26 Works

Data from: Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank

Jordi Galbany, Jenny Tung, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many...

Data from: A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry

James H. Faghmous, Ivy Frenger, Yuanshun Yao, Robert Warmka, Aron Lindell & Vipin Kumar
Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993–2014. This...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding illuminates dietary niche partitioning by African large herbivores

Tyler R. Kartzinel, Patricia A. Chen, Tyler C. Coverdale, David L. Erickson, W. John Kress, Maria L. Kuzmina, Daniel I. Rubenstein, Wei Wang & Robert M. Pringle
Niche partitioning facilitates species coexistence in a world of limited resources, thereby enriching biodiversity. For decades, biologists have sought to understand how diverse assemblages of large mammalian herbivores (LMH) partition food resources. Several complementary mechanisms have been identified, including differential consumption of grasses versus nongrasses and spatiotemporal stratification in use of different parts of the same plant. However, the extent to which LMH partition food-plant species is largely unknown because comprehensive species-level identification is prohibitively...

Data from: Genetic subdivision and candidate genes under selection in North American gray wolves

Rena M. Schweizer, Bridgett M. VonHoldt, Ryan Harrigan, James C. Knowles, Marco Musiani, David Coltman, John Novembre & Robert K. Wayne
Previous genetic studies of the highly mobile gray wolf (Canis lupus) found population structure that coincides with habitat and phenotype differences. We hypothesized that these ecologically distinct populations (ecotypes) should exhibit signatures of selection in genes related to morphology, coat color, and metabolism. To test these predictions, we quantified population structure related to habitat using a genotyping array to assess variation in 42,036 SNPs in 111 North American gray wolves. Using these SNP data and...

Data from: Ecological legacies of civil war: 35-year increase in savanna tree cover following wholesale large-mammal declines

Joshua H. Daskin, Marc Stalmans & Robert M. Pringle
1. Large mammalian herbivores (LMH) exert strong effects on plants in tropical savannas, and many wild LMH populations are declining. However, predicting the impacts of these declines on vegetation structure remains challenging. 2. Experiments suggest that tree cover can increase rapidly following LMH exclusion. Yet it is unclear whether these results scale up to predict ecosystem-level impacts of LMH declines, which often alter fire regimes, trigger compensatory responses of other herbivores, and accompany anthropogenic land-use...

Data from: Termite mounds can increase the robustness of dryland ecosystems to climatic change

Juan A. Bonachela, Robert M. Pringle, Efrat Sheffer, Tyler C. Coverdale, Jennifer A. Guyton, Kelly K. Caylor, Simon A. Levin & Corina E. Tarnita
Self-organized spatial vegetation patterning is widespread and has been described using models of scale-dependent feedback between plants and water on homogeneous substrates. As rainfall decreases, these models yield a characteristic sequence of patterns with increasingly sparse vegetation, followed by sudden collapse to desert. Thus, the final, spot-like pattern may provide early warning for such catastrophic shifts. In many arid ecosystems, however, termite nests impart substrate heterogeneity by altering soil properties, thereby enhancing plant growth. We...

Data from: Fishing, fast growth, and climate variability increase the risk of collapse

Malin L. Pinsky & David Byler
Species around the world have suffered collapses, and a key question is why some populations are more vulnerable than others. Traditional conservation biology and evidence from terrestrial species suggest that slow-growing populations are most at risk, but interactions between climate variability and harvest dynamics may alter or even reverse this pattern. Here, we test this hypothesis globally. We use boosted regression trees to analyse the influences of harvesting, species traits and climate variability on the...

Data from: Molecular detection of invertebrate prey in vertebrate diets: trophic ecology of Caribbean island lizards

Tyler R. Kartzinel & Robert M. Pringle
Understanding community assembly and population dynamics frequently requires detailed knowledge of food web structure. For many consumers, obtaining precise information about diet composition has traditionally required sacrificing animals or other highly invasive procedures, generating tension between maintaining intact study populations and knowing what they eat. We developed 16S mitochondrial DNA sequencing methods to identify arthropods in the diets of generalist vertebrate predators without requiring a blocking primer. We demonstrate the utility of these methods for...

Data from: Community-wide changes in inter-taxonomic temporal co-occurrence resulting from phenological shifts

Fangyuan Hua, Junhua Hu, Yang Liu, Xingli Giam, Tien Ming Lee, Hao Luo, Jia Wu, Qiaoyi Liang, Jian Zhao, Xiaoyan Long, Hong Pang, Biao Wang, Wei Liang, Zhengwang Zhang, Xuejie Gao & Jiang Zhu
Global climate change is known to affect the assembly of ecological communities by altering species’ spatial distribution patterns, but little is known about how climate change may affect community assembly by changing species’ temporal co-occurrence patterns, which is highly likely given the widely observed phenological shifts associated with climate change. Here we analyzed a 29-year phenological data set comprising community-level information on the timing and span of temporal occurrence in 11 seasonally occurring animal taxon...

