66 Works

Data from: Small montane cloud forest fragments are important for conserving tree diversity in the Ecuadorian Andes

Sarah Jane Wilson & Jeanine M. Rhemtulla
Montane tropical cloud forests, with their complex topography, biodiversity, high numbers of endemic species, and rapid rates of clearing are a top global conservation priority. However, species distributions at local and landscape scales in cloud forests are still poorly understood, in part because few regions have been surveyed. Empirical work has focused on species distributions along elevation gradients, but spatial variation among forests at the same elevation is less commonly investigated. In this study, the...

Data from: Body shape diversity in Triassic‒Early Cretaceous neopterygian fishes: sustained holostean disparity and predominantly gradual increases in teleost phenotypic variety

John T. Clarke & Matt Friedman
Comprising Holostei and Teleostei, the ~32,000 species of neopterygian fishes are anatomically disparate and represent the dominant group of aquatic vertebrates today. However, the pattern by which teleosts rose to represent almost all of this diversity, while their holostean sister group dwindled to 8 extant species and two broad morphologies, is poorly constrained. A geometric morphometric approach was taken to generate a morphospace from over 400 fossil taxa, representing almost all articulated neopterygian taxa known...

Data from: Chimpanzee cooperation is fast, and independent from self-control

Alexandra G. Rosati, Lauren M. DiNicola & Joshua W. Buckholtz
Large-scale cooperation is a hallmark of our species and appears to be unique among primates. Yet the evolutionary mechanisms that drove the emergence of humanlike patterns of cooperation remain unclear. Studying the cognitive processes underlying cooperative behavior in apes, our closest living relatives, can help identify these mechanisms. Accordingly, we employed a novel test battery to assess the willingness of 40 chimpanzees to donate resources, instrumentally help others, and punish a culpable thief. We found...

Data from: Parasite rearing and infection temperatures jointly influence disease transmission and shape seasonality of epidemics

Marta S. Shocket, Daniela Vergara, Andrew J. Sickbert, Jason M. Walsman, Alexander T. Strauss, Jessica L. Hite, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
Seasonal epidemics erupt commonly in nature and are driven by numerous mechanisms. Here, we suggest a new mechanism that could determine the size and timing of seasonal epidemics: rearing environment changes the performance of parasites. This mechanism arises when the environmental conditions in which a parasite is produced impact its performance—independently from the current environment. To illustrate the potential for ‘rearing effects’, we show how temperature influences infection risk (transmission rate) in a Daphnia-fungus disease...

Data from: Variations in HLA-B cell surface expression, half-life and extracellular antigen receptivity

Brogan Yarzabek, Anita J. Zaitouna, Eli Olson, Gayathri N. Silva, Jie Geng, Aviva Geretz, Rasmi Thomas, Sujatha Krishnakumar, Daniel S. Ramon & Malini Raghavan
The highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules present peptide antigens to CD8+ T cells, inducing immunity against infections and cancers. Quality control mediated by peptide loading complex (PLC) components is expected to ensure the cell surface expression of stable peptide-HLA class I complexes. This is exemplified by HLA-B*08:01 in primary human lymphocytes, with both expression level and half-life at the high end of the measured HLA-B expression and stability hierarchies. Conversely, low...

Data from: Internal cranial anatomy of Early Triassic species of †Saurichthys (Actinopterygii: †Saurichthyiformes): implications for the phylogenetic placement of †saurichthyiforms

Thodoris Argyriou, Sam Giles, Matt Friedman, Carlo Romano, Ilja Kogan & Marcelo R. Sanchez-Villagra
Background: †Saurichthyiformes was a successful group of latest Permian-Middle Jurassic predatory actinopterygian fishes and constituted important and widely-distributed components of Triassic marine and freshwater faunas. Their systematic affinities have long been debated, with †saurichthyiforms often being aligned with chondrosteans, a group today comprising sturgeons and paddlefishes. However, their character-rich endocranial anatomy has not been investigated in detail since the first half of the 20th century. Since that time, major advances have occurred in terms of...

