128 Works

Data from: On the scent of standing variation for speciation: behavioral evidence for native sympatric host races of Rhagoletic pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the southern United States

Thomas H. Q. Powell, , Dong H. Cha & Jeffrey L. Feder
Standing variation can be critical for speciation. Here, we investigate the origins of fruit odor discrimination for Rhagoletis pomonella underlying the fly’s sympatric shift in the northeastern U.S. from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple (Malus domestica). Because R. pomonella mate on host fruit, preferences for natal fruit volatiles generate prezygotic isolation. Apples emit volatiles that appear to be missing from gas chromatography/electroantennographic detection profiles for flies infesting downy hawthorns, raising the question of how...

Data from: Rapid evolution of sex frequency and dormancy as hydroperiod adaptations

Hilary A. Smith & Terry W. Snell
Dormancy can serve as an adaptation to persist in variable habitats, and often is coupled with sex. In cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers an asexual phase enables rapid population growth, whereas sex results in diapausing embryos capable of tolerating desiccation. Few studies have experimentally tested whether sex-dormancy associations in temporary waters reflect evolution in response to the short hydroperiod selecting for diapause ability. Here we demonstrate evolution of higher propensity for sex and dormancy in ephemeral rotifer...

Data from: Reconstruction of genetically identified neurons imaged by serial-section electron microscopy

Maximilian Joesch, David Mankus, Masahito Yamagata, Ali Shahbazi, Richard Shalek, Adi Suissa-Peleg, Markus Meister, Jeff W. Lichtman, Walter J. Scheirer, Joshua R. Sanes & Richard Schalek
Resolving patterns of synaptic connectivity in neural circuits currently requires serial section electron microscopy. However, complete circuit reconstruction is prohibitively slow and may not be necessary for many purposes such as comparing neuronal structure and connectivity among multiple animals. Here, we present an alternative strategy, targeted reconstruction of specific neuronal types. We used viral vectors to deliver peroxidase derivatives, which catalyze production of an electron-dense tracer, to genetically identified neurons, and developed a protocol that...

Data from: The importance of growing up: juvenile environment influences dispersal of individuals and their neighbours

Stacy B. Endriss, Megan L. Vahsen, Ellyn V. Bitume, J. Grey Monroe, Kathryn G. Turner, Andrew P. Norton & Ruth A. Hufbauer
Dispersal is a key ecological process that is strongly influenced by both phenotype and environment. Here, we show that juvenile environment influences dispersal not only by shaping individual phenotypes, but also by changing the phenotypes of neighbouring conspecifics, which influence how individuals disperse. We used a model system (Tribolium castaneum, red flour beetles) to test how the past environment of dispersing individuals and their neighbours influences how they disperse in their current environment. We found...

Data from: Spatiotemporal incidence of Zika and associated environmental drivers for the 2015-2016 epidemic in Colombia

Amir S. Siraj, I. Rodriguez-Barraquer, Christopher M. Barker, Natalia Tejedor-Garavito, Dennis Harding, Christopher Lorton, Dejan Lukacevic, Gene Oates, Guido Espana, Moritz U. G. Kraemer, Carrie Manore, Michael A. Johansson, Andrew J. Tatem, Robert C. Reiner & T. Alex Perkins
Despite a long history of mosquito-borne virus epidemics in the Americas, the impact of the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic of 2015-2016 was unexpected. The need for scientifically informed decision-making is driving research to understand the emergence and spread of ZIKV. To support that research, we assembled a data set of key covariates for modeling ZIKV transmission dynamics in Colombia, where ZIKV transmission was widespread and the government made incidence data publically available. On a weekly...

Data from: Adaptive periodicity in the infectivity of malaria gametocytes to mosquitoes

Petra Schneider, Samuel S.C. Rund, Natasha L. Smith, Kimberley F. Prior, Aidan J. O'Donnell, Sarah E. Reece & Samuel S. C. Rund
Daily rhythms in behaviour, physiology, and molecular processes are expected to enable organisms to appropriately schedule activities according to consequences of the daily rotation of the Earth. For parasites, this includes capitalizing on periodicity in transmission opportunities and for hosts/vectors, this may select for rhythms in immune defence. We examine rhythms in the density and infectivity of transmission forms (gametocytes) of rodent malaria parasites in the host’s blood, parasite development inside mosquito vectors, and potential...