Data from: Only accessible information is useful: insights from gradient-mediated patterning

Mikhail Tikhonov, Shawn C. Little & Thomas Gregor
Information theory is gaining popularity as a tool to characterise performance of biological systems. However, information is commonly quantified without reference to whether or how a system could extract and use it; as a result, information-theoretic quantities are easily misinterpreted. Here we take the example of pattern-forming developmental systems which are commonly structured as cascades of sequential gene expression steps. Such a multi-tiered structure appears to constitute sub-optimal use of the positional information provided by...

Data from: The concerted impact of domestication and transposon insertions on methylation patterns between dogs and grey wolves

Ilana Janowitz Koch, Michelle M. Creek, Michael J. Thompson, Kerry A. Deere-Machemer, Jun Wang, Lionel Duarte, Gitanjali E. Gnanadesikan, Eskender L. McCoy, Liudmilla Rubbi, Daniel R. Stahler, Matteo Pellegrini, Elaine A. Ostrander, Robert K. Wayne, Janet S. Sinsheimer, Bridgett M. VonHoldt & Michelle M. Clark
The process of domestication can exert intense trait-targeted selection on genes and regulatory regions. Specifically, rapid shifts in the structure and sequence of genomic regulatory elements could provide an explanation for the extensive, and sometimes extreme, variation in phenotypic traits observed in domesticated species. Here, we explored methylation differences from >24 000 cytosines distributed across the genomes of the domesticated dog (Canis familiaris) and the grey wolf (Canis lupus). PCA and model-based cluster analyses identified...

Data from: Seasonal patterns of hormones, macroparasites, and microparasites in wild African ungulates: the interplay between stress, reproduction, and disease

Carrie A. Cizauskas, Wendy C. Turner, Neville I. Pitts, Wayne M. Getz & Neville Pitts
Sex hormones, reproductive status, and pathogen load all affect stress. Together with stress, these factors can modulate the immune system and affect disease incidence. Thus, it is important to concurrently measure these factors, along with their seasonal fluctuations, to better understand their complex interactions. Using steroid hormone metabolites from fecal samples, we examined seasonal correlations among zebra and springbok stress, reproduction, gastrointestinal (GI) parasite infections, and anthrax infection signatures in zebra and springbok in Etosha...

Data from: Synergistic effects of fire and elephants on arboreal animals in an African savannah

Robert M. Pringle, Duncan M. Kimuyu, Ryan L. Sensenig, Todd M. Palmer, Corinna Riginos, Kari E. Veblen & Truman P. Young
1. Disturbance is a crucial determinant of animal abundance, distribution and community structure in many ecosystems, but the ways in which multiple disturbance types interact remain poorly understood. The effects of multiple-disturbance interactions can be additive, subadditive or super-additive (synergistic). Synergistic effects in particular can accelerate ecological change; thus, characterizing such synergies, the conditions under which they arise, and how long they persist has been identified as a major goal of ecology. 2. We factorially...

Data from: On the evolutionary interplay between dispersal and local adaptation in heterogeneous environments

Andrew M. Berdahl, Colin J. Torney, Emmanuel Schertzer, Simon A. Levin & Andrew Berdahl
Dispersal, whether in the form of a dandelion seed drifting on the breeze, or a salmon migrating upstream to breed in a non-natal stream, transports genes between locations. At these locations, local adaptation modifies the gene frequencies so their carriers are better suited to particular conditions, be those of newly disturbed soil or a quiet river pool. Both dispersal and local adaptation are major drivers of population structure; however, in general, their respective roles are...

Data from: Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness

Lauchlan H. Fraser, Jason Pither, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Jonathan A. Bennett, Alex Bittel, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Ilsi I. Boldrini, Edward Bork, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, James Cahill, Cameron N. Carlyle, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Anna-Maria Csergo, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis … & Talita Zupo
The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and...

Data from: Exaggerated sexual swellings and male mate choice in primates: testing the reliable indicator hypothesis in the Amboseli baboons

Courtney L. Fitzpatrick, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
The paradigm of competitive males vying to influence female mate choice has been repeatedly upheld, but, increasingly, studies also report competitive females and choosy males. One female trait that is commonly proposed to influence male mate choice is the exaggerated sexual swelling displayed by females of many Old World primate species. The reliable indicator hypothesis posits that females use the exaggerated swellings to compete for access to mates, and that the swellings advertise variation in...

