40 Works

Data from: Analysis and visualization of complex macroevolutionary dynamics: an example from Australian scincid lizards

Daniel L. Rabosky, Stephen C. Donnellan, Michael Grundler & Irby J. Lovette
The correlation between species diversification and morphological evolution has long been of interest in evolutionary biology. We investigated the relationship between these processes during the radiation of 250+ scincid lizards that constitute Australia's most species-rich clade of terrestrial vertebrates. We generated a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree for the group that was more than 85% complete at the species level and collected multivariate morphometric data for 183 species. We reconstructed the dynamics of species diversification and trait...

Data from: Temporal trends of predation resistance in Paleozoic crinoid arm branching morphologies

Tomasz K. Baumiller & V. J. Syverson
The rise of durophagous predators during the Paleozoic represents an ecological constraint imposed on sessile marine fauna. In crinoids, it has been suggested that increasing predation pressure drove the spread of adaptations against predation. Damage to a crinoid's arms from nonlethal predation varies as a function of arm branching pattern. Here, using a metric for resilience to predation (“expected arm loss,” EAL), we test the hypothesis that the increase in predation led to more predation-resistant...

Data from: \"De novo transcriptome assembly and polymorphism detection in ecological important widely distributed Neotropical toads from the Rhinella marina species complex (Anura: Bufonidade)\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 August 2014-30 September 2014

Coralie Nourisson, Miguel Carneiro, Marcelo Vallinoto & Fernando Sequeira
The toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri are large terrestrial true toads widely distributed in the Neotropical region, which can hybridize in areas of transition between Amazon rain forest and Cerrado biomes. The former is in particular an important ecological species, and a very successful invader. Here, we report de novo transcriptome of R. marina and R. schneideri and polymorphism SNPs identified between the two species. The transcriptome sequencing was performed on an Illumina platform...

Data from: Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism

Elizabeth G. Pringle
In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant–plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it...

Data from: Temporal population genetic instability in range edge Western Toads, Anaxyrus boreas

Iris A. Holmes
In this article, we address the temporal stability of population genetic structure in a range-edge population that is undergoing continual, short-distance colonization events. We sampled western toad, Anaxyrus boreas, breeding populations over 2 seasons near their northern range limit in southeast Alaska. We sampled 20 ponds each during the summers of 2008 and 2009, with 14 ponds sampled in both summers. We found considerable turnover in the population genetic relationships among ponds in those 2...

Data from: Modeling the effects of anthropogenic exploitation and climate change on an endemic stag beetle, Lucanus miwai, of Taiwan

Jen-Pan Huang
Loss of biodiversity is a worldwide phenomenon and conservation of endemic species is becoming a pressing issue. However, species differ in life history characteristics, causing the best strategy for conservation to vary among species. Lucanus miwai is an endemic stag beetle of Taiwan, but the natural history and the conservation status of L. miwai have not been fully studied. Lucanus miwai adults live in forest-edge grassland habitats and are experiencing threats from anthropogenic exploitation. Additionally,...

Data from: Seasonality in the migration and establishment of H3N2 Influenza lineages with epidemic growth and decline

Daniel Zinder, Trevor Bedford, Edward B. Baskerville, Robert J. Woods, Manojit Roy & Mercedes Pascual
Background: Influenza A/H3N2 has been circulating in humans since 1968, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although H3N2 incidence is highly seasonal, how such seasonality contributes to global phylogeographic migration dynamics has not yet been established. In this study, we incorporate time-varying migration rates in a Bayesian MCMC framework. We focus on migration within China and between China and North-America as case studies, then expand the analysis to global communities. Results: Incorporating seasonally varying migration rates...

Data from: Effects of feral cats on the evolution of anti-predator behaviours in island reptiles: insights from an ancient introduction

Binbin Li, Anat Belasen, Panayiotis Pafilis, Peter Bednekoff & Johannes Foufopoulos
Exotic predators have been the driving force behind the extinction of many island endemic species. We examined impacts of feral cats (Felis catus) on the abundance and anti-predator behaviors of Aegean wall lizards (Podarcis erhardii) in the Cyclades (Greece), where cats were introduced thousands of years ago. We compared populations with high and low cat density on Naxos and populations on surrounding islets with no cats. Results show that cats have strong negative effects on...

Data from: \"Identification and assessment of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between Culex complex mosquitoes.\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 August 2014-30 September 2014

David S. Kang & Cheolho Sim
Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes are important vectors for many human pathogens including West Nile encephalitis, Rift Valley fever and Lymphatic filariasis. In this study we characterized a set of SNP markers between two biotypes of the Culex pipiens complex, Culex pipiens form molestus and Culex pipiens form pipiens, for use in a high-resolution genetic mapping and population genetics. DNA pooled from 10 specimens of each biotype were sequenced and analyzed for variation in 28 genes....

