111 Works

Data from: Environmental context and contaminant biotransport by Pacific salmon interact to mediate the bioaccumulation of contaminants by stream-resident fish

Brandon S. Gerig, Dominic T. Chaloner, David J. Janetski, Ashley H. Moerke, Richard R. Rediske, James P. O'Keefe, Dilkushi A. De Alwis Pitts & Gary A. Lamberti
1.The extent to which environmental context mediates the bioaccumulation of biotransported contaminants by stream-resident organisms is poorly understood. For example, it is unclear the extent to which contaminant type, instream characteristics, or resident fish identity interact to influence the uptake of contaminants deposited by Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) during their spawning runs. 2.To address this uncertainty, we sampled four stream-resident fish species from 13 watersheds of the Laurentian Great Lakes in locations with and without...

Modeling human migration across spatial scales in Colombia

Amir Siraj, Alessandro Sorichetta, Guido España, Andrew Tatem & Alex Perkins
Human mobility, both short and long term, are important considerations in the study of numerous systems. Economic and technological advances have led to a more interconnected global community, further increasing the need for considerations of human mobility. While data on human mobility are better recorded in many developed countries, availability of such data remains limited in many low- and middle-income countries around the world, particularly at the fine temporal and spatial scales required by many...

Genomic evidence for correlated trait combinations and antagonistic selection contributing to counterintuitive genetic patterns of adaptive diapause divergence in Rhagoletis flies

McCall Calvert, Meredith Doellman, Jeffrey Feder, Glenn Hood, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Mary Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Patrik Nosil, Dan Hahn & Gregory Ragland
Adaptation to novel environments often results in unanticipated genomic responses to selection. Here, we illustrate how multifarious, correlational selection helps explain a counterintuitive pattern of genetic divergence between the recently derived apple- and ancestral hawthorn-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Apple host race terminate diapause and emerge as adults earlier in the season than the hawthorn host race to coincide with the earlier fruiting phenology of their apple hosts. However, alleles at...

Range shifts in butternut, a rare, endangered tree, in response to past climate and modern conditions

Emily Schumacher, Alissa Brown, Martin Williams, Jeanne Romero-Severson, Tannis Beardmore & Sean Hoban
Aim: Range shifts are a key process that determine species distributions and genetic patterns. A previous investigation reported that Juglans cinerea (butternut) has lower genetic diversity at higher latitudes, hypothesized to be the result of range shifts following the last glacial period. However, genetic patterns can also be impacted by modern ecogeographic conditions. Therefore, we re-investigate genetic patterns of butternut with additional northern population sampling, hindcasted species distribution models, and fossil pollen records to clarify...

Accelerated reproduction is not an adaptive response to early life adversity in wild baboons

Chelsea J. Weibel, Jenny Tung, Susan C. Alberts & Elizabeth A. Archie
In humans and other long-lived species, harsh conditions in early life often lead to profound differences in adult life expectancy. In response, natural selection is expected to accelerate the timing and pace of reproduction in individuals who experience some forms of early life adversity. However, the adaptive benefits of reproductive acceleration following early adversity remain untested. Here we test a recent version of this theory, the internal predictive adaptive response (iPAR) model, by assessing for...

Effects of freshwater salinization and biotic stressors on amphibian morphology

Jacquelyn Lewis, Jonathan Borrelli, Devin Jones & Rick Relyea
Organisms are commonly exposed to numerous stressors that induce behavioral, physiological, or morphological changes in some combination. In northern temperate latitudes, de-icing agents are a major stressor to species in freshwater ecosystems (primarily sodium chloride; NaCl). Species-specific responses to road salt toxicity range from lethal to sublethal effects, but it remains unclear how these effects interact with biotic stressors. Morphology can be quite sensitive to environmental changes, yet we know little about how it is...

