218 Works

Data from: Social behavior in bees influences the abundance of Sodalis (Enterobacteriaceae) symbionts

Benjamin E. R. Rubin, Jon G. Sanders, Kyle M. Turner, Naomi E. Pierce & Sarah D. Kocher
Social interactions can facilitate transmission of microbes between individuals, reducing variation in gut communities within social groups. Thus, the evolution of social behaviors and symbiont community composition have the potential to be tightly linked. We explored this connection by characterizing the diversity of bacteria associated with both eusocial and solitary bee species within the behaviorally variable family Halictidae using 16S amplicon sequencing. Contrary to expectations, we found few differences in bacterial abundance or variation between...

Experimental parasite community perturbation reveals associations between Sin Nombre virus and gastrointestinal nematodes in a rodent reservoir host

Amy Sweeny, Courtney Thomason, Edwin Carbajal, Christina Hansen, Andrea Graham & Amy Pedersen
Individuals are often co-infected with several parasite species, yet measuring within-host interactions remains difficult in the wild. Consequently, the impact of such interactions on host fitness and epidemiology are often unknown. We used anthelmintic drugs to experimentally reduce nematode infection and measured the effects on both nematodes and the important zoonosis Sin Nombre virus (SNV) in its primary reservoir (Peromyscus spp.). Treatment significantly reduced nematode infection, but increased SNV seroprevalence. Furthermore, mice that were co-infected...

Data from: Multiple habitat use by declining migratory birds necessitates joined-up conservation

Micha V Jackson, L R Carrasco, Chi-Yeung Choi, Jing Li, Zhijun Ma, David S Melville, Tong Mu, He-Bo Peng, Bradley K Woodworth, Ziyou Yang, Lin Zhang & Richard A Fuller
Many species depend on multiple habitats at different points in space and time. Their effective conservation requires an understanding of how and when each habitat is used, coupled with adequate protection. Migratory shorebirds use intertidal and supratidal wetlands, both of which are affected by coastal landscape change. Yet the extent to which shorebirds use artificial supratidal habitats, particularly at highly developed stopover sites, remains poorly understood leading to potential deficiencies in habitat management. We surveyed...

Data from: Urban colonization through multiple genetic lenses: the city-fox phenomenon revisited

Alexandra L. DeCandia, Kristin E. Brzeski, Elizabeth Heppenheimer, Catherine V. Caro, Glauco Camenisch, Peter Wandeler, Carlos Driscoll & Bridgett M. VonHoldt
Urbanization is driving environmental change on a global scale, creating novel environments for wildlife to colonize. Through a combination of stochastic and selective processes, urbanization is also driving evolutionary change. For instance, difficulty traversing human-modified landscapes may isolate newly established populations from rural sources, while novel selective pressures, such as altered disease risk, toxicant exposure, and light pollution, may further diverge populations through local adaptation. Assessing the evolutionary consequences of urban colonization and the processes...

The STARS phase 2 study: a randomized controlled trial of gaboxadol in Angelman syndrome

Lynne Bird, Cesar Ochoa-Lubinoff, Wen-Hann Tan, Gali Heimer, Raun Melmed, Amit Rakhit, Jeannie Visootsak, Matthew During, Rebecca Burdine, Christina Holcroft, Alexander Kolevzon & Ronald Thibert
Objective: To evaluate safety and tolerability and exploratory efficacy endpoints for gaboxadol (OV101) compared with placebo in individuals with Angelman syndrome (AS). Methods: Gaboxadol is a highly selective orthosteric agonist that activates γ-subunit–containing extrasynaptic γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, adolescent and adult individuals with a molecular diagnosis of AS were randomized (1:1:1) to 1 of 3 dosing regimens for a duration of 12 weeks: placebo morning dose...

Data from: Social parasitism as an alternative reproductive tactic in a cooperatively breeding cuckoo

Christina Riehl
Cooperatively nesting birds are vulnerable to social parasites that lay their eggs in host nests but provide no parental care1,2,3,4. Most previous research has focused on the co-evolutionary arms race between host defences and the parasites that attempt to circumvent them5,6,7,8,9, but it remains unclear why females sometimes cooperate and sometimes parasitize, and how parasitic tactics arise in cooperative systems10,11,12. Here we show that cooperative and parasitic reproductive strategies result in approximately equal fitness pay-offs...

Data from: Phenological plasticity is a poor predictor of subalpine plant population performance following experimental climate change

Sebastian Block, Jake Alexander & Jonathan Levine
Phenological shifts, changes in the seasonal timing of life cycle events, are among the best documented responses of species to climate change. However, the consequences of these phenological shifts for population dynamics remain unclear. Population growth could be enhanced if species that advance their phenology benefit from longer growing seasons and gain a pre-emptive advantage in resource competition. However, it might also be reduced if phenological advances increase exposure to stresses, such as herbivores and,...

