40 Works

Data from: Coral feeding on microalgae assessed with molecular trophic markers

Miguel C. Leal, Christine Ferrier-Pagès, Ricardo Calado, Megan E. Thompson, Marc E. Frischer & Jens C. Nejstgaard
Herbivory in corals, especially for symbiotic species, remains controversial. To investigate the capacity of scleractinian and soft corals to capture microalgae, we conducted controlled laboratory experiments offering five algal species: the cryptophyte Rhodomonas marina, the haptophytes Isochrysis galbana and Phaeocystis globosa, and the diatoms Conticribra weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Coral species included the symbiotic soft corals Heteroxenia fuscescens and Sinularia flexibilis, the asymbiotic scleractinian coral Tubastrea coccinea, and the symbiotic scleractinian corals Stylophora pistillata, Pavona...

Data from: Shorebirds as important vectors for plant dispersal in Europe

Ádám Lovas-Kiss, Marta I. Sanchez, David M. Wilkinson, Neil E. Coughlan, Jose A. Alves & Andy J. Green
Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) undergo rapid migrations with potential for long-distance dispersal (LDD) of plants. We studied the frequency of endozoochory by shorebirds in different parts of Europe covering a broad latitudinal range and different seasons. We assessed whether plants dispersed conformed to morphological dispersal syndromes. A total of 409 excreta samples (271 faeces and 138 pellets) were collected from redshank (Tringa totanus), black-winged stilt (Himantopus himantopus), pied avocet (Recurvirostra avosetta), northern lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), Eurasian curlew...

Data from: Bats (Chiroptera: Noctilionoidea) challenge a recent origin of extant neotropical diversity

Danny Rojas, Omar M. Warsi & Liliana M. Dávalos
The mechanisms underlying the high extant biodiversity in the Neotropics have been controversial since the 19th century. Support for the influence of period-specific changes on diversification often rests on detecting more speciation events during a particular period. The timing of speciation events may reflect the influence of incomplete taxon sampling, protracted speciation, and null processes of lineage accumulation. Here we assess the influence of these factors on the timing of speciation with new multilocus data...

Data from: A full annual perspective on sex-biased migration timing in long-distance migratory birds

Martins Briedis, Silke Bauer, Peter Adamik, José A. Alves, Joana S. Costa, Tamara Emmenegger, Lars Gustafsson, Jaroslav Koleček, Felix Liechti, Christoph M. Meier, Petr Prochazka & Steffen Hahn
In many taxa, the most common form of sex-biased migration timing is protandry – the earlier arrival of males at breeding areas. Here we test this concept across the annual cycle of long-distance migratory birds. Using more than 350 migration tracks of small-bodied trans-Saharan migrants, we quantify differences in male and female migration schedules and test for proximate determinants of sex-specific timing. In spring, males on average departed from the African non-breeding sites about 3...

Data from: Starting a DNA barcode reference library for shallow water polychaetes from the southern European Atlantic coast

Jorge Lobo, Marcos A. L. Teixeira, Luisa M. S. Borges, Maria S. G. Ferreira, Claudia Hollatz, Pedro T. Gomes, Ronaldo Sousa, Ascensão Ravara, Maria H. Costa & Filipe O. Costa
Annelid polychaetes have been seldom the focus of dedicated DNA barcoding studies, despite their ecological relevance and often dominance, particularly in soft-bottom estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Here, we report the first assessment of the performance of DNA barcodes in the discrimination of shallow water polychaete species from the southern European Atlantic coast, focusing on specimens collected in estuaries and coastal ecosystems of Portugal. We analysed cytochrome oxidase I DNA barcodes (COI-5P) from 164 specimens,...

Stakeholders engagement as an important step for the long-term monitoring of wild ungulate populations

João Carvalho, Pedro Leite, Ana Valente, Carlos Fonseca & Rita Tinoco Torres
Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies. However, long-term studies are difficult to maintain mainly due to the lack of continuous funding. In this scenario, the collaboration between local stakeholders and researchers can be a fruitful partnership to monitor game species for long periods and vast territories. We present an experimental framework with the involvement of researchers, local hunters, and game managers for the continuous monitoring of...

Linking range wide energetic trade-offs to breeding performance in a long-distance migrant

Camilo Carneiro, Tómas Gunnarsson, Veronica Méndez, Amadeu Soares & Jose Alves
Understanding how individual trade-offs and carry-over effects along the annual cycle influence fitness is fundamental to unravel population dynamics, but such data is particularly challenging to collect in long-distance migrants. Here, with a full annual cycle perspective of Icelandic whimbrels Numenius phaeopus islandicus, we investigate trade-offs across the entire distribution, assessing migration costs and wintering energetic balance experienced throughout the wintering range (from temperate to tropical regions), and link these to breeding parameters for two...

