66 Works

Data from: A framework for resolving cryptic species: a case study from the lizards of the Australian Wet Tropics

Sonal Singhal, Conrad J. Hoskin, Patrick Couper, Sally Potter & Craig Moritz
As we collect range-wide genetic data for morphologically-defined species, we increasingly unearth evidence for cryptic diversity. Delimiting this cryptic diversity is challenging, both because the divergences span a continuum and because the lack of overt morphological differentiation suggests divergence has proceeded heterogeneously. Here, we address these challenges as we diagnose and describe species in three co-occurring species groups of Australian lizards. By integrating genomic and morphological data with data on hybridization and introgression from contact...

Data from: A robust and tunable mitotic oscillator in artificial cells

Ye Guan, Zhengda Li, Shiyuan Wang, Patrick M Barnes, Xuwen Liu, Haotian Xu, Minjun Jin, Allen P Liu & Qiong Yang
Single-cell analysis is pivotal to deciphering complex phenomena like heterogeneity, bistability, and asynchronous oscillations, where a population ensemble cannot represent individual behaviors. Bulk cell-free systems, despite having unique advantages of manipulation and characterization of biochemical networks, lack the essential single-cell information to understand a class of out-of-steady-state dynamics including cell cycles. Here, by encapsulating Xenopus egg extracts in water-in-oil microemulsions, we developed artificial cells that are adjustable in sizes and periods, sustain mitotic oscillations for...

Data from: Is biasing offspring sex ratio adaptive? a test of Fisher’s principle across multiple generations of a wild mammal in a fluctuating environment

Andrea E. Wishart, Cory T. Williams, Andrew G. McAdam, Stan Boutin, Ben Dantzer, Murray M. Humphries, Dave W. Coltman, Jeffrey E. Lane & David W. Coltman
Fisher’s principle explains that population sex ratio in sexually reproducing organisms is maintained at 1:1 due to negative frequency-dependent selection, such that individuals of the rare sex realize greater reproductive opportunity than individuals of the more common sex until equilibrium is reached. If biasing offspring sex ratio towards the rare sex is adaptive, individuals that do so should have a higher number of grandoffspring. In a wild population of North American red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus)...

Data from: Evaluating consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on prey density using field times series data

, Scott D. Peacor, David B. Bunnell, Henry A. Vanderploeg, Steve A. Pothoven, Ashley K. Elgin, James R. Bence, Jing Jiao, Edward L. Ionides, D.B. Bunnell, J.A. Marino, E.L. Ionides, S.A. Pothoven, A.K. Elgin, H.A. Vanderploeg, S.D. Peacor & J.R. Bence
Determining the degree to which predation affects prey abundance in natural communities constitutes a key goal of ecological research. Predators can affect prey through both consumptive effects (CEs) and nonconsumptive effects (NCEs), although the contributions of each mechanism to the density of prey populations remain largely hypothetical in most systems. Common statistical methods applied to time series data cannot elucidate the mechanisms responsible for hypothesized predator effects on prey density (e.g., differentiate CEs from NCEs),...

Data from: Migratory monarchs that encounter resident monarchs show life-history differences and higher rates of parasite infection

Dara A. Satterfield, John C. Maerz, Mark D. Hunter, D. T. Tyler Flockhart, Keith A. Hobson, D. Ryan Norris, Hillary Streit, Jacobus C. De Roode & Sonia Altizer
Environmental change induces some wildlife populations to shift from migratory to resident behaviours. Newly formed resident populations could influence the health and behaviour of remaining migrants. We investigated migrant-resident interactions among monarch butterflies and consequences for life history and parasitism. Eastern North American monarchs migrate annually to Mexico, but some now breed year-round on exotic milkweed in the southern U.S. and experience high infection prevalence of protozoan parasites. Using stable isotopes (2H, 13C) and cardenolide...

Data from: Elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide reduce monarch tolerance and increase parasite virulence by altering the medicinal properties of milkweeds

Leslie E. Decker, Jacobus C. De Roode & Mark D. Hunter
Hosts combat their parasites using mechanisms of resistance and tolerance, which together determine parasite virulence. Environmental factors, including diet, mediate the impact of parasites on hosts, with diet providing nutritional and medicinal properties. Here, we present the first evidence that ongoing environmental change decreases host tolerance and increases parasite virulence through a loss of dietary medicinal quality. Monarch butterflies use dietary toxins (cardenolides) to reduce the deleterious impacts of a protozoan parasite. We fed monarch...