Data from: Rapid evolution of sex frequency and dormancy as hydroperiod adaptations

Hilary A. Smith & Terry W. Snell
Dormancy can serve as an adaptation to persist in variable habitats, and often is coupled with sex. In cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers an asexual phase enables rapid population growth, whereas sex results in diapausing embryos capable of tolerating desiccation. Few studies have experimentally tested whether sex-dormancy associations in temporary waters reflect evolution in response to the short hydroperiod selecting for diapause ability. Here we demonstrate evolution of higher propensity for sex and dormancy in ephemeral rotifer...

Data from: Theoretical models of the influence of genomic architecture on the dynamics of speciation

Samuel M. Flaxman, Aaron C. Wacholder, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
A long-standing problem in evolutionary biology has been determining whether and how gradual, incremental changes at the gene level can account for rapid speciation and bursts of adaptive radiation. Using genome-scale computer simulations, we extend previous theory showing how gradual adaptive change can generate nonlinear population transitions, resulting in the rapid formation of new, reproductively isolated species. We show that these transitions occur via a mechanism rooted in a basic property of biological heredity: the...

Data from: Chromosomal inversions and ecotypic differentiation in Anopheles gambiae: the perspective from whole-genome sequencing

R. Rebecca Love, Aaron M. Steele, Mamadou B. Coulibaly, Sekou F. Traore, Scott J. Emrich, Michaël C. Fontaine & Nora J. Besansky
The molecular mechanisms and genetic architecture that facilitate adaptive radiation of lineages remain elusive. Polymorphic chromosomal inversions, due to their recombination-reducing effect, are proposed instruments of ecotypic differentiation. Here we study an ecologically diversifying lineage of An. gambiae, known as the Bamako chromosomal form based on its unique complement of three chromosomal inversions, to explore the impact of these inversions on ecotypic differentiation. We used pooled and individual genome sequencing of Bamako, typical (non-Bamako) An....

Data from: Group living and male dispersal predict the core gut microbiome in wild baboons

Laura E. Grieneisen, Josh Livermore, Susan Alberts, Jenny Tung & Elizabeth A. Archie
The mammalian gut microbiome plays a profound role in the physiology, metabolism, and overall health of its host. However, biologists have only a nascent understanding of the forces that drive inter-individual heterogeneity in gut microbial composition, especially the role of host social environment. Here we used 178 samples from 78 wild yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in two social groups to test how host social context, including group living, social interactions within groups, and transfer...

Data from: The importance of growing up: juvenile environment influences dispersal of individuals and their neighbours

Stacy B. Endriss, Megan L. Vahsen, Ellyn V. Bitume, J. Grey Monroe, Kathryn G. Turner, Andrew P. Norton & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Dispersal is a key ecological process that is strongly influenced by both phenotype and environment. Here, we show that juvenile environment influences dispersal not only by shaping individual phenotypes, but also by changing the phenotypes of neighbouring conspecifics, which influence how individuals disperse. We used a model system (Tribolium castaneum, red flour beetles) to test how the past environment of dispersing individuals and their neighbours influences how they disperse in their current environment. We found...

Data from: Adaptive periodicity in the infectivity of malaria gametocytes to mosquitoes

Petra Schneider, Samuel S.C. Rund, Natasha L. Smith, Kimberley F. Prior, Aidan J. O'Donnell, Sarah E. Reece & Samuel S. C. Rund
Daily rhythms in behaviour, physiology, and molecular processes are expected to enable organisms to appropriately schedule activities according to consequences of the daily rotation of the Earth. For parasites, this includes capitalizing on periodicity in transmission opportunities and for hosts/vectors, this may select for rhythms in immune defence. We examine rhythms in the density and infectivity of transmission forms (gametocytes) of rodent malaria parasites in the host’s blood, parasite development inside mosquito vectors, and potential...

Data from: Plant uptake offsets silica release from a large Arctic tundra wildfire

Joanna C. Carey, Benjamin W. Abbott & Adrian V. Rocha
Rapid climate change at high latitudes is projected to increase wildfire extent in tundra ecosystems by up to five-fold by the end of the century. Tundra wildfire could alter terrestrial silica (SiO2) cycling by restructuring surface vegetation and by deepening the seasonally-thawed active layer. These changes could influence the availability of silica in terrestrial permafrost ecosystems and alter lateral exports to downstream marine waters, where silica is often a limiting nutrient. In this context, we...

