41 Works

Photodynamic inactivation of Lasiodiplodia theobromae: lighting the way towards an environmentally friendly phytosanitary treatment

Angela Cunha, Marina Garcia, Bruna David, Isabel Sierra-Garcia, Artur Alves & Ana Cristina Esteves
The fungus Lasiodiploda theobromae is one of the main causal agents of trunk canker and dieback of grapevine. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic inactivation (PDI) of L. theobromae with synthetic and natural photosensitizers (PSs) and irradiation with either sunlight or artificial PAR light. Although growth of the mycelium could not be completely prevented with natural sunlight irradiation, phenothiazine dyes (methylene blue, MB; toluidine blue O, TBO), riboflavin and...

Data from: Eating down the food chain: generalism is not an evolutionary dead end for herbivores

Danny Rojas, Maria João Ramos Pereira, Carlos Fonseca & Liliana M. Dávalos
The role of trophic specialisation in taxonomic diversification remains unclear. Plant specialists diversify faster than omnivores and animalivores, but at shorter macroevolutionary scales this pattern sometimes reverses. Here, we estimate the effect of diet diversification on speciation rates in noctilionoid bats, controlling for tree shape, rate heterogeneity and macroevolutionary regimes. We hypothesise that niche subdivision among herbivores positively relates to speciation rates, differing between macroevolutionary regimes. We found the rate at which new herbivorous lineages...

Feather isotope ratios and sexing of oystercatchers breeding in Iceland, 2013-2017

J.A. Gill, V. Mendez, T.G. Gunnarsson, J.A. Alves & B. Thorrison
Dataset comprises of the delta-13C and delta-15N stable isotopic information from feather samples (for 552 individuals) and the sex (assigned by DNA-analysis of blood samples for 321 individuals) of oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus) breeding in Iceland during the summers of 2013-2017. The Icelandic oystercatcher population contains individuals that stay in Iceland year-round and individuals that migrate to mainland Europe in the non-breeding season, and feather isotope ratios provide a means of distinguishing between these migratory behaviours...

Data from: Broad-scale patterns of the Afro-Palearctic landbird migration

Martins Briedis, Silke Bauer, Peter Adamík, José Alves, Joana Costa, Tamara Emmenegger, Lars Gustafsson, Jaroslav Koleček, Miloš Krist, Felix Liechti, Simeon Lisovski, Christoph Meier, Petr Procházka & Steffen Hahn
Aim: Animal migration strategies balance trade-offs between mortality and reproduction in seasonal environments. Knowledge of broad-scale biogeographical patterns of animal migration is important for understanding ecological drivers of migratory behaviours. Here we present a flyway-scale assessment of the spatial structure and seasonal dynamics of the Afro-Palearctic bird migration system and explore how phenology of the environment guides long-distance migration. Location: Europe and Africa. Time period: 2009–2017. Major taxa studied: Birds. Methods: We compiled an individual-based...

Mapping Africa’s biodiversity: more of the same is just not good enough

Harith Farooq, Josué Azevedo, Amadeu Soares, Alexandre Antonelli & Søren Faurby
Species distribution data are fundamental to the understanding of biodiversity patterns and processes. Yet, such data are strongly affected by sampling biases, mostly related to site accessibility. The understanding of these biases is therefore crucial in systematics, biogeography and conservation. Here we present a novel approach for quantifying sampling effort and its impact on biodiversity knowledge, focusing on Africa. In contrast to previous studies assessing sampling completeness (percentage of species recorded in relation to predicted),...

Data from: Vocal foragers and silent crowds: context-dependent vocal variation in Northeast Atlantic long-finned pilot whales

Fleur Visser, Annebelle C. M. Kok, M. G. Oudejans, Lindesay A. S. Scott-Hayward, Stacy L. DeRuiter, Ana C. Alves, Ricardo N. Antunes, Saana Isojunno, Graham J. Pierce, Hans Slabbekoorn, Jef Huisman, Patrick J. O. Miller & Annebelle C.M. Kok
Vocalisations form a key component of the social interactions and foraging behaviour of toothed whales. We investigated changes in calling and echolocation behaviour of long-finned pilot whales between foraging and non-foraging periods, by combining acoustic recordings and diving depth data from tagged individuals with concurrent surface observations on social behaviour of their group. The pilot whales showed marked vocal variation, specific to foraging and social context. During periods of foraging, pilot whales showed more vocal...

Data from: Towards robust evolutionary inference with integral projection models

M. J. Janeiro, D. W. Coltman, M. Festa-Bianchet, F. Pelletier & M. B. Morrissey
Integral projection models (IPMs) are extremely flexible tools for ecological and evolutionary inference. IPMs track the distribution of phenotype in populations through time, using functions describing phenotype-dependent development, inheritance, survival and fecundity. For evolutionary inference, two important features of any model are the ability to (i) characterize relationships among traits (including values of the same traits across ages) within individuals, and (ii) characterize similarity between individuals and their descendants. In IPM analyses, the former depends...

Data from: Dressed to impress: breeding plumage as a reliable signal of innate immunity

Sara Pardal, Jose A. Alves, Paulo G. Mota & Jaime A. Ramos
Animal signals involved in sexual selection are often indicators of individual quality. The assumption that sexual characters such as breeding plumage may indicate immune state has rarely been tested in free-living migratory birds, particularly in relation to innate immunity. If sexual characters indeed reflect immune condition, then these could be used to evaluate individual quality. Melanin is a common pigment used in animal communication that mitigates the effects of oxidative stress and has positive effects...