Data from: Group living and male dispersal predict the core gut microbiome in wild baboons

Laura E. Grieneisen, Josh Livermore, Susan Alberts, Jenny Tung & Elizabeth A. Archie
The mammalian gut microbiome plays a profound role in the physiology, metabolism, and overall health of its host. However, biologists have only a nascent understanding of the forces that drive inter-individual heterogeneity in gut microbial composition, especially the role of host social environment. Here we used 178 samples from 78 wild yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus) living in two social groups to test how host social context, including group living, social interactions within groups, and transfer...

Data from: Chromosomal inversions and ecotypic differentiation in Anopheles gambiae: the perspective from whole-genome sequencing

R. Rebecca Love, Aaron M. Steele, Mamadou B. Coulibaly, Sekou F. Traore, Scott J. Emrich, Michaël C. Fontaine & Nora J. Besansky
The molecular mechanisms and genetic architecture that facilitate adaptive radiation of lineages remain elusive. Polymorphic chromosomal inversions, due to their recombination-reducing effect, are proposed instruments of ecotypic differentiation. Here we study an ecologically diversifying lineage of An. gambiae, known as the Bamako chromosomal form based on its unique complement of three chromosomal inversions, to explore the impact of these inversions on ecotypic differentiation. We used pooled and individual genome sequencing of Bamako, typical (non-Bamako) An....

Data from: Environmental context and contaminant biotransport by Pacific salmon interact to mediate the bioaccumulation of contaminants by stream-resident fish

Brandon S. Gerig, Dominic T. Chaloner, David J. Janetski, Ashley H. Moerke, Richard R. Rediske, James P. O'Keefe, Dilkushi A. De Alwis Pitts & Gary A. Lamberti
1.The extent to which environmental context mediates the bioaccumulation of biotransported contaminants by stream-resident organisms is poorly understood. For example, it is unclear the extent to which contaminant type, instream characteristics, or resident fish identity interact to influence the uptake of contaminants deposited by Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) during their spawning runs. 2.To address this uncertainty, we sampled four stream-resident fish species from 13 watersheds of the Laurentian Great Lakes in locations with and without...

Genomic evidence for correlated trait combinations and antagonistic selection contributing to counterintuitive genetic patterns of adaptive diapause divergence in Rhagoletis flies

McCall Calvert, Meredith Doellman, Jeffrey Feder, Glenn Hood, Peter Meyers, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Mary Glover, Cheyenne Tait, Hannes Schuler, Stewart Berlocher, James Smith, Patrik Nosil, Dan Hahn & Gregory Ragland
Adaptation to novel environments often results in unanticipated genomic responses to selection. Here, we illustrate how multifarious, correlational selection helps explain a counterintuitive pattern of genetic divergence between the recently derived apple- and ancestral hawthorn-infesting host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae). The Apple host race terminate diapause and emerge as adults earlier in the season than the hawthorn host race to coincide with the earlier fruiting phenology of their apple hosts. However, alleles at...

Accelerated reproduction is not an adaptive response to early life adversity in wild baboons

Chelsea J. Weibel, Jenny Tung, Susan C. Alberts & Elizabeth A. Archie
In humans and other long-lived species, harsh conditions in early life often lead to profound differences in adult life expectancy. In response, natural selection is expected to accelerate the timing and pace of reproduction in individuals who experience some forms of early life adversity. However, the adaptive benefits of reproductive acceleration following early adversity remain untested. Here we test a recent version of this theory, the internal predictive adaptive response (iPAR) model, by assessing for...

Data from: A century of genetic variation inferred from a persistent soil-stored seed bank

Jennifer L. Summers, Brittany Bernik, Colin J. Saunders, Jason S. McLachlan & Michael J. Blum
Stratigraphic accretion of dormant propagules in soil can result in natural archives useful for studying ecological and evolutionary responses to environmental change. Few attempts have been made, however, to use soil-stored seed banks as natural archives, in part because of concerns over non-random attrition and mixed stratification. Here we examine the persistent seed bank of Schoenoplectus americanus, a foundational brackish marsh sedge, to determine whether it can serve as a resource for reconstructing historical records...

