Symbiotic nitrogen (N)‐fixing trees can provide large quantities of new N to ecosystems, but only if they are sufficiently abundant. The overall abundance and latitudinal abundance distributions of N‐fixing trees are well characterised in the Americas, but less well outside the Americas. Here, we characterised the abundance of N‐fixing trees in a network of forest plots spanning five continents, ~5,000 tree species and ~4 million trees. The majority of the plots (86%) were in America...
Data from: A standardized assessment of forest mammal communities reveals consistent functional composition and vulnerability across the tropicsFrancesco Rovero, Jorge Ahumada, Patrick Jansen, Douglas Sheil, Patricia Alvarez, Kelly Boekee, Santiago Espinosa, Marcela Lima, Emanuel Martin, Timothy O’Brien, Julia Salvador, Fernanda Santos, Melissa Rosa, Alexander Zvoleff, Chris Sutherland & Simone Tenan
Understanding global diversity patterns has benefitted from a focus on functional traits and how they relate to variation in environmental conditions among assemblages. Distant communities in similar environments often share characteristics, and for tropical forest mammals, this functional trait convergence has been demonstrated at coarse scales (110-200 km resolution), but less is known about how these patterns manifest at fine scales, where local processes (e.g., habitat features and anthropogenic activities) and biotic interactions occur. Here,...
Increasing temperatures associated with climate change are predicted to cause reductions in body size, a key determinant of animal physiology and ecology. Using a four‐decade specimen series of 70 716 individuals of 52 North American migratory bird species, we demonstrate that increasing annual summer temperature over the 40‐year period predicts consistent reductions in body size across these diverse taxa. Concurrently, wing length – an index of body shape that impacts numerous aspects of avian ecology...
Understanding how animal signals are produced is critical for understanding their evolution because complexity and modularity in the underlying morphology can affect evolutionary patterns. Hummingbird feathers show some of the brightest and most iridescent colors in nature. These are produced by optically complex stacks of hollow, platelet-shaped organelles called melanosomes. Neither how these morphologies produce colors nor their evolution has been systematically studied. We first used nanoscale morphological measurements and optical modeling to identify the...
Data from: Nocturnal flight-calling behaviour predicts vulnerability to artificial light in migratory birdsBenjamin M. Winger, Brian C. Weeks, Andrew Farnsworth, Andrew W. Jones, Mary Hennen & David E. Willard
Understanding interactions between biota and the built environment is increasingly important as human modification of the landscape expands in extent and intensity. For migratory birds, collisions with lighted structures are a major cause of mortality, but the mechanisms behind these collisions are poorly understood. Using 40 years of collision records of passerine birds, we investigated the importance of species’ behavioral ecologies in predicting rates of building collisions during nocturnal migration through Chicago, IL and Cleveland,...
Color is among the most striking features of organisms, varying not only in spectral properties like hue and brightness, but also in where and how it is produced on the body. Different combinations of colors on a bird’s body are important in both environmental and social contexts. Previous comparative studies have treated plumage patches individually or derived plumage complexity scores from color measurements across a bird’s body. However, these approaches do not consider the multivariate...
Data from: A new tusked cistecephalid dicynodont (Therapsida, Anomodontia) from the upper Permian Upper Madumabisa Mudstone Formation, Luangwa Basin, ZambiaKenneth Angielczyk, Julien Benoit & Bruce Rubidge
Cistecephalids are among the most distinctive Permian dicynodonts because of their highly derived skulls and postcrania, which indicate a fossorial ecology. Four cistecephalid species have been described from India, South Africa, and Tanzania; a fifth putative species has been reported from the Luangwa Basin of Zambia but never formally described. Here we present a detailed description of the Luangwa Basin cistecephalid, which we name Kembawacela kitchingi gen. et. sp. nov. The most obvious diagnostic character...
Genital morphology and the mechanics of copulation in the millipede genus Pseudopolydesmus (Diplopoda: Polydesmida: Polydesmidae)Xavier Zahnle, Petra Sierwald, Stephanie Ware & Jason Bond
Mate choice, copulation, genital morphology, and sperm storage are not very well understood in millipedes. The use of three-dimensional x-ray computed tomography (µCT) provides new morphological data regarding millipede reproductive systems in both the female and male, including chitinous sclerites and membranes, muscles, glands, oviducts, and sperm conduits. Here we present a complete integrated account of the morphology and function of the female genital organs in the family Polydesmidae (Diplopoda: Polydesmida) using µCT, UV fluorescence...
The 50-ha plot at Barro Colorado Island was initially demarcated and fully censused in 1982, and has been fully censused 7 times since, every 5 years from 1985 through 2015 (Hubbell and Foster 1983, Hubbell et al. 1990, Condit et al. 2012, Condit et al. 2017). Every measurement of every stem over 8 censuses is included in this archive. Most users will need only the 8 R Analytical Tables in the format tree, which come...
BCI 50-ha Plot Taxonomy The 50-ha plot at Barro Colorado Island was initially demarcated and fully censused in 1982, and has been fully censused 7 times since, every 5 years from 1985 through 2015 (Hubbell and Foster 1983, Hubbell et al. 1990, Condit et al. 2012, Condit et al. 2017). The taxonomic component required repeated collecting and sorting so that every individual could be matched to a previously described species from Croat (1978). Over 300...
Field Museum of Natural History10
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute3
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor2
Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador2
University of California, Santa Cruz2
University of California Los Angeles2
Autonomous University of San Luis Potosí1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of Montana1