688 Works

Pig as a reservoir of CRISPR type TST4 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium monophasic variant during 2009–2017 in China

Xiaolei Xie, Zhenyu Wang, Kai Zhang, Yang Li, Yachen Hu, Zhiming Pan, Xiang Chen, Qiuchun Li & Xinan Jiao
CRISPR-based typing was performed to subtype isolates of S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- from humans and animals between 2009 and 2017 in China. CRISPR typing classified all isolates into two lineages and four sub-lineages. All isolates from Lineage II and Lineage IB-1 were Salmonella Typhimurium. All of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i: – isolates were distributed in Lineage IA and Lineage IB-2, which all belonged to ST34 by MLST typing. Only Lineage IB-2 contained ST34...

Pig as a reservoir of CRISPR type TST4 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium monophasic variant during 2009–2017 in China

Xiaolei Xie, Zhenyu Wang, Kai Zhang, Yang Li, Yachen Hu, Zhiming Pan, Xiang Chen, Qiuchun Li & Xinan Jiao
CRISPR-based typing was performed to subtype isolates of S. Typhimurium and its monophasic variant Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- from humans and animals between 2009 and 2017 in China. CRISPR typing classified all isolates into two lineages and four sub-lineages. All isolates from Lineage II and Lineage IB-1 were Salmonella Typhimurium. All of Salmonella 4,[5],12:i: – isolates were distributed in Lineage IA and Lineage IB-2, which all belonged to ST34 by MLST typing. Only Lineage IB-2 contained ST34...

Data from: From the track to the ocean: using flow control to improve marine bio-logging tags for cetaceans

Giovani Fiore, Erik Anderson, C. Spencer Garborg, Mark Murray, Mark Johnson, Michael J. Moore, Laurens Howle & K. Alex Shorter
Bio-logging tags are an important tool for the study of cetaceans, but superficial tags inevitably increase hydrodynamic loading. Substantial forces can be generated by tags on fast-swimming animals, potentially affecting behavior and energetics or promoting early tag removal. Streamlined forms have been used to reduce loading, but these designs can accelerate flow over the top of the tag. This non-axisymmetric flow results in large lift forces (normal to the animal) that become the dominant force...

A Paleocene (Danian) marine osteoglossid (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha) from the Nuussuaq Basin of Greenland, with a brief review of Palaeogene marine bonytongue fishes

Alessio Capobianco, Ethan Foreman & Matt Friedman
The early Palaeogene represents a key interval in the evolution of modern marine fish faunas. Together with the first appearances of many familiar fish lineages characteristic of contemporary marine environments, early Palaeogene marine deposits worldwide feature the occurrence of osteoglossid bonytongues. Their presence in marine rocks is surprising, as these fishes are strictly associated with freshwater environments in modern settings and other parts of the fossil record. Despite its possible relevance to faunal recovery after...

Belowground competition can influence the evolution of root traits

Sara Colom & Regina Baucom
Although root traits play a critical role in mediating plant-plant interactions and resource acquisition from the soil environment, research examining if and how belowground competition can influence the evolution of root traits remains largely unexplored. Here we examine the potential that root traits may evolve as a target of selection from interspecific competition using Ipomoea purpurea and I. hederacea, two closely related morning glory species that commonly co-occur in the United States as a model...

Shared morphological consequences of global warming in North American migratory birds

Brian Weeks, David Willard, Marketa Zimova, Aspen Ellis, Max Witynski, Mary Hennen & Ben Winger
Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are predicted to cause reductions in body size, a key determinant of animal physiology and ecology. Using a four‐decade specimen series of 70 716 individuals of 52 North American migratory bird species, we demonstrate that increasing annual summer temperature over the 40‐year period predicts consistent reductions in body size across these diverse taxa. Concurrently, wing length – an index of body shape that impacts numerous aspects of avian ecology...

Data from: Convergent evolution in social swallows (Aves: Hirundinidae)

Allison E. Johnson, Jonathan S. Mitchell & Mary Bomberger Brown
Behavioral shifts can initiate morphological evolution by pushing lineages into new adaptive zones. This has primarily been examined in ecological behaviors, such as foraging, but social behaviors may also alter morphology. Swallows and martins (Hirundinidae) are aerial insectivores that exhibit a range of social behaviors, from solitary to colonial breeding and foraging. Using a well-resolved phylogenetic tree, a database of social behaviors, and morphological measurements, we ask how shifts from solitary to social breeding and...

Data from: Parasite transmission in a natural multihost-multiparasite community

Stuart K. Auld, Catherine L. Searle & Meghan A. Duffy
Understanding the transmission and dynamics of infectious diseases in natural communities requires understanding the extent to which the ecology, evolution and epidemiology of those diseases are shaped by alternative hosts. We performed laboratory experiments to test how parasite spillover affected traits associated with transmission in two co-occurring parasites: the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa and the fungus Metschnikowia bicuspidata. Both parasites were capable of transmission from the reservoir host (Daphnia dentifera) to the spillover host (Ceriodaphnia dubia),...