Data from: The nearshore cradle of early vertebrate diversification

Lauren Sallan, Matt Friedman, Robert S. Sansom, Charlotte M. Bird & Ivan J. Sansom
Ancestral vertebrate habitats are subject to controversy and obscured by limited, often contradictory paleontological data. We assembled fossil vertebrate occurrence and habitat datasets spanning the middle Paleozoic (480 million to 360 million years ago) and found that early vertebrate clades, both jawed and jawless, originated in restricted, shallow intertidal-subtidal environments. Nearshore divergences gave rise to body plans with different dispersal abilities: Robust fishes shifted shoreward, whereas gracile groups moved seaward. Fresh waters were invaded repeatedly,...

Data from: Terrestrial species adapted to sea dispersal: differences in propagule dispersal of two Caribbean mangroves

Richard G.J. Hodel, L. Lacey Knowles, Stuart F. McDaniel, Adam C. Payton, Jordan F. Dunaway, Pam S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis, Richard G. J. Hodel & Pamela S. Soltis
A central goal of comparative phylogeography is to understand how species-specific traits interact with geomorphological history to govern the geographic distribution of genetic variation within species. One key biotic trait with an immense impact on the spatial patterns of intraspecific genetic differentiation is dispersal. Here we quantify how species-specific traits directly related to dispersal affect genetic variation in terrestrial organisms with adaptations for dispersal by sea, not land—the mangroves of the Caribbean. We investigate the...

Data from: Two pulses of morphological diversification in Pacific pelagic fishes following the Cretaceous–Palaeogene mass extinction

Elizabeth Sibert, Matthew Friedman, Pincelli Hull, Gene Hunt, Richard Norris & Matt Friedman
Molecular phylogenies suggest some major radiations of open-ocean fish clades occurred roughly coincident with the K/Pg boundary, however the timing and nature of this diversification is poorly constrained. Here we investigate evolutionary patterns in ray-finned fishes across the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K/Pg) Mass Extinction 66 million years ago (Ma), using microfossils (isolated teeth) preserved in a South Pacific sediment core spanning 72-43 Ma. Our record does not show significant turnover of fish tooth morphotypes at the K/Pg...

Data from: Ranking stressor impacts on periphyton structure and function with mesocosm experiments and environmental-change forecasts

David M. Costello, Konrad J. Kulacki, Mary E. McCarthy, Scott D. Tiegs & Bradley J. Cardinale
Streams are being subjected to physical, chemical, and biological stresses stemming from both natural and anthropogenic changes to the planet. In the face of limited time and resources, scientists, resource managers, and policy makers need ways to rank stressors and their impacts so that we can prioritize them from the most to least important (i.e., perform 'ecological triage'). We report results from an experiment in which we established a periphyton community from the Huron River...

Data from: Contemporaneous radiations of fungi and plants linked to symbiosis

François Lutzoni, Michael D. Nowak, Michael E. Alfaro, Valérie Reeb, Jolanta Miadlikowska, Michael Krug, A. Elizabeth Arnold, Louise A. Lewis, David L. Swofford, David Hibbett, Khidir Hilu, Timothy Y. James, Dietmar Quandt & Susana Magallón
Interactions between fungi and plants, including parasitism, mutualism, and saprotrophy, have been invoked as key to their respective macroevolutionary success. Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. Fungal colonization of land was associated with at least two origins of terrestrial green algae and preceded embryophytes (as evidenced by losses of fungal flagellum, ca. 720 Ma),...

Data from: Stress in biological invasions: introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels

Francesca Santicchia, Ben Dantzer, Freya Van Kesteren, Rupert Palme, Adriano Martinoli, Nicola Ferrari & Lucas Armand Wauters
1. Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources, or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. 2. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels...

Data from: Within-host priority effects systematically alter pathogen coexistence

Patrick A. Clay, Kailash Dhir, Volker H.W. Rudolf, Meghan A. Duffy & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Coinfection of host populations alters pathogen prevalence, host mortality, and pathogen evolution. Because pathogens compete for limiting resources, whether multiple pathogens can coexist in a host population can depend on their within-host interactions which, in turn, can depend on the order in which pathogens infect hosts (within-host priority effects). However, the consequences of within-host priority effects for pathogen coexistence have not been tested. Using laboratory studies with a coinfected zooplankton system, we found that pathogens...

