40 Works

Data from: Bayesian species delimitation combining multiple genes and traits in a unified framework

Claudia Solís-Lemus, L. Lacey Knowles & Cécile Ané
Delimitation of species based exclusively on genetic data has been advocated despite a critical knowledge gap: how might such approaches fail because they rely on genetic data alone, and would their accuracy be improved by using multiple data-types. We provide here the requisite framework for addressing these key questions. Because both phenotypic and molecular data can be analyzed in a common Bayesian framework with our program iBPP, we can compare the accuracy of delimited taxa...

Data from: Automatic detection of key innovations, rate shifts, and diversity-dependence on phylogenetic trees

Daniel L. Rabosky
A number of methods have been developed to infer differential rates of species diversification through time and among clades using time-calibrated phylogenetic trees. However, we lack a general framework that can delineate and quantify heterogeneous mixtures of dynamic processes within single phylogenies. I developed a method that can identify arbitrary numbers of time-varying diversification processes on phylogenies without specifying their locations in advance. The method uses reversible-jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo to move between model...

Data from: X-Ray computed tomography of two mammoth calf mummies

Daniel C. Fisher, Ethan A. Shirley, Christopher D. Whalen, Zachary T. Calamari, Adam N. Rountrey, Alexei N. Tikhonov, Bernard Buigues, Frédéric Lacombat, Semyon Grigoriev & Piotr A. Lazarev
Two female woolly mammoth neonates from permafrost in the Siberian Arctic are the most complete mammoth specimens known. Lyuba, found on the Yamal Peninsula, and Khroma, from northernmost Yakutia, died at ages of approximately one and two months, respectively. Both specimens were CT-scanned, yielding detailed information on the stage of development of their dentition and skeleton and insight into conditions associated with death. Both mammoths died after aspirating mud. Khroma's body was frozen soon after...

Data from: Subtype diversity and reassortment potential for co-circulating avian influenza viruses at a diversity hot spot

Heather D. Barton, Pejman Rohani, David E. Stallknecht, Justin Brown & John M. Drake
1. Biological diversity has long been used to measure ecological health. While evidence exists from many ecosystems that declines in host biodiversity may lead to greater risk of disease emergence, the role of pathogen diversity in the emergence process remains poorly understood. Particularly, because a more diverse pool of pathogen types provides more ways in which evolutionary innovations may arise, we suggest that host–pathogen systems with high pathogen diversity are more prone to disease emergence...

Data from: The socio-genetics of a complex society: female gelada relatedness patterns mirror association patterns in a multi-level society.

Noah Snyder-Mackler, Susan C. Alberts & Thore J. Bergman
Multilevel societies with fission–fusion dynamics—arguably the most complex animal societies—are defined by two or more nested levels of organization. The core of these societies are modular social units that regularly fission and fuse with one another. Despite convergent evolution in disparate taxa, we know strikingly little about how such societies form and how fitness benefits operate. Understanding the kinship structure of complex societies could inform us about the origins of the social structure as well...

Data from: Plant-derived differences in the composition of aphid honeydew and their effects on colonies of aphid-tending ants

Elizabeth G. Pringle, Alexandria Novo, Ian Ableson, Raymond V. Barbehenn & Rachel L. Vannette
In plant–ant–hemipteran interactions, ants visit plants to consume the honeydew produced by phloem-feeding hemipterans. If genetically based differences in plant phloem chemistry change the chemical composition of hemipteran honeydew, then the plant's genetic constitution could have indirect effects on ants via the hemipterans. If such effects change ant behavior, they could feed back to affect the plant itself. We compared the chemical composition of honeydews produced by Aphis nerii aphid clones on two milkweed congeners,...

Data from: Reading the leaves: a comparison of leaf rank and automated areole measurement for quantifying aspects of leaf venation

Walton A. Green, Stefan A. Little, Charles A. Price, Scott L. Wing, Selena Y. Smith, Benjamin Kotrc & Gabriela Doria
The reticulate venation that is characteristic of a dicot leaf has excited interest from systematists for more than a century, and from physiological and developmental botanists for decades. The tools of digital image acquisition and computer image analysis, however, are only now approaching the sophistication needed to quantify aspects of the venation network found in real leaves quickly, easily, accurately, and reliably enough to produce biologically meaningful data. In this paper, we examine 120 leaves...

Data from: Response of stream ecosystem function and structure to sediment metal: context-dependency and variation among endpoints

David M. Costello & G. Allen Burton
Physicochemical and ecological attributes of ecosystems (i.e., environmental context) can modify the exposure and effects of metals, which presents a challenge for ecosystem management. Furthermore, the functional and structural attributes of an ecosystem may not respond equally to metals or be uniformly responsive to environmental context. We explored how physicochemical and ecological context modified sediment metal dose-response for a suite of functional and structural measures. Two sediments with high (HB) and low (LB) acid volatile...

