17 Works

Data from: Intense selective hunting leads to artificial evolution in horn size

Gabriel Pigeon, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W. Coltman & Fanie Pelletier
The potential for selective harvests to induce rapid evolutionary change is an important question for conservation and evolutionary biology, with numerous biological, social and economic implications. We analyze 39 years of phenotypic data on horn size in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) subject to intense trophy hunting for 23 years, after which harvests nearly ceased. Our analyses revealed a significant decline in genetic value for horn length of rams, consistent with an evolutionary response to artificial...

Data from: Environmental and evolutionary effects on horn growth of male bighorn sheep

Mathieu Douhard, Gabriel Pigeon, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Dave W. Coltmann, Simon Guillemette, Fanie Pelletier & David W. Coltman
The development of male secondary sexual characters such as antlers or horns has substantial biological and socio-economic importance because in many species these traits affect male fitness positively through sexual selection and negatively through trophy hunting. Both environmental conditions and selective hunting can affect horn growth but their relative importance remains unexplored. We first examined how a large-scale climate index, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), local weather and population density influenced both absolute and relative...

Data from: Paternal reproductive success drives sex allocation in a wild mammal

Mathieu Douhard, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Dave W. Coltman, Fanie Pelletier & David W. Coltman
Parents should bias sex allocation toward offspring of the sex most likely to provide higher fitness returns. Trivers and Willard proposed that for polygynous mammals, females should adjust sex-ratio at conception or bias allocation of resources toward the most profitable sex, according to their own body condition. However, the possibility that mammalian fathers may influence sex allocation has seldom been considered. Here, we show that the probability of having a son increased from 0.31 to...

Data from: Hunting promotes sexual conflict in brown bears

Jacinthe Gosselin, Martin Leclerc, Andreas Zedrosser, Sam M. J. G. Steyaert, Jon E. Swenson & Fanie Pelletier
The removal of individuals through hunting can destabilize social structure, potentially affecting population dynamics. Although previous studies have shown that hunting can indirectly reduce juvenile survival through increased sexually selected infanticide (SSI), very little is known about the spatiotemporal effects of male hunting on juvenile survival. Using detailed individual monitoring of a hunted population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in Sweden (1991–2011), we assessed the spatiotemporal effect of male removal on cub survival. We modelled...

Data from: Demographic drivers of age-dependent sexual selection

Alexandre M. Martin, Marco Festa-Bianchet, David W. Coltman & Fanie Pelletier
Sexual selection has a critical role in evolution, and it is fundamental to identify what ecological factors drive its variation. Disentangling the ecological correlates of sexual selection over the long term, however, is challenging and has rarely been done in nature. We sought to assess how demographic changes influenced the intensity, direction and form of sexual selection and whether selective pressures varied with age. We tested whether breeder sex ratio, number of competitors and age...

Data from: Partitioning the effect of composition and diversity of tree communities on leaf litter decomposition and soil respiration

Mark Davidson Jewell, Bill Shipley, Etienne Low-Decarie, Cornelia M. Tobner, Alain Paquette, Christian Messier & Peter B. Reich
The decomposition of plant material is an important ecosystem process influencing both carbon cycling and soil nutrient availability. Quantifying how plant diversity affects decomposition is thus crucial for predicting the effect of the global decline in plant diversity on ecosystem functioning. Plant diversity could affect the decomposition process both directly through the diversity of the litter, and/or indirectly through the diversity of the host plant community and its affect on the decomposition environment. Using a...

Data from: Cohort variation in individual body mass dissipates with age in large herbivores

Sandra Hamel, Jean-Michel Gaillard, Nigel G. Yoccoz, Steve Albon, Steeve D. Côté, Joseph M. Craine, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Mathieu Garel, Phyllis Lee, Cynthia Moss, Daniel H. Nussey, Fanie Pelletier, Audun Stien & Torkild Tveraa
Environmental conditions experienced during early growth and development markedly shape phenotypic traits. Consequently, individuals of the same cohort may show similar life-history tactics throughout life. Conditions experienced later in life, however, could fine-tune these initial differences, either increasing (cumulative effect) or decreasing (compensatory effect) the magnitude of cohort variation with increasing age. Our novel comparative analysis that quantifies cohort variation in individual body size trajectories shows that initial cohort variation dissipates throughout life, and that...

Data from: An integrative framework of coexistence mechanisms in competitive metacommunities

Bertrand Fournier, Nicolas Mouquet, Mathew A. Leibold & Dominique Gravel
Species distribution in a metacommunity varies according to their traits, the distribution of environmental conditions and connectivity among localities. These ingredients contribute to coexistence across spatial scales via species sorting, patch dynamics, mass effects and neutral dynamics. These mechanisms however seldom act in isolation and the impact of landscape configuration on their relative importance remains poorly understood. We present a new model of metacommunity dynamics that simultaneously considers these four possible mechanisms over spatially explicit...

Data from: Individual variation in energy-saving heterothermy affects survival and reproductive success

Melanie Dammhahn, Manuelle Landry-Cuerrier, Denis Réale, Dany Garant & Murray M. Humphries
Given fundamental energetic trade-offs among growth, maintenance and reproduction, individual differences in energy saving should have consequences for survival and reproductive success. Many endotherms use periodic heterothermy to reduce energy and water requirements and individual variation in heterothermy should have fitness consequences. However, attempts to disentangle individual- and population-level variation in heterothermy are scarce. Here, we quantified patterns of heterothermy of 55 free-ranging eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), food-hoarding hibernators. Over five hibernation periods, we obtained...

