuclei transmit sensory information to cortex, secondary nuclei remain poorly understood. We recorded juxtasomally from secondary somatosensory (POm) and visual (LP) nuclei of awake mice while tracking whisking and pupil size. POm activity correlated with whisking, but not precise whisker kinematics. This coarse movement modulation persisted after facial paralysis and thus was not due to sensory reafference. This phenomenon also continued during optogenetic...

Supporting data for: An exomoon survey of 70 cool giant exoplanets Kipping et al. (2021)

David Kipping
In a recent research article (publisher information still to be finalised), our team conducted a survey of 70 cool giant transiting exoplanets for evidence of exomoons. To support that paper, we here include the data used to conduct that analysis. Files include the original photometric reduction used, detrending scripts and results, intermediate plots of detrended photometry, method marginalised photometry, isochrone analysis files, and posterior samples and supporting regression files from fits conducted using multimodal nested...

Simulation of the evolution of codon usage in cpDNA

Brian Morton
The codon usage of the Angiosperm psbA gene is atypical for flowering plant chloroplast genes but similar to the codon usage observed in highly expressed plastid genes from some other Plantae, particularly Chlorobionta, lineages. The pattern of codon bias in these genes is suggestive of selection for a set of translationally optimal codons but the degree of bias towards these optimal codons is much weaker in the flowering plant psbA gene than in high expression...

Data from: Contextual inference underlies the learning of sensorimotor repertoires

James Heald, Daniel Wolpert & Máté Lengyel
Humans spend a lifetime learning, storing and refining a repertoire of motor memories. For example, through experience, we become proficient at manipulating a large range of objects with distinct dynamical properties. However, it is unknown what principle underlies how our continuous stream of sensorimotor experience is segmented into separate memories and how we adapt and use this growing repertoire. Here we develop a theory of motor learning based on the key principle that memory creation,...

Data from: Programmable Bloch polaritons in graphene

Lin Xiong
Raw dataset for Fig. 2-3 of the manuscript titled "Programmable Bloch polaritons in graphene", Science Advances (2021).

Effect of data source on estimates of regional bird richness in northeastern United States

Roi Ankori-Karlinsky, Ronen Kadmon, Michael Kalyuzhny, Katherine F. Barnes, Andrew M. Wilson, Curtis Flather, Rosalind Renfrew, Joan Walsh & Edna Guk
Standardized data on large-scale and long-term patterns of species richness are critical for understanding the consequences of natural and anthropogenic changes in the environment. The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) is one of the largest and most widely used sources of such data, but so far, little is known about the degree to which BBS data provide accurate estimates of regional richness. Here we test this question by comparing estimates of regional richness based...

Parallel ddRAD and genome skimming analyses reveal a radiative and reticulate evolutionary history of the temperate bamboos

Cen Guo, Peng-Fei Ma, Guo-Qian Yang, Xia-Ying Ye, Ying Guo, Jing-Xia Liu, Yun-Long Liu, Deren Eaton, Zhen-Hua Guo & De-Zhu Li
Rapid evolutionary radiations are among the most challenging phylogenetic problems, wherein different types of data (e.g., morphology, molecular) or genetic markers (e.g., nuclear, organelle) often yield inconsistent results. The tribe Arundinarieae i.e., the temperate bamboos, is a clade of tetraploid originated 22 million years ago and subsequently radiated in East Asia. Previous studies of Arundinarieae have found conflicting relationships and/or low support. Here, we obtain nuclear markers from ddRAD data for 213 Arundinarieae taxa and...

Spatiotemporal study of iron oxide nanoparticle monolayer formation at liquid/liquid interfaces by using in situ small-angle x‐ray scattering

Jiayang Hu, Evan W. C. Spotte-Smith, Brady Pan, Roy J. Garcia, Carlos Colosqui & Irving P. Herman
Spatial and temporal small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) scans show that 8.6 and 11.8 nm iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in heptane drop-cast on top of a heptane layer atop a diethylene glycol (DEG) layer are trapped at the DEG/heptane interface to generally form a single ordered, hexagonal close packed monolayer (ML), and this occurs long before the heptane evaporates. Many NPs remain dispersed in the heptane after this NP assembly. Assembly occurs faster than expected...

