Data from: Calibration uncertainty in molecular dating analyses: there is no substitute for the prior evaluation of time priorsRachel C. M. Warnock, James F. Parham, Walter G. Joyce, Tyler R. Lyson & Philip C. J. Donoghue
Calibration is the rate-determining step in every molecular clock analysis and, hence, considerable effort has been expended in the development of approaches to distinguish good from bad calibrations. These can be categorized into a priori evaluation of the intrinsic fossil evidence, and a posteriori evaluation of congruence through cross-validation. We contrasted these competing approaches and explored the impact of different interpretations of the fossil evidence upon Bayesian divergence time estimation. The results demonstrate that a...
Nocturnality is widespread among extant mammals and often considered the ancestral behavioural pattern for all mammals. However, mammals are nested within a larger clade, Synapsida, and non-mammalian synapsids comprise a rich phylogenetic, morphological and ecological diversity. Even though non-mammalian synapsids potentially could elucidate the early evolution of diel activity patterns and enrich the understanding of synapsid palaeobiology, data on their diel activity are currently unavailable. Using scleral ring and orbit dimensions, we demonstrate that nocturnal...
Data from: New insights into New World biogeography: an integrated view from the phylogeny of blackbirds, cardinals, sparrows, tanagers, warblers, and alliesF. Keith Barker, Kevin J. Burns, John Klicka, Scott M. Lanyon & Irby J. Lovette
Understanding the biogeographic origins and temporal sequencing of groups within a region or of lineages within an ecosystem can yield important insights into evolutionary dynamics and ecological processes. Fifty years ago, Ernst Mayr generated comprehensive—if limited—inferences about the origins of the New World avifaunas, including the importance of pre-Isthmian dispersal between North and South America. Since then, methodological advances have improved our ability to address many of the same questions, but the phylogenies upon which...
Bivalves are an ancient and ubiquitous group of aquatic invertebrates with an estimated 10 000–20 000 living species. They are economically significant as a human food source, and ecologically important given their biomass and effects on communities. Their phylogenetic relationships have been studied for decades, and their unparalleled fossil record extends from the Cambrian to the Recent. Nevertheless, a robustly supported phylogeny of the deepest nodes, needed to fully exploit the bivalves as a model...
Data from: Simple versus complex models of trait evolution and stasis as a response to environmental changeGene Hunt, Melanie J. Hopkins & Scott Lidgard
Previous analyses of evolutionary patterns, or modes, in fossil lineages have focused overwhelmingly on three simple models: stasis, random walks, and directional evolution. Here we use likelihood methods to fit an expanded set of evolutionary models to a large compilation of ancestor–descendant series of populations from the fossil record. In addition to the standard three models, we assess more complex models with punctuations and shifts from one evolutionary mode to another. As in previous studies,...
Data from: Origin, acquisition and diversification of heritable bacterial endosymbionts in louse flies and bat fliesOlivier Duron, Boris Droz, Arnaud Berthomieu & Steven M. Goodman
The γ-proteobacterium Arsenophonus and its close relatives (Arsenophonus and like organisms, ALOs) are emerging as a novel clade of endosymbionts, which are exceptionally widespread in insects. The biology of ALOs is, however, in most cases entirely unknown, and it is unclear how these endosymbionts spread across insect populations. Here, we investigate this aspect through the examination of the presence, the diversity and the evolutionary history of ALOs in 25 related species of blood-feeding flies: tsetse...
Studies focusing on geographical genetic patterns of commensal species and on human history complement each other, and provide proxies to trace common colonisation events. On Madagascar, the unintentional introduction and spread of the commensal species Rattus rattus by people may have left a living clue of human colonization patterns and history. In this study, we addressed this question by characterising the genetic structure of natural populations of R. rattus using both microsatellites and mitochondrial sequences,...
Data from: Diversification of an emerging pathogen in a biodiversity hotspot: Leptospira in endemic small mammals of MadagascarMuriel Dietrich, David A. Wilkinson, Voahangy Soarimalala, Steven M. Goodman, Koussay Dellagi & Pablo Tortosa
Biodiversity hotspots and associated endemism are ideal systems for the study of parasite diversity within host communities. Here, we investigated the ecological and evolutionary forces acting on the diversification of an emerging bacterial pathogen, Leptospira spp., in communities of endemic Malagasy small mammals. We determined the infection rate with pathogenic Leptospira in 23 species of sympatric rodents (subfamily Nesomyinae) and tenrecids (family Tenrecidae) at two eastern humid forest localities. A multilocus genotyping analysis allowed the...
Field Museum of Natural History8
Centre de Recherche et de Veille sur les Maladies Emergentes dans l’Océan Indien2
Institut de Recherche pour le Développement1
Burke Museum of Natural History and Culture1
University of Minnesota1
University of Lausanne1
University of Fribourg1