Modeling human migration across spatial scales in Colombia

Amir Siraj, Alessandro Sorichetta, Guido España, Andrew Tatem & Alex Perkins
Human mobility, both short and long term, are important considerations in the study of numerous systems. Economic and technological advances have led to a more interconnected global community, further increasing the need for considerations of human mobility. While data on human mobility are better recorded in many developed countries, availability of such data remains limited in many low- and middle-income countries around the world, particularly at the fine temporal and spatial scales required by many...

Data from: Plant uptake offsets silica release from a large Arctic tundra wildfire

Joanna C. Carey, Benjamin W. Abbott & Adrian V. Rocha
Rapid climate change at high latitudes is projected to increase wildfire extent in tundra ecosystems by up to five-fold by the end of the century. Tundra wildfire could alter terrestrial silica (SiO2) cycling by restructuring surface vegetation and by deepening the seasonally-thawed active layer. These changes could influence the availability of silica in terrestrial permafrost ecosystems and alter lateral exports to downstream marine waters, where silica is often a limiting nutrient. In this context, we...

Effects of freshwater salinization and biotic stressors on amphibian morphology

Jacquelyn Lewis, Jonathan Borrelli, Devin Jones & Rick Relyea
Organisms are commonly exposed to numerous stressors that induce behavioral, physiological, or morphological changes in some combination. In northern temperate latitudes, de-icing agents are a major stressor to species in freshwater ecosystems (primarily sodium chloride; NaCl). Species-specific responses to road salt toxicity range from lethal to sublethal effects, but it remains unclear how these effects interact with biotic stressors. Morphology can be quite sensitive to environmental changes, yet we know little about how it is...

Range shifts in butternut, a rare, endangered tree, in response to past climate and modern conditions

Emily Schumacher, Alissa Brown, Martin Williams, Jeanne Romero-Severson, Tannis Beardmore & Sean Hoban
Aim: Range shifts are a key process that determine species distributions and genetic patterns. A previous investigation reported that Juglans cinerea (butternut) has lower genetic diversity at higher latitudes, hypothesized to be the result of range shifts following the last glacial period. However, genetic patterns can also be impacted by modern ecogeographic conditions. Therefore, we re-investigate genetic patterns of butternut with additional northern population sampling, hindcasted species distribution models, and fossil pollen records to clarify...

Comparing antigenaemia - and microfilaraemia as criteria for stopping decisions in lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes in Africa

Wilma Stolk, Luc Edgar Coffeng, FATORMA BOLAY, Obiora Eneanya, Peter Fischer, T Deirdre Hollingsworth, Benjamin Koudou, Aboulaye Méité, Edwin Michael, Joaquin Miguel Prada Jimenez de Cisneros, Rocio Marilyn Caja Rivera, SWARNALI SHARMA, Panayiota Touloupou, Gary Weil & Sake J. de Vlas

Exosomal lncAY927529 enhances prostate cancer cell proliferation and invasion through regulating bone microenvironment

Qi Li, Jinhao Hu, Yibo Shi, Mulun Xiao, Tianxiang Bi, Chaoliang Wang, Liang Yan & Xiaoyan Li
Exosomes mediate the interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment, and play a key role in tumor development. Although exosomes can package lncRNAs to mediate extracellular communication, the role of exosomal lncRNA AY927529 in prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. Exosomes were extracted from normal human prostatic epithelial cell lines (BPH-1 and RWPE-1) and PCa cell lines (VCaP and LNCaP, DU145, PC3) by ultrahigh speed centrifugation. Results of Western blot indicated that Alix, HSC70 and TSGl01...

Association between atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases risk and renal outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Honghong Ren, Lijun Zhao, Yutong Zou, Yiting Wang, Junlin Zhang, Yucheng Wu, Rui Zhang, Tingli Wang, Jiali Wang, Yitao Zhu, Ruikun Guo, Huan Xu, Lin Li, Mark E. Cooper & Fang Liu
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus increase atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) risk. However, the association between renal outcome of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) and ASCVD risk is unclear. This retrospective study enrolled 218 type 2 diabetic patients with biopsy-proven DKD, and without known cardiovascular diseases. Baseline characteristics were obtained and the 10-year ASCVD risk score was calculated using the Pooled Cohort Equation (PCE). Renal outcome was defined as progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD)....