Data from: On the scent of standing variation for speciation: behavioral evidence for native sympatric host races of Rhagoletic pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the southern United States

Thomas H. Q. Powell, , Dong H. Cha & Jeffrey L. Feder
Standing variation can be critical for speciation. Here, we investigate the origins of fruit odor discrimination for Rhagoletis pomonella underlying the fly’s sympatric shift in the northeastern U.S. from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple (Malus domestica). Because R. pomonella mate on host fruit, preferences for natal fruit volatiles generate prezygotic isolation. Apples emit volatiles that appear to be missing from gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection profiles for flies infesting downy hawthorns, raising the question of how...

Data from: Reconstruction of genetically identified neurons imaged by serial-section electron microscopy

Maximilian Joesch, David Mankus, Masahito Yamagata, Ali Shahbazi, Richard Shalek, Adi Suissa-Peleg, Markus Meister, Jeff W. Lichtman, Walter J. Scheirer, Joshua R. Sanes & Richard Schalek
Resolving patterns of synaptic connectivity in neural circuits currently requires serial section electron microscopy. However, complete circuit reconstruction is prohibitively slow and may not be necessary for many purposes such as comparing neuronal structure and connectivity among multiple animals. Here, we present an alternative strategy, targeted reconstruction of specific neuronal types. We used viral vectors to deliver peroxidase derivatives, which catalyze production of an electron-dense tracer, to genetically identified neurons, and developed a protocol that...

Data from: Spatiotemporal incidence of Zika and associated environmental drivers for the 2015-2016 epidemic in Colombia

Amir S. Siraj, I. Rodriguez-Barraquer, Christopher M. Barker, Natalia Tejedor-Garavito, Dennis Harding, Christopher Lorton, Dejan Lukacevic, Gene Oates, Guido Espana, Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Carrie Manore, Michael A. Johansson, Andrew J. Tatem, Robert C. Reiner & T. Alex Perkins
Despite a long history of mosquito-borne virus epidemics in the Americas, the impact of the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic of 2015-2016 was unexpected. The need for scientifically informed decision-making is driving research to understand the emergence and spread of ZIKV. To support that research, we assembled a data set of key covariates for modeling ZIKV transmission dynamics in Colombia, where ZIKV transmission was widespread and the government made incidence data publically available. On a weekly...

Data from: A century of genetic variation inferred from a persistent soil-stored seed bank

Jennifer L. Summers, Brittany Bernik, Colin J. Saunders, Jason S. McLachlan & Michael J. Blum
Stratigraphic accretion of dormant propagules in soil can result in natural archives useful for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change. Few attempts have been made, however, to use soil-stored seed banks as natural archives, in part because of concerns over non-random attrition and mixed stratification. Here we examine the persistent seed bank of Schoenoplectus americanus, a foundational brackish marsh sedge, to determine whether it can serve as a resource for reconstructing historical records...

Data from: Quantification of mesocosm fish and amphibian species diversity via eDNA metabarcoding

Nathan T. Evans, Brett P. Olds, Cameron R. Turner, Mark A. Renshaw, Yiyuan Li, Christopher L. Jerde, Andrew R. Mahon, Michael E. Pfrender, Gary A. Lamberti & David M. Lodge
Freshwater fauna are particularly sensitive to environmental change and disturbance. Management agencies frequently use fish and amphibian biodiversity as indicators of ecosystem health and a way to prioritize and assess management strategies. Traditional aquatic bioassessment that relies on capture of organisms via nets, traps and electrofishing gear typically has low detection probabilities for rare species and can injure individuals of protected species. Our objective was to determine whether environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling and metabarcoding analysis...