Data from: An inverse latitudinal gradient in speciation rate for marine fishes

Daniel L. Rabosky, Jonathan Chang, Pascal O. Title, Peter F. Cowman, Lauren Sallan, Matt Friedman, Kristin Kaschner, Cristina Garilao, Thomas J. Near, Marta Coll & Michael E. Alfaro
Far more species of organisms are found in the tropics than in temperate and polar regions, but the evolutionary and ecological causes of this pattern remain controversial1,2. Tropical marine fish communities are much more diverse than cold-water fish communities found at higher latitudes3,4, and several explanations for this latitudinal diversity gradient propose that warm reef environments serve as evolutionary ‘hotspots’ for species formation5,6,7,8. Here we test the relationship between latitude, species richness and speciation rate...

Data from: Analyzing contentious relationships and outlier genes in phylogenomics

Joseph F. Walker, Joseph W. Brown & Stephen A. Smith
Recent studies have demonstrated that conflict is common among gene trees in phylogenomic studies, and that less than one percent of genes may ultimately drive species tree inference in supermatrix analyses. Here, we examined two datasets where supermatrix and coalescent-based species trees conflict. We identified two highly influential “outlier” genes in each dataset. When removed from each dataset, the inferred supermatrix trees matched the topologies obtained from coalescent analyses. We also demonstrate that, while the...

Data from: Phytochemical changes in milkweed induced by elevated CO2 alter wing morphology but not toxin sequestration in monarch butterflies

Leslie E. Decker, Abrianna J. Soule, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
1. Environmental change has the potential to influence trophic interactions by altering the defensive phenotype of prey. 2. Here, we examine the effects of a pervasive environmental change driver, elevated atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (eCO2), on toxin sequestration and flight morphology of a specialist herbivore. 3. We fed monarch butterfly larvae, Danaus plexippus, foliage from four milkweed, Asclepias, species of varying chemical defense profiles grown under either ambient or eCO2. We also infected a subset...

Data from: Empty conformers of HLA-B preferentially bind CD8 and regulate CD8+ T cell function

Jie Geng, John D. Altman, Sujatha Krishnakumar & Malini Raghavan
When complexed with antigenic peptides, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I (HLA-I) molecules initiate CD8+ T cell responses via interaction with the T cell receptor (TCR) and co-receptor CD8. Peptides are generally critical for the stable cell surface expression of HLA-I molecules. However, for HLA-I alleles such as HLA-B35:01, peptide-deficient (empty) heterodimers are thermostable and detectable on the cell surface. Additionally, peptide-deficient HLA-B35:01 tetramers preferentially bind CD8 and to a majority of blood-derived CD8+ T...

Data from: Evolution of the latitudinal gradient in the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole

Evan P. Economo, Jen-Pan Huang, Georg Fischer, Eli M. Sarnat, Nitish Narula, Milan Janda, Benoit Guénard, John T. Longino & L. Lacey Knowles
Aim: The latitudinal diversity gradient is the dominant pattern of life on Earth, but a consensus understanding of its origins has remained elusive. The analysis of recently diverged, hyper-rich invertebrate groups provides an opportunity to investigate latitudinal patterns with the statistical power of large trees while minimizing potentially confounding variation in ecology and history. Here, we synthesize global phylogenetic and macroecological data on a hyperdiverse (>1100 species) ant radiation, Pheidole, and test predictions of three...

Data from: Multiple forms of selection shape reproductive isolation in a primate hybrid zone

Marcella D. Baiz, Priscilla K. Tucker & Liliana Cortés-Ortiz
Speciation occurs when populations diverge and become reproductively isolated from each other. Natural selection is commonly accepted to play a large role in this process and it has been widely assumed that reproductive isolation often results as a byproduct of divergence driven by adaptation in allopatry. When such populations come into secondary contact, reinforcement can act to strengthen reproductive isolation, but the frequency and importance of this process is still unknown. Here, we explored genomic...

Data from: Evaluating a handheld decision support device in pediatric intensive care settings

Tera L. Reynolds, Patricia R. DeLucia, Karen A. Esquibel, Todd Gage, Noah J. Wheeler, J. Adam Randell, James G. Stevenson & Kai Zheng
Objective: To evaluate end-user acceptance and the effect of a commercial handheld decision support device in pediatric intensive care settings. The technology, pac2, was designed to assist nurses in calculating medication dose volumes and infusion rates at the bedside. Materials and Methods: The devices, manufactured by InformMed Inc., were deployed in the pediatric and neonatal intensive care units in two health systems. This mixed methods study assessed end-user acceptance, as well as pac2’s effect on...

