73 Works

Coastal Biodiversity and Ecosystem Service Sustainability (CBESS) larger mobile macrofaunal abundance, biomass and species richness from fyke netting in mudflat habitats

L.L. Bach & M. Emmerson
The dataset details larger mobile fish and macrofaunal abundance across six intertidal sites in the winter and summer of 2013, sampled using fyke nets. The data provide a quantitative measure of larger mobile invertebrate and fish species present in fyke nets caught over two executive tidal cycles at three sites in Essex, South East England and three more sites in Morecambe Bay, North West England. At each site, 22 sampling quadrats were placed on the...

Data from: Puma energetics: laboratory oxygen consumption and GPS information from free-ranging individuals

Terrie Williams, Nikki Marks, Christopher Wilmers, Caleb Bryce, Barry Nickel, Lisa Wolfe, David Scantlebury & Carolyn Dunford
Abstract Background Under current scenarios of climate change and habitat loss, many wild animals, especially large predators, are moving into novel energetically challenging environments. Consequently, changes in terrain associated with such moves may heighten energetic costs and effect the decline of populations in new localities. Methods To examine locomotor costs of a carnivorous mammal moving in mountainous habitats, the oxygen consumption of captive pumas (Puma concolor) was measured during treadmill locomotion on level and incline...

Data from: Outlier loci detect intraspecific biodiversity amongst spring and autumn spawning herring across local scales

Riho Gross, Dorte Bekkevold, Sarah J. Helyar, Timo Arula & Henn Ojaveer
Herring, Clupea harengus, is one of the ecologically and commercially most important species in European northern seas, where two distinct ecotypes have been described based on spawning time; spring and autumn. To date, it is unknown if these spring and autumn spawning herring constitute genetically distinct units. We assessed levels of genetic divergence between spring and autumn spawning herring in the Baltic Sea using two types of DNA markers, microsatellites and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms, and...

Data from: Elevated virulence of an emerging viral genotype as a driver of honeybee loss

Dino P. McMahon, Myrsini E. Natsopoulou, Vincent Doublet, Matthias Fürst, Silvio Weging, Mark J. F. Brown, Andreas Gogol-Döring & Robert J. Paxton
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have contributed significantly to the current biodiversity crisis, leading to widespread epidemics and population loss. Owing to genetic variation in pathogen virulence, a complete understanding of species decline requires the accurate identification and characterization of EIDs. We explore this issue in the Western honeybee, where increasing mortality of populations in the Northern Hemisphere has caused major concern. Specifically, we investigate the importance of genetic identity of the main suspect in mortality,...

Data from: Prediction and attenuation of seasonal spillover of parasites between wild and domestic ungulates in an arid mixed-use system

Josephine G. Walker, Kate E. Evans, Hannah Rose Vineer, Jan A. Van Wyk & Eric R. Morgan
1.Transmission of parasites between host species affects host population dynamics, interspecific competition, and ecosystem structure and function. In areas where wild and domestic herbivores share grazing land, management of parasites in livestock may affect or be affected by sympatric wildlife due to cross-species transmission. 2.We develop a novel method for simulating transmission potential based on both biotic and abiotic factors in a semi-arid system in Botswana. Optimal timing of antiparasitic treatment in livestock is then...

Data from: The direction aftereffect is a global motion phenomenon

William Curran, Lee Beattie, Delfina Bilello, Laura A. Coulter, Jade A. Currie & Jessica M. Pimentel Leon
Prior experience influences visual perception. For example, extended viewing of a moving stimulus results in the misperception of a subsequent stimulus’s motion direction – the direction aftereffect (DAE). There has been an on-going debate regarding the locus of the neural mechanisms underlying the DAE. We know the mechanisms are cortical, but there is uncertainty about where in the visual cortex they are located – at relatively early local motion processing stages, or at later global...