Data from: A phylogenomic framework for pelagiarian fishes (Acanthomorpha: Percomorpha) highlights mosaic radiation in the open ocean

Matthew Friedman, Kara Feilich, Hermione Beckett, Michael Alfaro, Brant Faircloth, David Černý, Masaki Miya, Thomas Near & Richard Harrington
The fish clade Pelagiaria, which includes tunas as its most famous members, evolved remarkable morphological and ecological variety in a setting not generally considered conducive to diversification: the open ocean. Relationships within Pelagiaria have proven elusive due to short internodes subtending major lineages suggestive of rapid early divergences. Using a novel sequence dataset of over 1000 ultraconserved DNA elements (UCEs) for 94 of the 286 species of Pelagiaria (more than 70% of genera), we provide...

Data from: Linking micro- and macroevolutionary perspectives to evaluate the role of Quaternary sea-level oscillations in island diversification

Anna Papadopoulou & L. Lacey Knowles
With shifts in island area, isolation, and cycles of island fusion-fission, the role of Quaternary sea-level oscillations as drivers of diversification is complex and not well understood. Here we conduct parallel comparisons of population and species divergence between two island areas of equivalent size that have been affected differently by sea-level oscillations, with the aim to understand the micro- and macroevolutionary dynamics associated with sea-level change. Using genome-wide datasets for a clade of seven Amphiacusta...

Data from: Social selectivity in aging wild chimpanzees

Alexandra Rosati, Lindsey Hagberg, Drew Enigk, Emily Otali, Melissa Emery Thompson, Martin Muller, Richard Wrangham & Zarin Machanda
Humans prioritize close, positive relationships during aging, and socioemotional selectivity theory proposes that this shift causally depend on capacities for thinking about personal future time horizons. To examine this theory, we tested for key elements of human social aging in longitudinal data on wild chimpanzees. Aging male chimpanzees have more mutual friendships characterized by high, equitable investment, whereas younger males have more one-sided relationships. Older males are more likely to be alone, but they also...

Public health and economic benefits of spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in a peri-urban system

Chinmay Sonawane, Gidey Yirga & Neil Carter
Species that depend on anthropogenic waste for food can remove pathogens that pose health risks to humans and livestock, thereby saving lives and money. Quantifying these benefits is rare, yet can lead to innovative conservation solutions. To assess these benefits, we examined the feeding ecology and population size of peri-urban spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Mekelle, Ethiopia. We integrated these field data into a disease transmission model to predict: a) the number of anthrax and...

Dataset from: Predation as an explanation for a latitudinal gradient in arm number among featherstars

James Saulsbury & Tomasz Baumiller
Aim: The role of biotic interactions in generating broad patterns in organismal phenotypes is a central question in macroecology. We investigate global patterns in feeding morphology among featherstars, a globally widespread group of suspension-feeding echinoderms whose evolutionary history has been demonstrably shaped by predators. Location: World's oceans. Major taxon studied: Crinoidea. Methods: We tested for global patterns in the featherstar suspension feeding apparatus, a filter made up of five to 200 arms which is the...

Data from: Linking host traits, interactions with competitors, and disease: mechanistic foundations for disease dilution

Alexander T. Strauss, Anna M. Bowling, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
1.The size of disease epidemics remains difficult to predict, especially when parasites interact with multiple species. Traits of focal hosts like susceptibility could directly predict epidemic size, while other traits including competitive ability might shape it indirectly in communities with a ‘dilution effect’. 2.In a dilution effect, diluter taxa can reduce disease by regulating (lowering) the density of focal hosts (i.e., through competition), or by reducing encounters between focal hosts and parasites. However, these dilution...

Data from: Body temperature, heart rate, and activity patterns of two boreal homeotherms in winter: homeostasis, allostasis, and ecological coexistence

Allyson Menzies, Emily Studd, Yasmine Majchrzak, Michael Peers, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Jeffrey Lane, Andrew McAdam & Murray Humphries
Organisms survive environmental variation by combining homeostatic regulation of critical states with allostatic variation of other traits, and species differences in these responses can contribute to coexistence in temporally-variable environments. In this paper, we simultaneously record variation in three functional traits – body temperature (Tb), heart rate, and activity - in relation to three forms of environmental variation – air temperature (Ta), photoperiod, and experimentally-manipulated resource levels – in free-ranging snowshoe hares and North American...

Data from: Metabolites of n-Butylparaben and iso-Butylparaben exhibit estrogenic properties in MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cell lines

Thomas L. Gonzalez, Rebecca K. Moos, Christina L. Gercsh, Michael D. Johnson, Rudy J. Richardson, Holger M. Koch, James M. Rae & Christina L Gersch
Two oxidized metabolites of n-butylparaben (BuP) and iso-butylparaben (IsoBuP) discovered in human urine samples exhibit structural similarity to endogenous estrogens. We hypothesized that these metabolites bind to the human estrogen receptor (ER) and promote estrogen signaling. We tested this using models of ER-mediated cellular proliferation. The estrogenic properties of 3-hydroxy n-butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (3OH) and 2-hydroxy iso-butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (2OH) were determined using the ER-positive, estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, and T47D. The 3OH metabolite...