Data from: Low fitness at low latitudes: wintering in the tropics increases migratory delays and mortality rates in an Arctic breeding shorebird

Jeroen Reneerkens, Tom S.L. Versluijs, Theunis Piersma, Jose Alves, Mark Boorman, Colin Corse, Olivier Gilg, Gunnar Hallgrimsson, Johannes Lang, Bob Loos, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu, Alfred Nuoh, Peter Potts, Job Ten Horn & Tamar Lok
1. Evolutionary theories of seasonal migration generally assume that the costs of longer migrations are balanced by benefits at the non-breeding destinations. 2. We tested, and rejected, the null hypothesis of equal survival and timing of spring migration for High Arctic breeding sanderling Calidris alba using six and eight winter destinations between 55° N and 25° S, respectively. 3. Annual apparent survival was considerably lower for adult birds wintering in tropical West-Africa (Mauritania: 0.74 and...

Mitochondrial genome sequencing of marine leukemias reveals cancer contagion between clam species in the Seas of Southern Europe

Daniel Garcia-Souto, Seila Diaz-Costas, Alicia L Bruzos, Sara Rocha, Camila F Roman-Lewis, Juana Alonso, Rosana Rodriguez, Rodríguez-Castro Jorge, Antonio Villanueva, Luis Silva, Jose Maria Valencia, Giovanni Annona, Andrea Tarallo, Fernando Ricardo, Ana Bratos-Cetinic, David Posada, Juan Jose Pasantes & Jose MC Tubio
Clonally transmissible cancers are tumour lineages that are transmitted between individuals via the transfer of living cancer cells. In marine bivalves, leukemia-like transmissible cancers, called hemic neoplasias, have demonstrated the ability to infect individuals from different species. We performed whole-genome sequencing in eight V. verrucosa clams that were diagnosed with hemic neoplasia, from two sampling points located more than 1,000 nautical miles away in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea Coasts of Spain. Mitochondrial...

Data from: Tracking global change using lichen diversity: towards a global-scale ecological indicator

Paula Matos, Linda Geiser, Amanda Hardman, Doug Glavich, Pedro Pinho, Alice Nunes, Amadeu M. V. M. Soares, Cristina Branquinho & Amadeu M.V.M. Soares
Lichens have been used to efficiently track major drivers of global change from the local to regional scale since the beginning of the industrial revolution (sulphur dioxide) to the present (nitrogen deposition and climate change). Currently, the challenge is to universalize monitoring methodologies to compare global change drivers’ simultaneous and independent effects on ecosystems and to assess the efficacy of mitigation measures. Because two protocols are now used at a continental scale North America (US)...

Data from: Multiple processes drive genetic structure of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) populations across spatial scales

Francine Kershaw, Inês Carvalho, Jacqueline Loo, Cristina Pomilla, Peter B. Best, Ken P. Findlay, Salvatore Cerchio, Tim Collins, Marcia H. Engel, Gianna Minton, Peter Ersts, Jaco Barendse, P. G. H. Kotze, Yvette Razafindrakoto, Solange Ngouessono, Michael Meӱer, Meredith Thornton & Howard C. Rosenbaum
Elucidating patterns of population structure for species with complex life histories, and disentangling the processes driving such patterns, remains a significant analytical challenge. Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) populations display complex genetic structures that have not been fully resolved at all spatial scales. We generated a data set of nuclear markers for 3,575 samples spanning the seven breeding stocks and substocks found in the South Atlantic and western and northern Indian Oceans. For the total sample,...

Photoinhibition of Photosystem II in phytoplankton: processes and patterns

Douglas Campbell & João Serôdio
All the diverse lineages of phytoplankters use conserved Photosystem II complexes to mediate photochemical extraction of electrons from water, with concomitant release of oxygen. Photosystem II suffers light-dependent photoinactivation through multiple mechanisms, which is in turn countered by protein subunit removal and replacement. This cycle imposes both direct costs and also delayed opportunity costs. The effective quantum yield for photoinactivation of Photosystem II depends upon taxa, cell size, prior acclimation state, the instantaneous spectral regime...

Data from: Faster migration in autumn than in spring: seasonal migration patterns and non-breeding distribution of Icelandic Whimbrels Numenius phaeopus islandicus

Camilo Carneiro, Tómas G. Gunnarsson & José A. Alves
Migration is fundamental in the life of many birds and entails significant energetic and time investments. Given the importance of arrival time in the breeding area and the relatively short period available to reproduce (particularly at high latitudes), it is expected that birds reduce spring migration duration to a greater extent than autumn migration, assuming that pressure to arrive into the wintering area might be relaxed. This has previously been shown for several avian groups,...