Data from: Biodiversity conservation in agriculture requires a multi-scale approach

David J. Gonthier, Katherine K. Ennis, Serge Farinas, Hsun-Yi Hsieh, Aaron L. Iverson, Péter Batáry, Jörgen Rudolphi, Teja Tscharntke, Bradley J. Cardinale, Ivette Perfecto, H.-Y. Hsieh & P. Batary
Biodiversity loss—one of the most prominent forms of modern environmental change—has been heavily driven by terrestrial habitat loss and, in particular, the spread and intensification of agriculture. Expanding agricultural land-use has led to the search for strong conservation strategies, with some suggesting that biodiversity conservation in agriculture is best maximized by reducing local management intensity, such as fertilizer and pesticide application. Others highlight the importance of landscape-level approaches that incorporate natural or semi-natural areas in...

Data from: Microhabitat differences impact phylogeographic concordance of co-distributed species: genomic evidence in montane sedges (Carex L.) from the Rocky Mountains

Rob Massatti & L. Lacey Knowles
By selecting co-distributed, closely related montane sedges from the Rocky Mountains that are similar in virtually all respects but one – their microhabitat affinities – we test predictions about how patterns of genetic variation are expected to differ between Carex nova, an inhabitant of wetlands, and Carex chalciolepis, an inhabitant of drier meadows, slopes, and ridges. Although contemporary populations of the taxa are similarly isolated, the distribution of glacial moraines suggests thattheirpast population connectedness would...

Data from: Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet

Eleanore D. Sternberg, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
Multiple generations of hosts are often exposed to the same pathogens, favoring the evolution of trans-generational defenses. Because females have more opportunities to transfer protective molecules to offspring, many studies have focused on maternally derived protection. However, males of many species can transfer compounds along with sperm, including chemicals that could provide protection. Here, we assess maternally and paternally derived protection in a monarch butterfly-protozoan parasite system where parasite resistance is heavily influenced by secondary...

Data from: The costs and benefits of tolerance to competition in Ipomoea purpurea, the common morning glory

Lindsay Chaney & Regina S. Baucom
Tolerance to competition has been hypothesized to reduce the negative impact of plant-plant competition on fitness. Although competitive interactions are a strong selective force, an analysis of net selection on tolerance to competition is absent in the literature. Using fifty-five full/half-sibling families from 18 maternal lines in the crop weed Ipomoea purpurea we measured fitness and putative tolerance traits when grown with and without competition in an agricultural field. We tested for the presence of...

Data from: Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants

Elizabeth G. Pringle, Alexandria Novo, Ian Ableson, Raymond V. Barbehenn & Rachel L. Vannette
In plant–ant–hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners,...

Data from: Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway

James W. Horn, Zhenxiang Xi, Ricarda Riina, Jess A. Peirson, Ya Yang, Brian L. Dorsey, Paul E. Berry, Charles C. Davis & Kenneth J. Wurdack
The mid-Cenozoic decline of atmospheric CO2 levels that promoted global climate change was critical to shaping contemporary arid ecosystems. Within angiosperms, two CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs)—CAM and C4—evolved from the C3 photosynthetic pathway, enabling more efficient whole-plant function in such environments. Many angiosperm clades with CCMs are thought to have diversified rapidly due to Miocene aridification, but links between this climate change, CCM evolution, and increased net diversification rates (r) remain to be further understood. Euphorbia...

Data from: Automatic detection of key innovations, rate shifts, and diversity-dependence on phylogenetic trees

Daniel L. Rabosky
A number of methods have been developed to infer differential rates of species diversification through time and among clades using time-calibrated phylogenetic trees. However, we lack a general framework that can delineate and quantify heterogeneous mixtures of dynamic processes within single phylogenies. I developed a method that can identify arbitrary numbers of time-varying diversification processes on phylogenies without specifying their locations in advance. The method uses reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo to move between model...

Data from: X-Ray computed tomography of two mammoth calf mummies

Daniel C. Fisher, Ethan A. Shirley, Christopher D. Whalen, Zachary T. Calamari, Adam N. Rountrey, Alexei N. Tikhonov, Bernard Buigues, Frédéric Lacombat, Semyon Grigoriev & Piotr A. Lazarev
Two female woolly mammoth neonates from permafrost in the Siberian Arctic are the most complete mammoth specimens known. Lyuba, found on the Yamal Peninsula, and Khroma, from northernmost Yakutia, died at ages of approximately one and two months, respectively. Both specimens were CT-scanned, yielding detailed information on the stage of development of their dentition and skeleton and insight into conditions associated with death. Both mammoths died after aspirating mud. Khroma's body was frozen soon after...