Trophic rewilding revives biotic resistance to shrub invasion

Jennifer Guyton, Johan Pansu, Tyler Kartzinel, Tyler Coverdale, Arjun Potter, Joshua Daskin, Matthew Hutchinson, Ana Gledis Da Conceição, Mike Peel, Marc Stalmans & Robert Pringle
Trophic rewilding seeks to rehabilitate degraded ecosystems by repopulating them with large animals, thereby reestablishing strong top-down interactions. Yet there are vanishingly few tests of whether such initiatives can restore ecosystem structure and functions, and on what timescales. Here we show that war-induced collapse of large-mammal populations in Mozambique’s Gorongosa National Park exacerbated woody encroachment by the invasive shrub Mimosa pigra—one of the world’s ‘100 worst’ invasive species—and that one decade of concerted trophic rewilding...

Data from: Quantifying water requirements of African ungulates through a combination of functional traits

Michiel Veldhuis, Emilian Kihwele, Victor Mchomvu, Norman Owen-Smith, Robyn Hetem, Matthew Hutchinson, Arjun Potter & Han Olff
Climate and land use change modify surface water availability in African savannas. Surface water is a key resource for both wildlife and livestock and its spatial and temporal distribution is important for understanding the composition of large herbivore assemblages in savannas. Yet, the extent to which ungulate species differ in their water requirements remains poorly quantified. Here, we infer the water requirements of 48 African ungulates by combining six different functional traits related to physiological...

Variable prediction accuracy of polygenic scores within an ancestry group

Hakhamanesh Mostafavi, Arbel Harpak, Ipsita Agarwal, Dalton Conley, Jonathan Pritchard & Molly Przeworski
Fields as diverse as human genetics and sociology are increasingly using polygenic scores based on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for phenotypic prediction. However, recent work has shown that polygenic scores have limited portability across groups of different genetic ancestries, restricting the contexts in which they can be used reliably and potentially creating serious inequities in future clinical applications. Using the UK Biobank data, we demonstrate that even within a single ancestry group (i.e., when there...

Data from: Whole-chromosome hitchhiking driven by a male-killing endosymbiont

Simon Martin, Kumar Singh, Ian Gordon, Kennedy Omufwoko, Steve Collins, Ian Warren, Hannah Munby, Oskar Brattström, Walther Traut, Dino Martins, David Smith, Chris Jiggins, Chris Bass & Richard French-Constant
Neo-sex chromosomes are found in many taxa, but the forces driving their emergence and spread are poorly understood. The female-specific neo-W chromosome of the African monarch (or queen) butterfly Danaus chrysippus presents an intriguing case study because it is restricted to a single ‘contact zone’ population, involves a putative colour patterning supergene, and co-occurs with infection by the the male-killing endosymbiont Spiroplasma. We investigated the origin and evolution of this system using whole genome sequencing....

Data from: Similar but different: dynamic social network analysis highlights fundamental differences between the fission-fusion societies of two equid species, the onager and Grevy's zebra

Daniel I. Rubenstein, Siva R. Sundaresan, Ilya R. Fischhoff, Chayant Tantipathananandh & Tanya Y. Berger-Wolf
Understanding why animal societies take on the form that they do has benefited from insights gained by applying social network analysis to patterns of individual associations. Such analyses typically aggregate data over long time periods even though most selective forces that shape sociality have strong temporal elements. By explicitly incorporating the temporal signal in social interaction data we re-examine the network dynamics of the social systems of the evolutionarily closely-related Grevy’s zebras and wild asses...

Data from: Opportunities and challenges of Integral Projection Models for modeling host-parasite dynamics

C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Andrea L. Graham, Micaela Martinez-Bakker & Dylan Z. Childs
Epidemiological dynamics are shaped by and may in turn shape host demography. These feedbacks can result in hard to predict patterns of disease incidence. Mathematical models that integrate infection and demography are consequently a key tool for informing expectations for disease burden and identifying effective measures for control. A major challenge is capturing the details of infection within individuals and quantifying their downstream impacts to understand population-scale outcomes. For example, parasite loads and antibody titres...

Data from: Self-organizing dominance hierarchies in a wild primate population

Mathias Franz, Emily McLean, Jenny Tung, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Linear dominance hierarchies, which are common in social animals, can profoundly influence access to limited resources, reproductive opportunities and health. In spite of their importance, the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of such hierarchies remain unclear. Two hypotheses explain how linear hierarchies might emerge and change over time. The ‘prior attributes hypothesis’ posits that individual differences in fighting ability directly determine dominance ranks. By contrast, the ‘social dynamics hypothesis’ posits that dominance ranks emerge from...

Data from: The ecology and economics of shorebird conservation in a tropical human-modified landscape

Jonathan M. H. Green, Siriya Sripanomyom, Xingli Giam & David S. Wilcove
1. Rapid and extensive land-use change in intertidal foraging habitat and coastal roosting habitat is thought to be driving major population declines of shorebirds migrating through the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Along the Inner Gulf of Thailand, a critical stopover and wintering ground for these birds, artificial wetlands (saltpans and aquaculture ponds) have replaced much of the natural coastal ecosystem. 2. We conducted a two-part study to: (i) assess the importance of saltpans and semi-traditional aquaculture...