Data from: Progressive sensitivity of trophic levels to warming underlies an elevational gradient in ant-aphid mutualism strength

Annika S. Nelson, Riley T. Pratt, Jessica D. Pratt, Richard Alexander Smith, Cole T. Symanski, Cathrine Prenot & Kailen A. Mooney
Although species interactions are often proposed to be stronger at lower latitudes and elevations, few studies have evaluated the mechanisms driving such patterns. In this study, we assessed whether, and by which mechanisms, abiotic changes associated with elevation altered the outcome of an ant-aphid protection mutualism. To do so, we characterized the multi-trophic interactions among the ant Formica podzolica, the aphid Aphis varians, and aphid natural enemies occurring on the plant Chamerion angustifolium within replicate...

Data from: Human birth seasonality: latitudinal gradient and interplay with childhood disease dynamics

M. Martinez-Bakker, K. M. Bakker, A. A. King & P. Rohani
More than a century of ecological studies have demonstrated the importance of demography in shaping spatial and temporal variation in population dynamics. Surprisingly, the impact of seasonal recruitment on infectious disease systems has received much less attention. Here, we present data encompassing 78 years of monthly natality in the USA, and reveal pronounced seasonality in birth rates, with geographical and temporal variation in both the peak birth timing and amplitude. The timing of annual birth...

Data from: Synopsis and taxonomic revision of three genera in the snake tribe Sonorini

Christian L. Cox, Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Iris A. Holmes, Jacobo Reyes-Velasco, Corey E. Roelke, Eric N. Smith, Oscar Flores-Villel, Jimmy A. McGuire & Jonathan A. Campbell
Delimiting species is a crucial goal of integrative biology, and yet can be misled by homoplasy and high levels of morphological variation. The snake tribe Sonorini contains three genera that have long confounded taxonomists: Chilomeniscus, Chionactis and Sonora. Dynamic colour evolution in this group, including rampant geographic variation in colour and colour polymorphism, has led to a chaotic taxonomy. We used mitochondrial and high-throughput nuclear data (ddRADseq) and complete taxonomic sampling of each genus to...

Data from: When feeling younger depends on others: the effects of social cues on older consumers

Cesare Amatulli, Alessandro M. Peluso, Gianluigi Guido & Carolyn Yoon
How do social cues in the immediate environment affect older consumers’ tendency to feel younger? And what is the impact of this tendency on consumption? This research investigates the malleability of older consumers’ feel-age and the underlying mechanisms by focusing on the influence of contextual social cues and the downstream effects on consumption behavior. Five experiments provide evidence that the mere presence of young social cues triggers an identity threat for older consumers; and feeling...

Data from: BAMM at the court of false equivalency: a response to Meyer and Wiens

Daniel L. Rabosky
The software program BAMM has been widely used to study rates of speciation, extinction, and phenotypic evolution on phylogenetic trees. The program implements a model-based clustering algorithm to identify clades that share common macroevolutionary rate dynamics and to estimate parameters. A recent simulation study by Meyer and Wiens (M&W) claimed that (i) a simple inference framework ("MS") performs much better than BAMM, and (ii) evolutionary rates inferred with BAMM are poorly correlated with true rates....

Data from: The relative contribution of natural landscapes and human-mediated factors on the connectivity of a noxious invasive weed

Diego F. Alvarado-Serrano, Megan L. Van Etten, Shu-Mei Chang & Regina S. Baucom
Examining how the landscape may influence gene flow is at the forefront of understanding population differentiation and adaptation. Such understanding is crucial in light of ongoing environmental changes and the elevated risk of ecosystems alteration. In particular, knowledge of how humans may influence population structure is imperative to allow for informed decisions in management and conservation as well as to gain a better understanding of anthropogenic impacts on the interplay between gene flow, genetic drift...