Data from: Climate and anthropogenic factors determine site occupancy in Scotland's Northern-range badger population: implications of context-dependent responses under environmental change

André P. Silva, Gonçalo Curveira-Santos, Kerry Kilshaw, Chris Newman, David W. Macdonald, Luciana G. Simões & Luís M. Rosalino
Aim In the light of human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC), populations are exposed to ever-greater bioclimatic stress at the edge of a species’ historic range. The distribution dynamics of European badgers (Meles meles) at their southern edge are linked tightly to climatic variability. We contribute critical data on how climatic context and local factors determine site occupancy in a northern-range population. Location Eleven study areas (averaging ~21.3 km2) spread over ~50,000 km2 in Northern Scotland....

Data from: Interplay between fungicides and parasites: tebuconazole, but not copper, suppresses infection in a Daphnia-Metschnikowia experimental model

Ana Patrícia Cuco, Nelson Abrantes, Fernando Gonçalves, Justyna Wolinska & Bruno B. Castro
Natural populations are commonly exposed to complex stress scenarios, including anthropogenic contamination and their biological enemies (e.g., parasites). The study of the pollutant-parasite interplay is especially important, given the need for adequate regulations to promote improved ecosystem protection. In this study, a host-parasite model system (Daphnia spp. and the microparasitic yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata) was used to explore the reciprocal effects of contamination by common agrochemical fungicides (copper sulphate and tebuconazole) and parasite challenge. We conducted...

Data and code to explore annual cycle schedule adjustments in a long distance migrant

Camilo Carneiro, Tómas Gunnarsson & José Alves
Matching the timing of annual cycle events with the required resources can have crucial consequences for individual fitness. But as the annual cycle is comprised of sequential events, a delay at any point may be carried over to the subsequent stage (or more, in a domino effect) and negatively influence individual performance. To investigate how migratory animals navigate their annual schedule, and where and when it may be adjusted, we used full annual cycle data...

Data from: Pro-inflammatory immune response is linked to wintering habitat in a migratory shorebird

José Mª Abad-Gómez, Auxiliadora Villegas, Jorge S. Gutiérrez, Manuel Parejo, Juan G. Navedo, Juan M. Sánchez-Guzmán & Afonso Rocha
Migratory shorebirds (Charadrii) show a strong dichotomy in their breeding and wintering strategies: Arctic-breeding species typically spend the wintering season in marine habitats, while more southerly breeding species tend to do so in freshwater habitats where pathogens and parasites, particularly vector-borne blood parasites, are generally more abundant. Thus, it has been hypothesized that the former group may reduce their investment in immunity, but experimental data supporting this hypothesis are lacking. Moreover, whether this contrasting habitat...

Latitudinal influence on gametogenesis and host-parasite ecology in a marine bivalve model

Kate Mahony, Sharon Lynch, Sian Egerton, Rebecca Laffan, Simão Correia, Xavier De Montaudouin, Nathalie Mesmer-Dudons, Rosa Maria Freitas & Sarah Culloty
Reproduction and parasites have significant impacts on marine animal populations globally. This study aimed to investigate the associative effects of host reproduction and a host-parasite interplay on a marine bivalve, along a geographic gradient of latitude. Cockles Cerastoderma edule were sampled from five European sites (54°N to 40°N), between April 2018 and October 2019. A histological survey provided data on trematode (metacercaria and sporocyst life stages), prevalence and cockle stage of gametogenesis to assess the...

Identification of scavenger receptors and thrombospondin type 1 repeat proteins potentially relevant for plastid recognition in Sacoglossa

Jenny Melo Clavijo, Silja Frankenbach, Cátia Fidalgo, Joao Serôdio, Alexander Donath, Angelika Preisfeld & Gregor Christa
Functional kleptoplasty is a photosymbiotic relationship, in which photosynthetically active chloroplasts serve as an intracellular symbiont for a heterotrophic host. Among Metazoa, functional kleptoplasty is only found in marine sea slugs belonging to the Sacoglossa and recently described in rhabdocoel worms. Although functional kleptoplasty has been intensively studied in Sacoglossa, the fundamentals of the specific recognition of the chloroplasts and their subsequent incorporation are unknown. The key to ensure the initiation of any symbiosis is...

Data and code for: Parthenogenesis is self-destructive for scaled reptiles

Matthew Moreira, Danny Rojas & Carlos Fonseca
Parthenogenesis is rare in nature. With 39 described true parthenogens, scaled reptiles (Squamata) are the only vertebrates that evolved this reproductive strategy. Parthenogenesis is ecologically advantageous in the short-term, but the young age and rarity of parthenogenetic species indicate it is less advantageous in the long-term. This suggests parthenogenesis is self-destructive: it arises often but is lost due to increased extinction rates, high rates of reversal or both. However, this role of parthenogenesis as a...

Data from: Bayesian hierarchical models suggest oldest known plant-visiting bat was omnivorous

Laurel R. Yohe, Paúl M. Velazco, Danny Rojas, Beth E. Gerstner, Nancy B. Simmons & Liliana M. Dávalos
The earliest record of plant visiting in bats dates to the Middle Miocene of La Venta, the world's most diverse tropical palaeocommunity. Palynephyllum antimaster is known from molars that indicate nectarivory. Skull length, an important indicator of key traits such as body size, bite force and trophic specialization, remains unknown. We developed Bayesian models to infer skull length based on dental measurements. These models account for variation within and between species, variation between clades, and...

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