Data from: Using the Mus musculus hybrid zone to assess covariation and genetic architecture of limb bone lengths

Neva Skrabar, Leslie M. Turner, Luisa F. Pallares, Bettina Harr & Diethard Tautz
Two subspecies of the house mouse, Mus musculus domesticus and Mus musculus musculus, meet in a narrow contact zone across Europe. Mice in the hybrid zone are highly admixed, representing the full range of mixed ancestry from the two subspecies. Given the distinct morphologies of these subspecies, these natural hybrids can be used for genome-wide association mapping at sufficiently high resolution to directly infer candidate genes. We focus here on limb bone length differences, which...

Data from: Optimal group size in a highly social mammal

A. Catherine Markham, Laurence R. Gesquiere, Susan C. Alberts & Jeanne Altmann
What are the costs and benefits for animals living in groups of different sizes? Balancing the trade-offs between within-group competition (which favors smaller groups) and between-group competition (which favors larger groups) suggests that intermediate-sized groups may be best, yet empirical support for this prediction has largely been lacking. Using long-term data on wild baboons, we provide novel evidence that individuals living in intermediate-sized groups have energetically optimal space-use strategies and lower glucocorticoid (stress hormone) concentrations...

Data from: Interbirth intervals in wild baboons: environmental predictors and hormonal correlates

Laurence R. Gesquiere, Jeanne Altmann, Elizabeth A. Archie & Susan C. Alberts
Objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) are a key metric of female reproductive success; understanding how they are regulated by environmental, social, and demographic factors can provide insight into sources of variance in female fitness. Materials and Methods: Using 36 years of reproductive data on 490 IBIs for 160 wild female baboons, we identified sources of variance in the duration of IBIs and of their component phases: postpartum amenorrhea (PPA), sexual cycling, and pregnancy. We also examined...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Contemporary ecological interactions improve models of past trait evolution

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Marilia P. Gaiarsa & Daniel B. Stouffer
Despite the fact that natural selection underlies both traits and interactions, evolutionary models often neglect that ecological interactions may, and in many cases do, influence the evolution of traits. Here, we explore the interdependence of ecological interactions and functional traits in the pollination associations of hawkmoths and flowering plants. Specifically, we develop an adaptation of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model of trait evolution that allows us to study the influence of plant corolla depth and observed hawkmoth-plant...

Data from: Complex sources of variance in female dominance rank in a nepotistic society

Amanda J. Lea, Niki H. Learn, Marcus J. Theus, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Many mammalian societies are structured by dominance hierarchies, and an individual's position within this hierarchy can influence reproduction, behaviour, physiology and health. In nepotistic hierarchies, which are common in cercopithecine primates and also seen in spotted hyaenas, Crocuta crocuta, adult daughters are expected to rank immediately below their mother, and in reverse age order (a phenomenon known as ‘youngest ascendancy’). This pattern is well described, but few studies have systematically examined the frequency or causes...

Data from: Individual recognition through olfactory - auditory matching in lemurs

Ipek G. Kulahci, Christine M. Drea, Daniel I. Rubenstein & Asif A. Ghazanfar
Individual recognition can be facilitated by creating representations of familiar individuals, whereby information from signals in multiple sensory modalities become linked. Many vertebrate species use auditory–visual matching to recognize familiar conspecifics and heterospecifics, but we currently do not know whether representations of familiar individuals incorporate information from other modalities. Ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) are highly visual, but also communicate via scents and vocalizations. To investigate the role of olfactory signals in multisensory recognition, we tested...

Data from: Sources of variance in a female fertility signal: exaggerated estrous swellings in a natural population of baboons

Courtney L. Fitzpatrick, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Signals of fertility in female animals are of increasing interest to evolutionary biologists, a development that coincides with increasing interest in male mate choice and the potential for female traits to evolve under sexual selection. We characterized variation in size of an exaggerated female fertility signal in baboons and investigated the sources of that variance. The number of sexual cycles that a female had experienced after her most recent pregnancy (“cycles since resumption”) was the...

Data from: Costs of reproduction in a long-lived female primate: injury risk and wound healing

Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Reproduction is a notoriously costly phase of life, exposing individuals to injury, infectious disease, and energetic tradeoffs. The strength of these costs should be influenced by life history strategies, and in long-lived species, females may be selected to mitigate costs of reproduction because life span is such an important component of their reproductive success. Here we report evidence for two costs of reproduction that may influence survival in wild female baboons— injury risk and delayed...

Data from: Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Amanda J. Lea, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C. Alberts & Jenny Tung
Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) ‘wild-feeding’ baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) ‘Lodge’ baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting...

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