Data from: Noise affects resource assessment in an invertebrate

Erin P. Walsh, Gareth Arnott & Hansjoerg P. Kunc
Anthropogenic noise is a global pollutant, affecting animals across taxa. However, how noise pollution affects resource acquisition is unknown. Hermit crabs (Pagurus bernhardus) engage in detailed assessment and decision-making when selecting a critical resource, their shell; this is crucial as individuals in poor shells suffer lower reproductive success and higher mortality. We experimentally exposed hermit crabs to anthropogenic noise during shell selection. When exposed to noise, crabs approached the shell faster, spent less time investigating...

Scavenging beetles control the temporal response of soil communities to carrion decomposition

Tancredi Caruso, Marco Ilardi, Sheena Cotter, Edith Hammer & Gillian Riddell
1. Carrion is a frequent but overlooked source of nutrients to the soil. The decomposition of carrion is accelerated by invertebrate scavengers but the impact of the scavengers on below-ground biota and its functions is scarcely known. 2. We conducted a laboratory experiment to investigate the effects of the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides on the soil community of a temperate broadleaved forest. We assembled microcosms from soil collected from an oak woodland and treated them...

Building an ecologically-founded disease risk prioritization framework for migratory species based on contact with livestock

Munib Khanyari, Sarah Robinson, Eric Morgan, Tony Brown, Navinder Singh, Albert Salemgareyev, Steffen Zuther, Richard Kock & E Milner-Gulland
1. Shared use of rangelands by livestock and wildlife can lead to disease transmission. To align agricultural livelihoods with wildlife conservation, a multi-pronged and interdisciplinary approach for disease management is needed, particularly in data-limited situations with migratory hosts. Migratory wildlife and livestock can range over vast areas, and opportunities for disease control interventions are limited. Predictive frameworks are needed which can allow for identification of potential sites and timings of interventions. 2. We developed an...

How do children and adolescents experience healthcare professionals? Scoping review and interpretive synthesis

Gail Davison
Objective Explore children’s and adolescents’ (CADs’) lived experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs). Eligibility criteria Research articles containing direct first-person quotations by CADs (aged 0-18 years inclusive) describing how they experienced HCPs. Scoping review methodology provided a six-step framework to, first, identify and organise existing evidence. Interpretive phenomenology provided methodological principles for, second, an interpretive synthesis of the life-worlds of CADs receiving healthcare, as represented by verbatim accounts of their experiences. Five key databases (Ovid MEDLINE,...

Habitat mediates coevolved but not novel species interactions

Joshua Twining, Chris Sutherland, Neil Reid & David Tosh
On-going recovery of native predators has the potential to alter species interactions, with community and ecosystem wide implications. We estimated co-occurrence of three species of conservation and management interest from a multi-species citizen science camera trap survey. We demonstrate fundamental differences in novel and co-evolved predator-prey interactions that are mediated by habitat. Specifically, we demonstrate that anthropogenic habitat modification had no influence on the expansion of the recovering native pine marten in Ireland, nor does...

Ecosystem functions and vegetation data for Winklebury Hill, Salisbury Plain, UK 2016

E.L. Fry, A.L. Hall, J. Savage, R.D. Bardgett, N. Ostle, R.F. Pywell, J.M. Bullock, S. Oakley, R. Griffiths, R. McDonald, T. Caruso & M. Ilardi
This dataset contains vegetation survey data, and nitrate and ammonium concentrations, nitrification and mineralisation rates, microbial biomass and carbon and nitrogen stock data from soils taken from an experiment based at Winklebury Hill, UK. The vegetation survey comprises total species percentage cover and species richness data from four 50 cm by 50 cm quadrats. Net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange, photosynthesis and respiration data were measured with an Infra-red Gas Analyser (IRGA); methane, carbon dioxide and...

Data from: Plant controls on Late Quaternary whole ecosystem structure and function

Elizabeth S. Jeffers, Nicki J. Whitehouse, Adrian Lister, Gill Plunkett, Phil Barratt, Emma Smyth, Philip Lamb, Michael W. Dee, Stephen J. Brooks, Katherine J. Willis, Cynthia A. Froyd, Jenny E. Watson & Michael B. Bonsall
Plants and animals influence biomass production and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems; however their relative importance remains unclear. We assessed the extent to which mega-herbivore species controlled plant community composition and nutrient cycling, relative to other factors during and after the Late Quaternary extinction event in Britain and Ireland, when two-thirds of the region’s mega-herbivore species went extinct. Warmer temperatures, plant-soil and plant-plant interactions, and reduced burning contributed to the expansion of woody plants and...