Data from: Evolutionary history of the angiosperm flora of China

Li-Min Lu, Ling-Feng Mao, Tuo Yang, Jian-Fei Ye, Bing Liu, Hong-Lei Li, Miao Sun, Joseph T. Miller, Sarah Mathews, Hai-Hua Hu, Yan-Ting Niu, Dan-Xiao Peng, You-Hua Chen, Stephen A. Smith, Min Chen, Kun-Li Xiang, Chi-Toan Le, Viet-Cuong Dang, An-Ming Lu, Pamela S. Soltis, Douglas E. Soltis, Jian-Hua Li & Zhi-Duan Chen
High species diversity may result from recent rapid speciation in a ‘cradle’ and/or the gradual accumulation and preservation of species over time in a ‘museum’1,2. China harbours nearly 10% of angiosperm species worldwide and has long been considered as both a museum, owing to the presence of many species with hypothesized ancient origins3,4, and a cradle, as many lineages have originated as recent topographic changes and climatic shifts—such as the formation of the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau...

Data from: Age‐dependent leaf physiology and consequences for crown‐scale carbon uptake during the dry season in an Amazon evergreen forest

Loren P. Albert, Jin Wu, Neill Prohaska, Plinio Barbosa De Camargo, Travis E. Huxman, Edgard S. Tribuzy, Valeriy Y. Ivanov, Rafael S. Oliveira, Sabrina Garcia, Marielle N. Smith, Raimundo Cosme Oliveira Junior, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Rodrigo Da Silva, Scott C. Stark, Giordane A. Martins, Deliane V. Penha & Scott R. Saleska
* Satellite and tower-based metrics of forest-scale photosynthesis generally increase with dry season progression across central Amazônia, but the underlying mechanisms lack consensus. * We conducted demographic surveys of leaf age composition, and measured age-dependence of leaf physiology in broadleaf canopy trees of abundant species at a central eastern Amazon site. Using a novel leaf-to-branch scaling approach, we used this data to independently test the much-debated hypothesis—arising from satellite and tower-based observations—that leaf phenology could...

Data from: Social and ecological drivers of reproductive seasonality in geladas

Elizabeth Tinsley Johnson, Noah Snyder-Mackler, Amy Lu, Thore J. Bergman & Jacinta C. Beehner
Many non-seasonally breeding mammals demonstrate some degree of synchrony in births, which is generally associated with ecological factors that mediate fecundity. However, disruptive social events, such as alpha male replacements, also have the potential to affect the timing of female reproduction. Here, we examined reproductive seasonality in a wild population of geladas (Theropithecus gelada) living at high altitudes in an afro-alpine ecosystem in Ethiopia. Using 9 years of demographic data (2006-2014) we determined that, while...

Data from: Vegetation connectivity increases ant activity and potential for ant-provided biocontrol services in a tropical agroforest

Estelí Jimenez-Soto, Jonathan R. Morris, Deborah K. Letourneau, Stacy M. Philpott. & Stacy M. Philpott
In natural and managed systems, connections between trees are important structural resources for arboreal ant communities with ecosystem-level effects. However, ongoing agricultural intensification in agroforestry systems, which reduces shade trees and connectivity between trees and crop plants, may hinder ant recruitment rates to resources and pest control services provided by ants. We examined whether increasing connectivity between coffee plants and shade trees in coffee plantations increases ant activity and enhances biological control of the coffee...

Data from: Phylogenies and diversification rates: variance cannot be ignored

Daniel L Rabosky
A recent pair of articles published in the journal Evolution presented a test for assessing the validity of hierarchical macroevolutionary models. The premise of the test is to compare numerical point estimates of parameters from two levels of analysis; if the estimates differ, the hierarchical model is purportedly flawed. The articles in question (Meyer and Wiens 2017; Meyer et al. 2018) apply their proposed test to BAMM, a scientific software program that uses a Bayesian...

Registration Year

  • 2018
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  • Dataset
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Affiliations

  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
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  • Yale University
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  • Rice University
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  • University of Washington
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