Male-like female morphs in hummingbirds: the evolution of a widespread sex-limited plumage polymorphism

Eleanor Diamant, Jay J. Falk & Dustin R. Rubenstein
Differences in the way males and females look or behave are common in animals. However, discrete variation within sexes (sex-limited polymorphism) also occurs in several vertebrate and invertebrate lineages. In birds, female-limited polymorphism (FLP) in which some females resemble males in coloration is most prominent in hummingbirds, a group known for its morphological and behavioural sexual dimorphism. Yet, it remains unclear whether this intrasexual colour variation in hummingbirds arises through direct selection on females, or...

Biodiversity-productivity relationships in a natural grassland community vary under diversity loss scenarios

Qingmin Pan, Amy Symstad, Yongfei Bai, Jianhui Huang, Jianguo Wu, Shahid Naeem, Dima Chen, Dashuan Tian, Qibing Wang & Xingguo Han
Understanding the biodiversity-productivity relationship and underlying mechanisms in natural ecosystems under realistic diversity loss scenarios remains a major challenge for ecologists despite its importance for predicting impacts of rapid loss of biodiversity worldwide. Here we report the results of a plant functional group (PFG) removal experiment conducted on the Mongolian Plateau, the largest remaining natural grassland in the world. Our results demonstrated that the biodiversity-productivity relationship varied among positive linear, neutral, and unimodal forms under...

Predictive utility of task-related functional connectivity vs. voxel activation - Data and code archive

Christian Habeck, Qolamreza Razlighi & Yaakov Stern
Functional connectivity, both in resting state and task performance, has steadily increased its share of neuroimaging research effort in the last 1.5 decades. In the current study, we investigated the predictive utility regarding behavioral performance and task information for 240 participants, aged 20-77, for both voxel activation and functional connectivity in 12 cognitive tasks, belonging to 4 cognitive reference domains (Episodic Memory, Fluid Reasoning, Perceptual Speed, and Vocabulary). We also added a model only comprising...

Dendritic calcium signals in rhesus macaque motor cortex drive an optical brain-computer interface

Daniel J O'Shea, Eric Trautmann, Xulu Sun, Karl Deisseroth & Krishna Shenoy
Calcium imaging has rapidly developed into a powerful tool for recording from large populations of neurons in vivo. Imaging in rhesus macaque motor cortex can enable the discovery of new principles of motor cortical function and can inform the design of next generation brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Surface two-photon (2P) imaging, however, cannot presently access somatic calcium signals of neurons from all layers of macaque motor cortex due to photon scattering. Here, we demonstrate an implant...

Improved household living standards can restore dry tropical forests

Ruth DeFries, Meghna Agarwala, Sandra Baquie, Pooja Choksi, Sarika Khanwilkar, Pinki Mondal, Harini Nagendra & Johannes Uperlainen.
Despite multiple approaches over the last several decades to harmonize conservation and development goals in the tropics, forest-depende­­­­­­nt households remain the poorest in the world. Durable housing and alternatives to fuelwood for cooking are critical needs to reduce multi-dimensional poverty. These improvements also potentially reduce pressure on forests and alleviate forest degradation. We test this possibility in dry tropical forests of the Central Indian Highlands where tribal and other marginalized populations rely on forests for...

The composition of the lower oceanic crust in the Wadi Khafifah section of the southern Samail (Oman) ophiolite

Jill VanTongeren, Peter Kelemen, Carlos Garrido, Marguerite Godard, Karen Hanghoj, Michael Braun & Julian Pearce
The composition of the intrusive gabbroic lower oceanic crust remains poorly characterized in comparison to the extrusive portion of the oceanic crust, especially for intermediate-fast spreading mid-ocean ridges. This is a consequence of limited exposures of extant lower oceanic crust and of ophiolites similar to mid-ocean ridge crust. One of the best analogues for mid-ocean ridge crust is the southern Samail ophiolite that formed during a period of rapid seafloor spreading above a nascent subduction...