Data from: Evolutionary bursts in Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) are linked with photosynthetic pathway

James W. Horn, Zhenxiang Xi, Ricarda Riina, Jess A. Peirson, Ya Yang, Brian L. Dorsey, Paul E. Berry, Charles C. Davis & Kenneth J. Wurdack
The mid-Cenozoic decline of atmospheric CO2 levels that promoted global climate change was critical to shaping contemporary arid ecosystems. Within angiosperms, two CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs)—CAM and C4—evolved from the C3 photosynthetic pathway, enabling more efficient whole-plant function in such environments. Many angiosperm clades with CCMs are thought to have diversified rapidly due to Miocene aridification, but links between this climate change, CCM evolution, and increased net diversification rates (r) remain to be further understood. Euphorbia...

Data from: Influence of introgression and geological processes on phylogenetic relationships of western North American mountain suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae)

Peter J. Unmack, Thomas E. Dowling, Nina J. Laitinen, Carol L. Secor, Richard L. Mayden, Dennis K. Shiozawa & Gerald R. Smith
Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western...

Data from: Altitudinal changes in malaria incidence in highlands of Ethiopia and Colombia

Amir S. Siraj, Mauricio Santos-Vega, Menno J. Bouma, Damtew Yadeta, Daniel Ruiz Carrascal & Mercedes Pascual
The impact of global warming on insect-borne diseases and on highland malaria in particular remains controversial. Temperature is known to influence transmission intensity through its effects on the population growth of the mosquito vector and on pathogen development within the vector. Spatiotemporal data at a regional scale in highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia supplied an opportunity to examine how the spatial distribution of the disease changes with the interannual variability of temperature. We provide evidence...

Data from: Shared decision-making as a cost-containment strategy: US physician reactions from a cross-sectional survey

Jon C. Tilburt, Matthew K. Wynia, Victor M. Montori, Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir, Jason S. Egginton, Robert D. Sheeler, Mark Liebow, Katherine M. Humeniuk & Susan Dorr Goold
Objective: To assess US physicians’ attitudes towards using shared decision-making (SDM) to achieve cost containment. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: US medical practice. Participants: 3897 physicians were randomly selected from the AMA Physician Masterfile. Of these, 2556 completed the survey. Main outcome measures: Level of enthusiasm for “Promoting better conversations with patients as a means of lowering healthcare costs”; degree of agreement with “Decision support tools that show costs would be helpful in my practice”...

Data from: Trophic divergence despite morphological convergence in a continental radiation of snakes

Michael C. Grundler & D. L. Rabosky
Ecological and phenotypic convergence is a potential outcome of adaptive radiation in response to ecological opportunity. However, a number of factors may limit convergence during evolutionary radiations, including interregional differences in biogeographic history and clade-specific constraints on form and function. Here, we demonstrate that a single clade of terrestrial snakes from Australia—the oxyuranine elapids—exhibits widespread morphological convergence with a phylogenetically diverse and distantly related assemblage of snakes from North America. Australian elapids have evolved nearly...

Data from: Global phylogenetic structure of the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole reveals the repeated evolution of macroecological patterns

Evan P. Economo, Pavel Klimov, Eli M. Sarnat, Benoit Guénard, Michael D. Weiser, Beatrice Lecroq, L. Lacey Knowles & B. Guenard
Adaptive radiations are of particular interest owing to what they reveal about the ecological and evolutionary regulation of biodiversity. This applies to localized island radiations such as Darwin's finches, and also to rapid radiations occurring on a global scale. Here we analyse the macroevolution and macroecology of Pheidole, a famously hyperdiverse and ecologically dominant ant genus. We generate and analyse four novel datasets: (i) a robust global phylogeny including 285 Pheidole species, (ii) a global...

Data from: Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae

Markos A. Alexandrou, John D. Hall, Charles F. Delwiche, Bradley J. Cardinale, Keith Fritschie, Bastian Bentlage, Anita Narwani, Patrick A. Venail, M. Sabrina Pankey & Todd H. Oakley
The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed...

Data from: Perinatal lead (Pb) exposure results in sex-specific effects on food intake, fat, weight, and insulin response across the murine life-course

Christopher Faulk, Amanda Barks, Brisa N. Sánchez, Zhenzhen Zhang, Olivia S. Anderson, Karen E. Peterson & Dana C. Dolinoy
Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with lower body weight in human infants and late onset obesity in mice. We determined the association of perinatal Pb exposure in mice with changes in obesity-related phenotypes into adulthood. Mice underwent exposure via maternal drinking water supplemented with 0 (control), 2.1 (low), 16 (medium), or 32 (high) ppm Pb-acetate two weeks prior to mating through lactation. Offspring were phenotyped at ages 3, 6, and 9 months for...

Data from: \"Transcriptomic resources for three populations of Conus miliaris (Mollusca: Conidae) from Easter Island, American Samoa and Guam\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 August 2014-30 September 2014

David A. Weese & Thomas F. Duda
Species interactions represent fundamental ecological processes that can have significant impacts on the evolutionary trajectories of species. However, the contribution of predator-prey interactions to genetic and phenotypic divergence within and between species remains largely unknown. In this context, predatory marine snails of the genus Conus exhibit considerable variation in venom composition, a phenomenon that may be due to the evolution of conotoxins in response to predator-prey interactions. It has been hypothesized that geographic differences in...