Data from: Crop pests and predators exhibit inconsistent responses to surrounding landscape composition

Daniel S. Karp, Rebecca Chaplin-Kramer, Timothy D. Meehan, Emily A. Martin, Fabrice DeClerck, Heather Grab, Claudio Gratton, Lauren Hunt, Ashley E. Larsen, Alejandra Martínez-Salinas, Megan E. O’Rourke, Adrien Rusch, Katja Poveda, Mattias Jonsson, Jay A. Rosenheim, Nancy A. Schellhorn, Teja Tscharntke, Stephen D. Wratten, Wei Zhang, Aaron L. Iverson, Lynn S. Adler, Matthias Albrecht, Audrey Alignier, Gina M. Angelella, Muhammad Zubair Anjum … & Yi Zou
The idea that noncrop habitat enhances pest control and represents a win–win opportunity to conserve biodiversity and bolster yields has emerged as an agroecological paradigm. However, while noncrop habitat in landscapes surrounding farms sometimes benefits pest predators, natural enemy responses remain heterogeneous across studies and effects on pests are inconclusive. The observed heterogeneity in species responses to noncrop habitat may be biological in origin or could result from variation in how habitat and biocontrol are...

Data from: Metabolites of n-Butylparaben and iso-Butylparaben exhibit estrogenic properties in MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cell lines

Thomas L. Gonzalez, Rebecca K. Moos, Christina L. Gercsh, Michael D. Johnson, Rudy J. Richardson, Holger M. Koch, James M. Rae & Christina L Gersch
Two oxidized metabolites of n-butylparaben (BuP) and iso-butylparaben (IsoBuP) discovered in human urine samples exhibit structural similarity to endogenous estrogens. We hypothesized that these metabolites bind to the human estrogen receptor (ER) and promote estrogen signaling. We tested this using models of ER-mediated cellular proliferation. The estrogenic properties of 3-hydroxy n-butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (3OH) and 2-hydroxy iso-butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (2OH) were determined using the ER-positive, estrogen-dependent human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, and T47D. The 3OH metabolite...

Data from: Rautangaroa, a new genus of feather star (Echinodermata: Crinoidea) from the Oligocene of New Zealand

Tomasz K. Baumiller & R. Ewan Fordyce
We describe a nearly complete, and thus extremely rare, featherstar (Crinoidea, Comatulida) from Oligocene strata of North Otago/South Canterbury, New Zealand. A detailed analysis of this specimen, as well as newly recovered material and previously described fragmentary remains from nearby contemporaneous sedimentary units, in addition to relevant historical specimens, lead us to conclude that it cannot be placed in any currently established genus. A new genus, Rautangaroa, is proposed to accommodate it. This intact specimen...

Data from: Inferring diversification rate variation from phylogenies with fossils

Jonathan S. Mitchell, Rampal S. Etienne & Daniel L. Rabosky
Time-calibrated phylogenies of living species have been widely used to study the tempo and mode of species diversification. However, it is increasingly clear that inferences about species diversification — extinction rates in particular — can be unreliable in the absence of paleontological data. We introduce a general framework based on the fossilized birth-death process for studying speciation-extinction dynamics on phylogenies of extant and extinct species. Our model assumes that phylogenies can be modeled as a...

Data from: Linking host traits, interactions with competitors, and disease: mechanistic foundations for disease dilution

Alexander T. Strauss, Anna M. Bowling, Meghan A. Duffy, Carla E. Cáceres & Spencer R. Hall
1.The size of disease epidemics remains difficult to predict, especially when parasites interact with multiple species. Traits of focal hosts like susceptibility could directly predict epidemic size, while other traits including competitive ability might shape it indirectly in communities with a ‘dilution effect’. 2.In a dilution effect, diluter taxa can reduce disease by regulating (lowering) the density of focal hosts (i.e., through competition), or by reducing encounters between focal hosts and parasites. However, these dilution...

Data from: Globally invasive genotypes of the amphibian chytrid outcompete an enzootic lineage in coinfections

Thomas S. Jenkinson, David Rodriguez, Rebecca A. Clemons, Lucas A. Michelotti, Kelly R. Zamudio, Luís Felipe Toledo, Joyce E. Longcore & Timothy Y. James
Competition between genotypes is likely to be a key driver of pathogen evolution, particularly following a geographic invasion by distant strains. Theory predicts that competition between disease strains will result in the most virulent strain persisting. Despite its evolutionary implications, the role of strain competition in shaping populations remains untested for most pathogens. We experimentally investigated the in vivo competitive differences between two divergent lineages of the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd). These Bd...

Data from: Priority effects within coinfected hosts can drive unexpected population-scale patterns of parasite prevalence

Patrick A. Clay, Michael H. Cortez, Meghan A. Duffy & Volker H. W. Rudolf
Organisms are frequently coinfected by multiple parasite strains and species, and interactions between parasites within hosts are known to influence parasite prevalence and diversity, as well as epidemic timing. Importantly, interactions between coinfecting parasites can be affected by the order in which they infect hosts (i.e. within-host priority effects). In this study, we use a single-host, two-pathogen, SI model with environmental transmission to explore how within-host priority effects scale up to alter host population-scale infection...