Data from: Interbirth intervals in wild baboons: environmental predictors and hormonal correlates

Laurence R. Gesquiere, Jeanne Altmann, Elizabeth A. Archie & Susan C. Alberts
Objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) are a key metric of female reproductive success; understanding how they are regulated by environmental, social, and demographic factors can provide insight into sources of variance in female fitness. Materials and Methods: Using 36 years of reproductive data on 490 IBIs for 160 wild female baboons, we identified sources of variance in the duration of IBIs and of their component phases: postpartum amenorrhea (PPA), sexual cycling, and pregnancy. We also examined...

Data from: Historical contingency in a multigene family facilitates adaptive evolution of toxin resistance

Joel McGlothlin, Megan Kobiela, Chris R. Feldman, Todd A. Castoe, Shana L. Geffeney, Charles T. Hanifin, Gabriela Toledo, Freek J. Vonk, Michael K. Richardson, , Michael Pfrender &
Novel adaptations must originate and function within an already established genome [ 1 ]. As a result, the ability of a species to adapt to new environmental challenges is predicted to be highly contingent on the evolutionary history of its lineage [ 2–6 ]. Despite a growing appreciation of the importance of historical contingency in the adaptive evolution of single proteins [ 7–11 ], we know surprisingly little about its role in shaping complex adaptations...

Data from: Behavioral evidence for fruit odor discrimination and sympatric host races of Rhagoletis pomonella flies in the western United States

Charles E. Linn, Wee L. Yee, Sheina B. Sim, Dong H. Cha, Thomas Powell, Robert B. Goughnour & Jeffrey L. Feder
The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern U.S. is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western U.S., where it may have been introduced via infested apples within the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two hawthorns in the West, one the native black...

Data from: Conditional fetal and infant killing by male baboons

Matthew N. Zipple, Jackson H. Grady, Jacob B. Gordon, Lydia D. Chow, Elizabeth A. Archie, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Sexually selected feticide—the death of infants in utero as a result of male behaviour—has only rarely been described or analysed, although it is presumed to be favoured by the same selective pressures that favour sexually selected infanticide. To test this hypothesis, we measured the frequency of feticide and infanticide by male baboons of the Amboseli basin in Kenya, and examined which characteristics of a male and his environment made him more likely to commit feticide...

Data from: Limited genetic evidence for host plant-related differentiation in the Western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Gilbert Saint Jean, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Hannes Schuler, Meredith M. Doellman, Mary M. Glover, James J. Smith, Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Howard M.A. Thistlewood, Sheri A. Maxwell, Nusha Keyghobadi, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
The shift of the fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in the mid-1800s from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis (Torrey & Asa Gray) Scheele, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), in the eastern USA is a model for ecological divergence with gene flow. A similar system may exist in the northwestern USA and British Columbia, Canada, where Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacks the native bitter cherry Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae). Populations of...

Data from: Genetic divergence along the speciation continuum: the transition from host race to species in Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritdae)

Thomas H. Q. Powell, Glen R. Hood, Mason O. Murphy, Jeffrey S. Heilveil, Stewart H. Berlocher, Partrik Nosil, Jeffrey L. Feder & Patrik Nosil
Studies of related populations varying in their degrees of reproductive isolation can provide insights into speciation. Here, the transition from partially isolated host races to more fully separated sibling species is investigated by comparing patterns of genetic differentiation between recently evolved (∼150 generations) apple and ancestral hawthorn-infesting populations of Rhagoletis pomonella to their sister taxon, the undescribed flowering dogwood fly attacking Cornus florida. No fixed or diagnostic private alleles differentiating the three populations were found...

Data from: Mate choice strategies in a spatially-explicit model environment

Giordano B.S. Ferreira, Matthias Scheutz, Sunny K. Boyd & Giordano B. S. Ferreira
Decisions about the choice of a mate can greatly impact both individual fitness and selection processes. We developed a novel agent-based model to investigate two common mate choice rules that may be used by female gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor). In this model environment, female agents using the minimum-threshold strategy found higher quality mates and traveled shorter distances on average, compared with female agents using the best-of-n strategy. Females using the minimum-threshold strategy, however, incur significant...

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