Data from: The global diversity and distribution of lizard clutch sizes

Shai Meiri, Luciano Avila, Aaron Bauer, David Chapple, Indraneil Das, Tiffany Doan, Paul Doughty, Ryan Ellis, Lee Grismer, Fred Kraus, Mariana Morando, Paul Oliver, Daniel Pincheira-Donoso, Marco-Antonio Ribeiro-Junior, Glenn Shea, Omar Torres-Carvajal, Alex Slavenko & Uri Roll
Aim. Clutch size is a key life-history trait. In lizards, it ranges over two orders of magnitude. The global drivers of spatial and phylogenetic variation in clutch have been extensively studied in birds, but such tests in other organisms are lacking. To test the generality of latitudinal gradients in clutch size, and their putative drivers, we present the first global-scale analysis of clutch sizes across of lizard taxa. Location, Global Time period. Recent Major taxa...

Data from: An annotated draft genome of the mountain hare (Lepus timidus)

João Pedro Marques, Fernando A. Seixas, Jeffrey M. Good, Liliana Farelo, Colin M. Callahan, W. Ian Montgomery, Neil Reid, Paulo C. Alves, Pierre Boursot & José Melo-Ferreira
Hares (genus Lepus) provide clear examples of repeated and often massive introgressive hybridization and striking local adaptations. Genomic studies on this group have so far relied on comparisons to the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) reference genome. Here, we report the first de novo draft reference genome for a hare species, the mountain hare (Lepus timidus), and evaluate the efficacy of whole-genome re-sequencing analyses using the new reference versus using the rabbit reference genome. The genome...

Declining invasive grey squirrel populations may persist in refugia as native predator recovery reverses squirrel species replacement

Joshua Twining, Ian Montgomery & David Tosh
Invasive species pose one the most serious global threats to biodiversity. Investigations into the interactions of native and non-native species focus on the impacts of single species, despite being embedded in a network of direct and indirect interactions between multiple species and their environments. We developed 1 km2 resolution, single-species and multi-species, occupancy models using quantitative camera trap data collected by citizen scientists at 332 sites in a regional survey comprising the 14,130 km2 of...

Data from: Parallel and nonparallel ecological, morphological and genetic divergence in lake-stream stickleback from a single catchment

Mark Ravinet, Paulo A. Prodöhl & Chris Harrod
Parallel phenotypic evolution in similar environments has been well studied in evolutionary biology, however comparatively little is known about influence of determinism and historical contingency on the nature, extent and generality of this divergence. Taking advantage of a novel system containing multiple lake-stream stickleback populations, we examined the extent of ecological, morphological and genetic divergence between three-spined stickleback present in parapatric environments. Consistent with other lake-stream studies we found a shift towards a deeper body...

The influence of the statistical significance of results and spin on readers’ interpretation of the results in an abstract for a hypothetical clinical trial: A randomized trial

Sofyan Jankowski, Isabelle Boutron & Mike Clarke
Objectives: To assess the impact on readers’ interpretation of the results reported in an abstract for a hypothetical clinical trial with 1) a statistically significant result, 2) spin, 3) both a statistically significant result and spin compared to 4) no spin and no statistically significant result. Participants: Health students and professionals from universities and health institutions in France and the UK. Interventions: Participants completed an online questionnaire using Likert scales and free text, after reading...

Data from: Conservation genetics of Neotropical pollinators revisited: microsatellite analysis suggests that diploid males are rare in orchid bees

Rogério Souza, Marco Del Lama, Marcelo Cervini, Norma Mortari, Thomas Eltz, Yvonne Zimmermann, Carola Bach, Berry Brosi, Sevan Suni, Javier Quezada & Robert Paxton
Allozyme analyses have suggested that Neotropical orchid bee (Euglossini) pollinators are vulnerable because of putative high frequencies of diploid males, a result of loss of sex allele diversity in small hymenopteran populations with single locus complementary sex determination. Our analysis of 1010 males from 27 species of euglossine bees sampled across the Neotropics at 2-11 polymorphic microsatellite loci revealed only 5 diploid males at an overall frequency of 0.005 (95% CIs 0.002-0.010); errors through genetic...