Data from: Synopsis and taxonomic revision of three genera in the snake tribe Sonorini

Christian L. Cox, Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Iris A. Holmes, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Corey E. Roelke, Eric N. Smith, Oscar Flores-Villel, Jimmy A. McGuire & Jonathan A. Campbell
Delimiting species is a crucial goal of integrative biology, and yet can be misled by homoplasy and high levels of morphological variation. The snake tribe Sonorini contains three genera that have long confounded taxonomists: Chilomeniscus, Chionactis and Sonora. Dynamic colour evolution in this group, including rampant geographic variation in colour and colour polymorphism, has led to a chaotic taxonomy. We used mitochondrial and high-throughput nuclear data (ddRADseq) and complete taxonomic sampling of each genus to...

Amborella pangenome bam files

Ricky Hu, Armin Patrick Armin Patrick Schebe, Brent Verpaalen, Philipp Bayer, Soodeh Tirnaz, Richard G.J. Hodel, Jacqueline Batley, Douglas E. Soltis, Pamela S. Soltis & David Edwards

Data from: When feeling younger depends on others: the effects of social cues on older consumers

Cesare Amatulli, Alessandro M. Peluso, Gianluigi Guido & Carolyn Yoon
How do social cues in the immediate environment affect older consumers’ tendency to feel younger? And what is the impact of this tendency on consumption? This research investigates the malleability of older consumers’ feel-age and the underlying mechanisms by focusing on the influence of contextual social cues and the downstream effects on consumption behavior. Five experiments provide evidence that the mere presence of young social cues triggers an identity threat for older consumers; and feeling...

Bioinformatics analysis reveals the competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) coexpression network in the tumor microenvironment and prognostic biomarkers in soft tissue sarcomas

Dandan Zou, Yang Wang, Meng Wang, Bo Zhao, Fei Hu, Yanguo Li & Bingming Zhang
Soft tissue sarcomas (STSs) are rare, heterogeneous mesenchymal neoplasias. Understanding the tumor microenvironment (TME) and identifying potential biomarkers for prognosis associated with the TME of STS might provide effective clues for immune therapy. We evaluated the immune scores and stromal scores of STS patients by using the RNA sequencing dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and the ESTIMATE algorithm. Then, the differentially expressed mRNAs (DEGs), miRNAs (DEMs) and lncRNAs (DELs) were identified after...

The oldest Devonian circumpolar ray-finned fish?

Rodrigo Figueroa, Luiz Carlos Weinschütz & Matthew Friedman
Actinopterygians (ray-finned fishes) are the most diverse group of living fishes, but have a sparse early fossil record restricted to low palaeolatitudes. Here we report a new actinopterygian from the Paraná Basin of Brazil, an area that occupied a circumpolar position in the Palaeozoic. Available geological evidence supports a Middle Devonian or older age for this taxon, which shares features of the mandibular symphysis with the latest Devonian Tegeolepis. A phylogenetic analysis resolves these two...

Data from: Human birth seasonality: latitudinal gradient and interplay with childhood disease dynamics

M. Martinez-Bakker, K. M. Bakker, A. A. King & P. Rohani
More than a century of ecological studies have demonstrated the importance of demography in shaping spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics. Surprisingly, the impact of seasonal recruitment on infectious disease systems has received much less attention. Here, we present data encompassing 78 years of monthly natality in the USA, and reveal pronounced seasonality in birth rates, with geographical and temporal variation in both the peak birth timing and amplitude. The timing of annual birth...

Evolution in alternating environments with tunable inter-landscape correlations

Jeff Maltas
Natural populations are often exposed to temporally varying environments. Evolutionary dynamics in varying environments have been extensively studied, though understanding the effects of varying selection pressures remains challenging. Here we investigate how cycling between a pair of statistically related fitness landscapes affects the evolved fitness of an asexually reproducing population. We construct pairs of fitness landscapes that share global fitness features but are correlated with one another in a tunable way, resulting in landscape pairs...

Cervical insufficiency, amniotic fluid sludge, intra-amniotic infection, and maternal bacteremia: the need for a point-of-care test to assess inflammation and bacteria in amniotic fluid

Eun Jung Jung, Roberto Romero, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Carmen Paredes, Ramiro Diaz-Primera, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, Chaur-Dong Hsu & Lami Yeo
Acute cervical insufficiency is frequently associated with subclinical intra-amniotic inflammation and intra-amniotic infection. Amniotic fluid analysis has been recommended prior to the placement of a cervical cerclage given that preexisting infection is associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. We report a case for which commonly available laboratory tests—amniotic fluid Gram stain, white blood cell count, and glucose concentration—did not detect either intra-amniotic inflammation, diagnosed by elevated amniotic fluid interleukin-6, or intra-amniotic infection, diagnosed by cultivation. Following...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

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