Recent advances in developing butyrogenic functional foods to promote gut health

Miao Zhang, Robert W. Li, Haiyan Yang, Zhongfang Tan & Fang Liu
As one of the major short-chain fatty acids produced via microbial fermentation, butyrate serves as not only a preferred energy substrate but also an important signaling molecule. Butyrate concentrations in circulation, tissues, and gut luminal contents have important pathophysiological implications. The genetic capacity of butyrate biosynthesis by the gut microbiota is frequently compromised during aging and various disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, metabolic disorders and colorectal cancer. Substantial efforts have been made to identify...

Climatic similarity and genomic background shape the extent of parallel adaptation in Timema stick insects

Samridhi Chaturvedi, Zachariah Gompert, Jefferey L. Feder, Owen G. Osborne, Moritz Muschick, Rudiger Riesch, Victor Soria-Carrasco & Patrik Nosil
Evolution can repeat itself, resulting in parallel adaptations in independent lineages occupying similar environments. Moreover, parallel evolution sometimes, but not always, uses the same genes. Two main hypotheses have been put forth to explain the probability and extent of parallel evolution. First, parallel evolution is more likely when shared ecologies result in similar patterns of natural selection in different taxa. Second, parallelism is more likely when genomes are similar, because of shared standing variation and...

Whole-exome sequencing reveals novel variants associated with abnormal uterine bleeding caused by copper intrauterine device Supplementary Materials

Yupei Shen, Xiaoli Liu, Linfen Xu, Weiqiang Zhu, Zhaofeng Zhang, Junwei Liu, Lifang Jiang, Yanyan Mao, Jianhua Xu, Xiaoqin Yan, Junjie Sun, Fang Liu, Xiumei Xiong, Xiujuan Chen, Yan Che & Jing Du
Aim: This study aimed to explore the genetic risk factors and validate variants of abnormal uterine bleeding after copper intrauterine device insertion. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing was performed and several variants were validated by Sequenom MassARRAY. Results: Eight variants showed potential clinical damage according to American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics criteria. By combined analysis of screening and validation, NFASC RS2802808 C>G p.Ile971Met (Pallele = 0.009 and Pgenotype = 0.027) and PIGR RS2275531 C>T p.Gly365Ser...

Identity and density of parasite exposures alter the outcome of co-infections: Implications for management

Chloe Ramsay & Jason R. Rohr
1) Although research has focused on density-dependent responses of hosts to single-parasite infections, hosts are exposed to numerous parasites simultaneously under natural conditions and if these exposures lead to infections, they can threaten host populations and ecosystem stability. Moreover, spatiotemporal variation in abundance of co-occurring parasites might influence host infection intensity. If interactions are consistent between different co-infecting parasites, then these patterns could give managers another tool to control disease spread and even predict problematic...

Data from: Composite linkage map and enhanced genome map for Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes

Paul V. Hickner, Akio Mori, Dave D. Chadee & David W. Severson
We report here the development of 65 novel microsatellite loci and construction of a composite genetic linkage map for Culex pipiens complex mosquitoes. Microsatellites were identified by in silico screening of the Culex quinquefasciatus genome assembly. Cross-species utility of 73 microsatellites for population studies in C. pipiens sensu stricto and C. quinquefasciatus was evaluated by genotyping a subset of samples collected in Indiana, United States, and Point Fortin, Trinidad. Allele frequencies of 67 microsatellites were...

Data from: Antagonistic relationships between intron content and codon usage bias of genes in three mosquito species: functional and evolutionary implications

Susanta K. Behura, Brajendra K. Singh & David W. Severson
Genome biology of mosquitoes holds potential in developing knowledge-based control strategies against vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, West Nile Virus and others. Although the genomes of three major vector mosquitoes have been sequenced, attempts to elucidate the relationship between intron and codon usage bias across species in phylogenetic contexts are limited. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intron content and codon bias of orthologous genes among three vector mosquito species. We found...

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