Data from: Human shields mediate sexual conflict in a top predator

Sam M.J.G. Steyaert, Martin Leclerc, Fanie Pelletier, Jonas Kindberg, Sven Brunberg, Jon E. Swenson, Andreas Zedrosser & S. M. J. G. Steyaert
Selecting the right habitat in a risky landscape is crucial for an individual's survival and reproduction. In predator–prey systems, prey often can anticipate the habitat use of their main predator and may use protective associates (i.e. typically an apex predator) as shields against predation. Although never tested, such mechanisms should also evolve in systems in which sexual conflict affects offspring survival. Here, we assessed the relationship between offspring survival and habitat selection, as well as...

Data from: An assessment of the reliability of quantitative genetics estimates in study systems with high rate of extra-pair reproduction and low recruitment

Audrey Bourret & Dany Garant
Quantitative genetics approaches, and particularly animal models, are widely used to assess the genetic (co)variance of key fitness related traits and infer adaptive potential of wild populations. Despite the importance of precision and accuracy of genetic variance estimates and their potential sensitivity to various ecological and population specific factors, their reliability is rarely tested explicitly. Here, we used simulations and empirical data collected from an 11-year study on tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), a species showing...

Data from: Evolutionary potential of morphological traits across different life-history stages

Audrey Bourret, Marc Bélisle, Fanie Pelletier & Dany Garant
Despite accumulating examples of selection acting on heritable traits in the wild, predicted evolutionary responses are often different from observed phenotypic trends. Various explanations have been suggested for these mismatches. These include within-individual changes across lifespan that can create important variation in genetic architecture of traits and selection acting on them, but also potential problems with the methodological approach used to predict evolutionary responses of traits. Here, we used an 8-year data set on tree...

Data from: Agreements between industry and academia on publication rights: a retrospective study of protocols and publications of randomized clinical trials

Benjamin Kasenda, Erik Von Elm, John J. You, Anette Blümle, Yuki Tomonaga, Ramon Saccilotto, Alain Amstutz, Theresa Bengough, Joerg J. Meerpohl, Mihaela Stegert, Kelechi K. Olu, Kari A. O. Tikkinen, Ignacio Neumann, Alonso Carrasco-Labra, Markus Faulhaber, Sohail M. Mulla, Dominik Mertz, Elie A. Akl, Dirk Bassler, Jason W. Busse, Ignacio Ferreira-González, Francois Lamontagne, Alain Nordmann, Viktoria Gloy, Heike Raatz … & Matthias Briel
Background: Little is known about publication agreements between industry and academic investigators in trial protocols and the consistency of these agreements with corresponding statements in publications. We aimed to investigate (i) the existence and types of publication agreements in trial protocols, (ii) the completeness and consistency of the reporting of these agreements in subsequent publications, and (iii) the frequency of co-authorship by industry employees. Methods and Findings: We used a retrospective cohort of randomized clinical...

Data from: Maternal condition and previous reproduction interact to affect offspring sex in a wild mammal

Mathieu Douhard, Marco Festa-Bianchet & Fanie Pelletier
Trivers and Willard proposed that offspring sex ratio should vary with maternal condition when condition, meant as maternal capacity to care, has different fitness consequences for sons and daughters. In polygynous and dimorphic species, mothers in good condition should preferentially produce sons, whereas mothers in poor condition should produce more daughters. Despite its logical appeal, support for this hypothesis has been inconsistent. Sex-ratio variation may be influenced by additional factors, such as environmental conditions and...

Data from: Adaptation to elevated CO2 in different biodiversity contexts

Elizabeth J. Kleynhans, Sarah P. Otto, Peter B. Reich & Mark Vellend
In the absence of migration, species persistence depends on adaption to a changing environment, but whether and how adaptation to global change is altered by community diversity is not understood. Community diversity may prevent, enhance or alter how species adapt to changing conditions by influencing population sizes, genetic diversity and/or the fitness landscape experienced by focal species. We tested the impact of community diversity on adaptation by performing a reciprocal transplant experiment on grasses that...

Data from: Intraspecific variability in growth response to environmental fluctuations modulates the stabilizing effect of species diversity on forest growth

Raphaël Aussenac, Yves Bergeron, Claudele Ghotsa Mekontchou, Dominique Gravel, Kamil Pilch & Igor Drobyshev
1.Differences between species in their response to environmental fluctuations cause asynchronized growth series, suggesting that species diversity may help communities buffer the effects of environmental fluctuations. However, within-species variability of responses may impact the stabilizing effect of growth asynchrony. 2.We used tree ring data to investigate the diversity-stability relationship and its underlying mechanisms within the temperate and boreal mixed woods of Eastern Canada. We worked at the individual tree level to take into account the...

Data from: Shade tolerance and the functional trait - demography relationship in temperate and boreal forests

Aitor Ameztegui, Alain Paquette, Bill Shipley, Michael Heym, Christian Messier & Dominique Gravel
Despite being instrumental in forest ecology, the definition and nature of shade tolerance are complex and not beyond controversy. Moreover, the role it plays in the trait – demography relationship remains unclear. Here, we hypothesize that shade tolerance can be achieved by alternative combinations of traits depending on the species’ functional group (evergreen vs. deciduous species), and that its ability to explain the array of traits involved in demography will also vary between these two...

Registration Year

  • 2016
    17

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    17

Affiliations

  • Université de Sherbrooke
    17
  • University of Alberta
    4
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
    2
  • University of Minnesota
    2
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    2
  • Norwegian University of Life Sciences
    2
  • Stanford University
    1
  • The University of Texas at Austin
    1
  • The Arctic University of Norway
    1
  • Sichuan University
    1