Data from: Temporal trends of predation resistance in Paleozoic crinoid arm branching morphologies

Tomasz K. Baumiller & V. J. Syverson
The rise of durophagous predators during the Paleozoic represents an ecological constraint imposed on sessile marine fauna. In crinoids, it has been suggested that increasing predation pressure drove the spread of adaptations against predation. Damage to a crinoid's arms from nonlethal predation varies as a function of arm branching pattern. Here, using a metric for resilience to predation (“expected arm loss,” EAL), we test the hypothesis that the increase in predation led to more predation-resistant...

Data from: Analysis and visualization of complex macroevolutionary dynamics: an example from Australian scincid lizards

Daniel L. Rabosky, Stephen C. Donnellan, Michael Grundler & Irby J. Lovette
The correlation between species diversification and morphological evolution has long been of interest in evolutionary biology. We investigated the relationship between these processes during the radiation of 250+ scincid lizards that constitute Australia's most species-rich clade of terrestrial vertebrates. We generated a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree for the group that was more than 85% complete at the species level and collected multivariate morphometric data for 183 species. We reconstructed the dynamics of species diversification and trait...

Data from: Modeling the effects of anthropogenic exploitation and climate change on an endemic stag beetle, Lucanus miwai, of Taiwan

Jen-Pan Huang
Loss of biodiversity is a worldwide phenomenon and conservation of endemic species is becoming a pressing issue. However, species differ in life history characteristics, causing the best strategy for conservation to vary among species. Lucanus miwai is an endemic stag beetle of Taiwan, but the natural history and the conservation status of L. miwai have not been fully studied. Lucanus miwai adults live in forest-edge grassland habitats and are experiencing threats from anthropogenic exploitation. Additionally,...

Data from: Harnessing ant defence at fruits reduces bruchid seed predation in a symbiotic ant-plant mutualism

Elizabeth G. Pringle
In horizontally transmitted mutualisms, mutualists disperse separately and reassemble in each generation with partners genetically unrelated to those in the previous generation. Because of this, there should be no selection on either partner to enhance the other's reproductive output directly. In symbiotic ant–plant mutualisms, myrmecophytic plants host defensive ant colonies, and ants defend the plants from herbivores. Plants and ants disperse separately, and, although ant defence can indirectly increase plant reproduction by reducing folivory, it...

Data from: Temporal population genetic instability in range edge Western Toads, Anaxyrus boreas

Iris A. Holmes
In this article, we address the temporal stability of population genetic structure in a range-edge population that is undergoing continual, short-distance colonization events. We sampled western toad, Anaxyrus boreas, breeding populations over 2 seasons near their northern range limit in southeast Alaska. We sampled 20 ponds each during the summers of 2008 and 2009, with 14 ponds sampled in both summers. We found considerable turnover in the population genetic relationships among ponds in those 2...

Data from: \"De novo transcriptome assembly and polymorphism detection in ecological important widely distributed Neotropical toads from the Rhinella marina species complex (Anura: Bufonidade)\" in Genomic Resources Notes Accepted 1 August 2014-30 September 2014

Coralie Nourisson, Miguel Carneiro, Marcelo Vallinoto & Fernando Sequeira
The toads Rhinella marina and R. schneideri are large terrestrial true toads widely distributed in the Neotropical region, which can hybridize in areas of transition between Amazon rain forest and Cerrado biomes. The former is in particular an important ecological species, and a very successful invader. Here, we report de novo transcriptome of R. marina and R. schneideri and polymorphism SNPs identified between the two species. The transcriptome sequencing was performed on an Illumina platform...

Data from: Understanding the role of physician attire on patient perceptions: a systematic review of the literature— targeting attire to improve likelihood of rapport (TAILOR) investigators

Christopher Michael Petrilli, Megan Mack, Jennifer Janowitz Petrilli, Andy Hickner, Sanjay Saint & Vineet Chopra
Objectives: Despite a growing body of literature, uncertainty regarding the influence of physician dress on patients’ perceptions exists. Therefore, we performed a systematic review to examine the influence of physician attire on patient perceptions including trust, satisfaction and confidence. Setting, participants, interventions and outcomes: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Biosis Previews and Conference Papers Index. Studies that: (1) involved participants ≥18 years of age; (2) evaluated physician attire; and (3) reported patient perceptions related to attire...

Data from: Constructing predictive models of human running

Horst-Moritz Maus, Shai Revzen, John Guckenheimer, Christian Ludwig, Johann Reger & Andre Seyfarth
Running is an essential mode of human locomotion, during which ballistic aerial phases alternate with phases when a single foot contacts the ground. The spring-loaded inverted pendulum (SLIP) provides a starting point for modelling running, and generates ground reaction forces that resemble those of the centre of mass (CoM) of a human runner. Here, we show that while SLIP reproduces within-step kinematics of the CoM in three dimensions, it fails to reproduce stability and predict...

Registration Year

  • 2014

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • University of Porto
  • Baylor University
  • Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
  • University of Washington
  • Duke University
  • University of Georgia
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Eastern Michigan University
  • Yale University