Evaluating evidence of mitonuclear incompatibilities with the sex chromosomes in an avian hybrid zone

Daniel Hooper, Kelsie A Lopez, Callum S McDiarmid, Simon Griffith & Irby Lovette
The exploration of hybrid zones and the intergenomic conflicts exposed through hybridization provide windows into the processes of divergence and speciation. Sex chromosomes and mitonuclear incompatibilities have strong associations with the genetics of hybrid dysfunction. In ZW sex-determining systems, maternal co-inheritance of the mitochondrial and W chromosomes immediately exposes incompatibilities between these maternal contributions of one species and the Z chromosome of another. We analyze mitochondrial and Z chromosome admixture in the long-tailed finch (Poephila...

Neural representations of space in the hippocampus of a food-caching bird

Hannah Payne, Galen Lynch & Dmitriy Aronov
Spatial memory in vertebrates requires brain regions homologous to the mammalian hippocampus. Between vertebrate clades, however, these regions are anatomically distinct and appear to produce different spatial patterns of neural activity. We asked whether hippocampal activity is fundamentally different even between distant vertebrates that share a strong dependence on spatial memory. We studied tufted titmice, food-caching birds capable of remembering many concealed food locations. We found mammalian-like neural activity in the titmouse hippocampus, including sharp-wave...

Manhattan, New York City, 2020 Traffic Time Series + R Code for Analysis

Jenni Shearston, Micaela Martinez, Yanelli Nunez & Markus Hilpert
This dataset includes (1) a .txt file of processed time-series with four traffic congestion levels for the borough of Manhattan, NYC, averaged every 3 hours for the duration of 2020, and (2) an R script for completing analysis of the traffic time series to determine patterns in traffic over the year 2020, and to evaluate the impact of stay-at-home orders implemented in response to the COIVD-19 pandemic.

Supplementary tropical-cyclone count data-set for ‘Stratified statistical models of North Atlantic basin-wide and regional tropical cyclone counts’ (Journal of Geophysical Research, Kozar et al. 2012)

M.E. Kozar, M.E. Mann, S.J. Camargo, J.P. Kossin & J.L. Evans
Using the historical Atlantic tropical cyclone record, this study examines the empirical relationships between climate state variables and Atlantic tropical cyclone counts. The state variables considered as predictors include indices of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation and Northern Atlantic Oscillation, and both “local” and “relative” measures of Main Development Region sea surface temperature. Other predictors considered include indices measuring the Atlantic Meridional Mode and the West African monsoon. Using all of the potential predictors in a...

Data From: Respiratory temperature responses of tropical conifers differ with leaf morphology

Stephanie Schmiege, Brendan Buckley, Dennis Stevenson, Mary Heskel, Truong Cuong, Le Nam & Kevin Griffin
Photosynthetic traits suggest that shade tolerance may explain the contrasting success of two conifer taxa, Podocarpaceae and Pinaceae, in tropical forests. Needle-leaved species from Pinus (Pinaceae) are generally absent from tropical forests, while Pinus krempfii, a flat-leaved pine, and numerous flat-leaved Podocarpaceae are abundant. Respiration (R) traits may provide additional insight into the drivers of the contrasting success of needle- and flat-leaved conifers in tropical forests. We measured the short-term respiratory temperature (RT) response between...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    39

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    39

Affiliations

  • Columbia University
    39
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    3
  • Universität Hamburg
    2
  • Princeton University
    2
  • Johns Hopkins University
    2
  • University of Delaware
    2
  • University of Chicago
    2
  • University of Paris-Saclay
    2
  • University of California Los Angeles
    2
  • Universidad de Los Andes
    2