Following Darwin’s footsteps: Evaluating the impact of an activity designed for elementary school students to link historically important evolution key concepts on their understanding of natural selection

Xana Sá-Pinto, Alexandre Pinto, Joana Ribeiro, Inês Sarmento, Patrícia Pessoa, Leonor L. Rodrigues, Lucía Vázquez-Ben, Evangelia Mavrikaki & Joaquim Bernardino Lopes
While several researchers have suggested that evolution should be explored from the initial years of schooling, little information is available on effective resources to enhance elementary school students’ level of understanding of evolution by natural selection (LUENS). For the present study, we designed, implemented and evaluated an educational activity planned for fourth graders to explore concepts and conceptual fields that were historically important for the discovery of natural selection. Observation field notes and students’ productions...

Data From: Fit and fatty freshwater fish: Contrasting polyunsaturated fatty acid phenotypes between hybridizing stickleback lineages

Cameron Hudson, Nemiah Ladd, Miguel Leal, Carsten Schubert, Ole Seehausen & Blake Matthews
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are biologically important lipids that are unevenly distributed between and throughout environments. This heterogeneity can affect the evolution of metabolic processes, as populations adapt to the resource landscape that they encounter. Here, we compare fatty acid phenotypes of stickleback over two time scales of evolutionary divergence: between two lineages with different metabolic capacities for fatty acid synthesis (i.e. different copy number of the fatty acid desaturase gene; FADS2) that independently colonized...

Data from: Demographic history, current expansion and future management challenges of wild boar populations in the Balkans and Europe

Nevena Veličković, Eduardo Ferreira, Mihajla Djan, Martin Ernst, Dragana Obreht Vidaković, Andrea Monaco & Carlos Fonseca
Wild boar (Sus scrofa), one of the most widespread wildlife species, has entered a stage of continuous growth in Europe, and could even be considered a pest species. We analysed microsatellite variability in 723 wild boars from across Europe, including the northern Dinaric Balkans. Our aims were: (1) to define the population structure of wild boars in the Balkans and its relation with other European populations; (2) to estimate effective populations sizes, levels of intra-...

Data from: Structure and functioning of intertidal food webs along an avian flyway: a comparative approach using stable isotopes

Teresa Catry, Pedro M. Lourenço, Ricardo J. Lopes, Camilo Carneiro, José A. Alves, Joana Costa, Hamid Rguibi-Idrissi, Stuart Bearhop, Theunis Piersma & José P. Granadeiro
Food webs and trophic dynamics of coastal systems have been the focus of intense research throughout the world, as they prove to be critical in understanding ecosystem processes and functions. However, very few studies have undertaken a quantitative comparison of entire food webs from a key consumer perspective across a broad geographical area, limiting relevant comparisons among systems with distinct biotic and abiotic components. We investigate the structure and functioning of food webs in four...

Data from: Molecular assessment of heterotrophy and prey digestion in zooxanthellate cnidarians

Miguel C. Leal, Jens C. Nejstgaard, Ricardo Calado, Megan E. Thompson & Marc E. Frischer
Zooxanthellate cnidarians are trophically complex, relying on both autotrophy and heterotrophy. Although several aspects of heterotrophy have been studied in these organisms, information linking prey capture with digestion is still missing. We used prey-specific PCR-based tools to assess feeding and prey digestion of two zooxanthellate cnidarians - the tropical sea anemone Aiptasia sp. and the scleractinian coral Oculina arbuscula. Prey DNA disappeared rapidly for the initial one to three days, whereas complete digestion of prey...

Data from: Individual variation in male reproductive behaviour is linked to temporal heterogeneity in predation risk

Miguel Barbosa, Amy E. Deacon, Maria Joao Janeiro, Indar Ramnarine, Michael Blair Morrissey & Anne E. Magurran
Variation in predation risk is a major driver of ecological and evolutionary change, and, in turn, of geographical variation in behaviour. While predation risk is rarely constant in natural populations, the extent to which variation in predation risk shapes individual behaviour in wild populations remains unclear. Here, we investigated individual differences in reproductive behavior in 16 Trinidadian guppy populations and related it to the observed variation in predator biomass each population experienced. Our results show...