Data from: The effects of spatial scale and isoscape on consumer isotopic niche width

Carl J. Reddin, John H. Bothwell, Nessa E. O'Connor & Chris Harrod
1. The mean and variance of ecological variables are dependent on sampling attributes such as the coverage of environmental heterogeneity (sampling extent) and spatial scale. Trophic niche width is often approximated by bulk tissue stable isotopes of C and N, i.e. the population isotopic niche. However, recent studies suggest that environmental heterogeneity (experienced by individuals) may be more important in defining the isotopic niche width than trophic variability. We hypothesised that isotopic niche width will...

Data from: Shorebirds as important vectors for plant dispersal in Europe

Ádám Lovas-Kiss, Marta I. Sanchez, David M. Wilkinson, Neil E. Coughlan, Jose A. Alves & Andy J. Green
Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) undergo rapid migrations with potential for long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plants. We studied the frequency of endozoochory by shorebirds in different parts of Europe covering a broad latitudinal range and different seasons. We assessed whether plants dispersed conformed to morphological dispersal syndromes. A total of 409 excreta samples (271 faeces and 138 pellets) were collected from redshank (Tringa totanus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Eurasian curlew...

Data from: Whole-body photoreceptor networks are independent of ‘lenses’ in brittle stars

Lauren Sumner-Rooney, Imran A. Rahman, Julia D. Sigwart & Esther Ullrich-Lüter
Photoreception and vision are fundamental aspects of animal sensory biology and ecology, but important gaps remain in our understanding of these processes in many species. The colour-changing brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii is iconic in vision research, speculatively possessing a unique whole-body visual system that incorporates information from nerve bundles underlying thousands of crystalline ‘microlenses’. The hypothesis that these form a sophisticated compound eye-like system regulated by chromatophore movement has been extensively reiterated, with consequent investigations...

Data from: Proxy comparison in ancient peat sediments: pollen, macrofossil and plant DNA

Laura Parducci, Minna Väliranta, J. Sakari Salonen, Tiina Ronkainen, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Tiina Eskola, Pertti Sarala & Yoshihisa Suyama
We compared DNA, pollen and macrofossil data obtained from Weichselian interstadial and Holocene (maximum age 8400 cal yr BP) peat sediments from northern Europe and used them to reconstruct contemporary floristic compositions at two sites. The majority of the samples provided plant DNA sequences of good quality with success amplification rates depending on age. DNA and sequencing analysis provided five plant taxa from the older site and nine taxa from the younger site, corresponding to...

Data from: Spatiotemporal scaling of plant species richness and functional diversity in a temperate semi-natural grassland

Hannah J. White, W. Ian Montgomery, Robin J. Pakeman & Jack J. Lennon
The accumulation of biodiversity in space and time has been modelled extensively using the species-area relationship and the species-time relationship, respectively. Recently, these models have been combined into time-area curves in order to investigate spatiotemporal scaling of species richness. This study expands on previous research by applying these spatiotemporal models to functional diversity. Understanding spatiotemporal dynamics of ecological traits is important due to their crucial role in ecosystem functioning and mediating species responses to environmental...

Data from: Effects of seal predation on a modelled marine fish community and consequences for a commercial fishery

Jennifer E. Houle, Francisco De Castro, Michelle A. Cronin, Keith D. Farnsworth, Martha Gosch & David G. Reid
We constructed a size- and trait-based dynamic marine community model of the Celtic Sea/Biologically Sensitive Area, including grey seals Halichoerus grypus (Fabricius 1791) and harbour seals Phoca vitulina vitulina (Linnaeus 1758) to examine potential resource conflict between seals and commercial trawl fisheries. The model incorporates seal diet preference, population size and commercial fishery catch, with survey data to quantify ecological interactions between seals and fisheries. Total annual consumption by seals was an order of magnitude...

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