Data from: Subtype diversity and reassortment potential for co-circulating avian influenza viruses at a diversity hot spot

Heather D. Barton, Pejman Rohani, David E. Stallknecht, Justin Brown & John M. Drake
1. Biological diversity has long been used to measure ecological health. While evidence exists from many ecosystems that declines in host biodiversity may lead to greater risk of disease emergence, the role of pathogen diversity in the emergence process remains poorly understood. Particularly, because a more diverse pool of pathogen types provides more ways in which evolutionary innovations may arise, we suggest that host–pathogen systems with high pathogen diversity are more prone to disease emergence...

Data from: Influence of introgression and geological processes on phylogenetic relationships of western North American mountain suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae)

Peter J. Unmack, Thomas E. Dowling, Nina J. Laitinen, Carol L. Secor, Richard L. Mayden, Dennis K. Shiozawa & Gerald R. Smith
Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western...

Data from: Bayesian species delimitation combining multiple genes and traits in a unified framework

Claudia Solís-Lemus, L. Lacey Knowles & Cécile Ané
Delimitation of species based exclusively on genetic data has been advocated despite a critical knowledge gap: how might such approaches fail because they rely on genetic data alone, and would their accuracy be improved by using multiple data-types. We provide here the requisite framework for addressing these key questions. Because both phenotypic and molecular data can be analyzed in a common Bayesian framework with our program iBPP, we can compare the accuracy of delimited taxa...

Data from: Response of stream ecosystem function and structure to sediment metal: context-dependency and variation among endpoints

David M. Costello & G. Allen Burton
Physicochemical and ecological attributes of ecosystems (i.e., environmental context) can modify the exposure and effects of metals, which presents a challenge for ecosystem management. Furthermore, the functional and structural attributes of an ecosystem may not respond equally to metals or be uniformly responsive to environmental context. We explored how physicochemical and ecological context modified sediment metal dose-response for a suite of functional and structural measures. Two sediments with high (HB) and low (LB) acid volatile...

Data from: Reading the leaves: a comparison of leaf rank and automated areole measurement for quantifying aspects of leaf venation

Walton A. Green, Stefan A. Little, Charles A. Price, Scott L. Wing, Selena Y. Smith, Benjamin Kotrc & Gabriela Doria
The reticulate venation that is characteristic of a dicot leaf has excited interest from systematists for more than a century, and from physiological and developmental botanists for decades. The tools of digital image acquisition and computer image analysis, however, are only now approaching the sophistication needed to quantify aspects of the venation network found in real leaves quickly, easily, accurately, and reliably enough to produce biologically meaningful data. In this paper, we examine 120 leaves...

Data from: Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia

Amir S. Siraj, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J. Bouma, Damtew Yadeta, Daniel Ruiz Carrascal & Mercedes Pascual
The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence...

Data from: The socio-genetics of a complex society: female gelada relatedness patterns mirror association patterns in a multi-level society.

Noah Snyder-Mackler, Susan C. Alberts & Thore J. Bergman
Multilevel societies with fission–fusion dynamics—arguably the most complex animal societies—are defined by two or more nested levels of organization. The core of these societies are modular social units that regularly fission and fuse with one another. Despite convergent evolution in disparate taxa, we know strikingly little about how such societies form and how fitness benefits operate. Understanding the kinship structure of complex societies could inform us about the origins of the social structure as well...

Data from: Host species composition influences infection severity among amphibians in the absence of spillover transmission

Barbara A. Han, Jacob L. Kerby, Catherine L. Searle, Andrew Storfer, Andy R. Blaustein & Andrew R. Blaustein
Wildlife epidemiological outcomes can depend strongly on the composition of an ecological community, particularly when multiple host species are affected by the same pathogen. However, the relationship between host species richness and disease risk can vary with community context and with the degree of spillover transmission that occurs among co-occurring host species. We examined the degree to which host species composition influences infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a widespread fungal pathogen associated with amphibian population...

Registration Year

  • 2014
    40

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    40

Affiliations

  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    40
  • University of Porto
    3
  • Baylor University
    2
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
    2
  • University of Washington
    2
  • Duke University
    2
  • University of Georgia
    2
  • Smithsonian Institution
    2
  • Eastern Michigan University
    2
  • Yale University
    2