Data from: Transcriptomics and in vivo tests reveal novel mechanisms underlying endocrine disruption in an ecological sentinel, Nucella lapillus

Sonia Pascoal, Gary Carvalho, Olga Vasieva, Roger Hughes, Andrew Cossins, Yongxiang Fang, Kevin Ashelford, Lisa Olohan, Carlos Barroso, Sonia Mendo & Simon Creer
Anthropogenic endocrine disruptors now contaminate all environments globally, with concomitant deleterious effects across diverse taxa. While most studies on endocrine disruption (ED) have focused on vertebrates, the superimposition of male sexual characteristics in the female dogwhelk, Nucella lapillus (imposex), caused by organotins, provides one of the most clearcut ecological examples of anthropogenically induced ED in aquatic ecosystems. To identify the underpinning mechanisms of imposex for this ‘nonmodel’ species, we combined Roche 454 pyrosequencing with custom...

Photodynamic inactivation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae: lighting the way towards an environmentally friendly phytosanitary treatment

Angela Cunha, Marina Garcia, Bruna David, Isabel Sierra-Garcia, Artur Alves & Ana Cristina Esteves
The fungus Lasiodiploda theobromae is one of the main causal agents of trunk canker and dieback of grapevine. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of L. theobromae with synthetic and natural photosensitizers (PSs) and irradiation with either sunlight or artificial PAR light. Although growth of the mycelium could not be completely prevented with natural sunlight irradiation, phenothiazine dyes (methylene blue, MB; toluidine blue O, TBO), riboflavin and...

Photosynthesis from stolen chloroplasts can support sea slug reproductive fitness

Paulo Cartaxana, Felisa Rey, Charlotte LeKieffre, Diana Lopes, Cedric Hubas, Jorge E. Spangenberg, Stéphane Escrig, Bruno Jesus, Gonçalo Calado, Rosário Domingues, Michael Kühl, Ricardo Calado, Anders Meibom & Sónia Cruz
Some sea slugs are able to steal functional chloroplasts (kleptoplasts) from their algal food sources, but the role and relevance of photosynthesis to the animal host remain controversial. While some researchers claim that kleptoplasts are slowly digestible ‘snacks’, others advocate that they enhance the overall fitness of sea slugs much more profoundly. Our analysis show light-dependent incorporation of 13C and 15N in the albumen gland and gonadal follicles of the sea slug Elysia timida, representing...

Speciation in the abyss - genomics and morphology reveal a new species of beaked whale

Emma L. Carroll, Michael R. McGowen, Morgan L. McCarthy, Felix G. Marx, Natacha Aguilar De Soto, Merel L. Dalebout, Sascha Dreyer, Oscar E. Gaggiotti, Sabine S. Hansen, Anton Van Helden, Aubrie B. Onoufriou, Robin W. Baird, C. Scott Baker, Simon Berrow, Danielle Cholewiak, Diane Claridge, Rochelle Constantine, Nicholas J. Davison, Catarina Eira, R. Ewan Fordyce, John Gatesy, G. J. Greg Hofmeyr, Vidal Martin, James G. Mead, Antonio A. Mignucci-Giannoni … & Morten T. Olsen
Earth’s deep oceans remains less well understood than the surface of Mars. Beaked whales (ziphiids) are among the most visible inhabitants of the abyss, due to their large size and worldwide distribution, yet their diversity and ecology remain obscure. We combine genomic and morphometric analyses to reveal a new Southern Hemisphere ziphiid species, Ramari’s beaked whale, Mesoplodon eueu, whose name is linked to the Indigenous people of the lands from which the species holotype and...

Mobilisation of data to stakeholder communities: Bridging the research-practice gap using a commercial shellfish species model

Kate Mahony, Sarah Culloty, Alice Fitch, Sara Cabral, Mélanie Rocroy, Xavier De Montaudouin, Sharon Lynch, Sian Egerton & Luísa Magalhães
Knowledge mobilisation is required to “bridge the gap” between research, policy and practice. This activity is dependent on the amount, richness and quality of the data published. To understand the impact of a changing climate on commercial species, stakeholder communities require better knowledge of their past and current situations. The common cockle (Cerastoderma edule) is an excellent model species for this type of analysis, as it is well-studied due to its cultural, commercial and ecological...

Individual variation in migratory behavior in a sub-arctic partial migrant shorebird

Verónica Méndez Aragón, Jose Alves, Bodvar Þórisson, Alina Marca, Tomas Gunnarsson & Jennifer Gill
Migratory behavior can differ markedly amongst individuals within populations or species. Understanding the factors influencing this variation is key to understanding how current environmental changes might influence migratory propensity and the distribution and abundance of migratory species across their range. Here, we investigate variation in migratory behavior of the partially migratory Eurasian oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) population breeding in Iceland. We use resightings of color-ringed adults and stable isotopes to determine whether individuals migrate or remain...

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