Data from: Large mammal use of protected and community-managed lands in a biodiversity hotspot

Nandini Velho, Umesh Srinivasan, Priya Singh & William F. Laurance
In large parts of the biodiversity-rich tropics, various forest governance regimes often coexist, ranging from governmental administration to highly decentralized community management. Two common forms of such governance are protected areas, and community lands open to limited resource extraction. We studied wildlife occurrences in the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh, where the Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary (EWS) is situated adjacent to community lands governed by the Bugun and Sherdukpen tribes. We conducted transect-based mammal sign...

Data from: Similar but different: dynamic social network analysis highlights fundamental differences between the fission-fusion societies of two equid species, the onager and Grevy's zebra

Daniel I. Rubenstein, Siva R. Sundaresan, Ilya R. Fischhoff, Chayant Tantipathananandh & Tanya Y. Berger-Wolf
Understanding why animal societies take on the form that they do has benefited from insights gained by applying social network analysis to patterns of individual associations. Such analyses typically aggregate data over long time periods even though most selective forces that shape sociality have strong temporal elements. By explicitly incorporating the temporal signal in social interaction data we re-examine the network dynamics of the social systems of the evolutionarily closely-related Grevy’s zebras and wild asses...

Data from: Opportunities and challenges of Integral Projection Models for modeling host-parasite dynamics

C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Andrea L. Graham, Micaela Martinez-Bakker & Dylan Z. Childs
Epidemiological dynamics are shaped by and may in turn shape host demography. These feedbacks can result in hard to predict patterns of disease incidence. Mathematical models that integrate infection and demography are consequently a key tool for informing expectations for disease burden and identifying effective measures for control. A major challenge is capturing the details of infection within individuals and quantifying their downstream impacts to understand population-scale outcomes. For example, parasite loads and antibody titres...

Data from: Self-organizing dominance hierarchies in a wild primate population

Mathias Franz, Emily McLean, Jenny Tung, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Linear dominance hierarchies, which are common in social animals, can profoundly influence access to limited resources, reproductive opportunities and health. In spite of their importance, the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of such hierarchies remain unclear. Two hypotheses explain how linear hierarchies might emerge and change over time. The ‘prior attributes hypothesis’ posits that individual differences in fighting ability directly determine dominance ranks. By contrast, the ‘social dynamics hypothesis’ posits that dominance ranks emerge from...

Data from: The ecology and economics of shorebird conservation in a tropical human-modified landscape

Jonathan M. H. Green, Siriya Sripanomyom, Xingli Giam & David S. Wilcove
1. Rapid and extensive land-use change in intertidal foraging habitat and coastal roosting habitat is thought to be driving major population declines of shorebirds migrating through the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. Along the Inner Gulf of Thailand, a critical stopover and wintering ground for these birds, artificial wetlands (saltpans and aquaculture ponds) have replaced much of the natural coastal ecosystem. 2. We conducted a two-part study to: (i) assess the importance of saltpans and semi-traditional aquaculture...

Data from: Optimal group size in a highly social mammal

A. Catherine Markham, Laurence R. Gesquiere, Susan C. Alberts & Jeanne Altmann
What are the costs and benefits for animals living in groups of different sizes? Balancing the trade-offs between within-group competition (which favors smaller groups) and between-group competition (which favors larger groups) suggests that intermediate-sized groups may be best, yet empirical support for this prediction has largely been lacking. Using long-term data on wild baboons, we provide novel evidence that individuals living in intermediate-sized groups have energetically optimal space-use strategies and lower glucocorticoid (stress hormone) concentrations...

Data from: Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Amanda J. Lea, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C. Alberts & Jenny Tung
Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) ‘wild-feeding’ baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) ‘Lodge’ baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting...

Data from: Irrational time allocation in decision-making

Bastiaan Oud, Ian M. Krajbich, Kevin Miller, Jin Cheong, Matthew Botvinick, Ernst Fehr, Jin Hyun Cheong & Ian Krajbich
Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing...

Data from: Persistent chaos of measles epidemics in the prevaccination United States caused by a small change in seasonal transmission patterns

Benjamin D. Dalziel, Ottar N. Bjornstad, Willem G. Van Panhuis, Donald S. Burke, C. Jessica E. Metcalf, Bryan T. Grenfell & Ottar N. Bjørnstad
Epidemics of infectious diseases often occur in predictable limit cycles. Theory suggests these cycles can be disrupted by high amplitude seasonal fluctuations in transmission rates, resulting in deterministic chaos. However, persistent deterministic chaos has never been observed, in part because sufficiently large oscillations in transmission rates are uncommon. Where they do occur, the resulting deep epidemic troughs break the chain of transmission, leading to epidemic extinction, even in large cities. Here we demonstrate a new...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Princeton University
  • Duke University
  • University of Washington
  • University of Wyoming
  • University of Alberta
  • Institute of Primate Research
  • University of Florida
  • Mpala Research Center and Wildlife Foundation
  • University of Camerino
  • University of Kansas