Data from: Toxins or medicines? Phytoplankton diets mediate host and parasite fitness in a freshwater system

Kristel F. Sanchez, Naomi Huntley, Meghan A. Duffy & Mark D. Hunter
Diets must satisfy the everyday metabolic requirements of organisms and can also serve as medicines to combat disease. Currently, the medicinal role of diets is much better understood in terrestrial than in aquatic ecosystems. This is surprising because phytoplankton species synthesize secondary metabolites with known antimicrobial properties. Here, we investigated the medicinal properties of phytoplankton (including toxin-producing cyanobacteria) against parasites of the dominant freshwater herbivore, Daphnia. We fed Daphnia dentifera on green algae and toxic...

Data from: Developmental shifts in social cognition: socio-emotional biases across the lifespan in rhesus monkeys

Alexandra G. Rosati, Alyssa M. Arre, Michael L. Platt & Laurie R. Santos
Humans exhibit a suite of developmental changes in social cognition across the lifespan. To what extent are these developmental patterns unique? We first review several social domains in which humans undergo critical ontogenetic changes in socio-cognitive processing, including social attention and theory of mind. We then examine whether one human developmental transition—a shift in socioemotional preferences—also occurs in nonhuman primates. Specifically, we experimentally measured socioemotional processing in a large population of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)...

Data from: Social density, but not sex ratio, drives ecdysteroid hormone provisioning to eggs by female house crickets (Acheta domesticus)

Katherine C. Crocker, Mark Hunter & Mark D. Hunter
Social environment profoundly influences the fitness of animals, affecting their probability of survival to adulthood, longevity, and reproductive output. The social conditions experienced by parents at the time of reproduction predict the social environments that offspring will face. Despite clear challenges in predicting future environmental conditions, adaptive maternal effects provide a mechanism of passing environmental information from parent to offspring, and are now considered pervasive in natural systems. Maternal effects have been widely studied in...

Data from: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi mediate herbivore-induction of plant defenses differently above and belowground

Amanda R. Meier & Mark D. Hunter
Plants are exposed to herbivores and symbionts above and belowground. Herbivores aboveground alter plant defenses in both leaves and roots, affecting plant-herbivore interactions above and belowground. Root symbionts, such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), also influence the defenses of leaves and roots, and alter plant responses to herbivory. However, we lack an understanding of how AMF mediate plant responses to herbivores simultaneously in above and belowground plant tissues, despite the ubiquity of such interactions and...

Data from: The effects of milkweed induced defense on parasite resistance in monarch butterflies, Danaus plexippus

Wen-Hao Tan, Leiling Tao, Kevin M. Hoang, Mark D. Hunter & Jacobus C. De Roode
Many plants express induced defenses against herbivores through increasing the production of toxic secondary chemicals following damage. Phytochemical induction can directly or indirectly affect other organisms within the community. In tri-trophic systems, increased concentrations of plant toxins could be detrimental to plants if herbivores can sequester these toxins as protective chemicals for themselves. Thus, through trophic interactions, induction can lead to either positive or negative effects on plant fitness. We examined the effects of milkweed...

Data from: Sex-dependent differences in central artery hemodynamics in normal and fibulin-5 deficient mice: implications for ageing

Federica Cuomo, Jacopo Ferruzzi, Pradyumn Agarwal, Chen Li, Zhen W. Zhuang, Jay D. Humphrey & C. Alberto Figueroa
Mouse models provide unique opportunities to study vascular disease, but they demand increased experimental and computational resolution. We describe a workflow for combining in vivo and in vitro biomechanical data to build mouse-specific computational models of the central vasculature including regional variations in biaxial wall stiffness, thickness and perivascular support. These fluid–solid interaction models are informed by micro-computed tomography imaging and in vivo ultrasound and pressure measurements, and include mouse-specific inflow and outflow boundary conditions....

Registration Year

  • 2018
    66

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    66

Affiliations

  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
    66
  • Yale University
    5
  • University of Arizona
    4
  • University of Pennsylvania
    3
  • Stanford University
    3
  • National Autonomous University of Mexico
    3
  • University of Sao Paulo
    3
  • Emory University
    3
  • Rice University
    2
  • University of Washington
    2