21 Works

Data from: Species turnover and invasion of dominant freshwater invertebrates alter biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship

Chelsea J. Little & Florian Altermatt
Freshwater ecosystems rely on allochthonous resources. Integration of these subsidies depends on diversity of both terrestrial resources and aquatic shredder and decomposer communities, but the diversity effects on leaf litter breakdown and decomposition are less clear in aquatic than terrestrial ecosystems. We need a better understanding of this relationship because aquatic communities are rapidly changing with species invasions and anthropogenic impacts. Here, we experimentally disentangled the effects of leaf and shredder richness on leaf litter...

Data from: Divergent parasite infections in sympatric cichlid species in Lake Victoria

Anssi Karvonen, Catherine E. Wagner, Oliver M. Selz & Ole Seehausen
Parasitism has been proposed as a factor in host speciation, as an agent affecting coexistence of host species in species rich communities, and as a driver of post-speciation diversification. Young adaptive radiations of closely related host species of varying ecological and genomic differentiation provide interesting opportunities to explore interactions between patterns of parasitism, divergence and coexistence of sympatric host species. Here, we explored patterns in ectoparasitism in a community of 16 fully sympatric cichlid species...

Data from: Rapid buildup of sympatric species diversity in Alpine whitefish

Carmela J. Doenz, David Bittner, Pascal Vonlanthen, Catherine E. Wagner & Ole Seehausen
Adaptive radiations in postglacial fish offer excellent settings to study the evolutionary mechanisms involved in the rapid buildup of sympatric species diversity from a single lineage. Here, we address this by exploring the genetic and ecological structure of the largest Alpine whitefish radiation known, that of Lakes Brienz and Thun, using microsatellite data of more than 2000 whitefish caught during extensive species‐targeted and habitat‐randomized fishing campaigns. We find six strongly genetically and ecologically differentiated species,...

Data from: Stoichiometric traits of stickleback: effects of genetic background, rearing environment, and ontogeny

Miguel Costa Leal, Rebecca J. Best, Dan Durston, Rana W. El-Sabaawi & Blake Matthews
Phenotypes can both evolve in response to, and affect, ecosystem change, but few examples of diverging ecosystem-effect traits have been investigated. Bony armor traits of fish are good candidates for this because they evolve rapidly in some freshwa- ter fish populations, and bone is phosphorus rich and likely to affect nutrient recycling in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we explore how ontogeny, rearing environment, and bone allocation among body parts affect the stoichiometric phenotype (i.e., stoichio- metric...

Data from: Defensive symbionts mediate species coexistence in phytophagous insects

Corinne Hertäg & Christoph Vorburger
1. Competition of two species for the same resource is expected to result in competitive exclusion of the inferior competitor. In natural communities, however, other antagonists and symbionts moderate competition. Thus we have to go beyond studying pairwise interactions. 2. Natural enemies may facilitate coexistence if they affect the superior competitor more strongly, or they can hinder coexistence via apparent competition. Less well studied is the role of symbionts, which may influence species coexistence in...

Data from: Do priority effects outweigh environmental filtering in a guild of dominant freshwater macroinvertebrates?

Chelsea J. Little & Florian Altermatt
Abiotic conditions have long been considered essential in structuring freshwater macroinvertebrate communities. Ecological drift, dispersal, and biotic interactions also structure communities, and although these mechanisms are more difficult to detect, they may be of equal importance in natural communities. Here, we hypothesized that in ten naturally-replicated headwater streams in Eastern Switzerland, locally-dominant amphipod species would be associated with differences in environmental conditions. We conducted repeated surveys of amphipods and used a hierarchical joint species distribution...

Data from: The predictability of a lake phytoplankton community, over time-scales of hours to years

Mridul K. Thomas, Simone Fontana, Marta Reyes, Michael Kehoe & Francesco Pomati
Forecasting changes to ecological communities is one of the central challenges in ecology. However, nonlinear dependencies, biotic interactions and data limitations have limited our ability to assess how predictable communities are. We used a machine learning approach and environmental monitoring data (biological, physical and chemical) to assess the predictability of phytoplankton cell density in one lake across an unprecedented range of time scales. Communities were highly predictable over hours to months: model R2 decreased from...

Data from: Genomic insights into the vulnerability of sympatric whitefish species flocks

Philine G.D. Feulner & Ole Seehausen
The erosion of habitat heterogeneity can reduce species diversity directly but can also lead to the loss of distinctiveness of sympatric species through speciation reversal. We know little about changes in genomic differentiation during the early stages of these processes, which can be mediated by anthropogenic perturbation. Here, we analyse three sympatric whitefish species (Coregonus spp) sampled across two neighbouring and connected Swiss pre-alpine lakes, which have been differentially affected by anthropogenic eutrophication. Our data...

Data from: Disturbance reverses classic biodiversity predictions in river-like landscapes

Eric Harvey, Isabelle Gounand, Emanuel A. Fronhofer & Florian Altermatt
Global analyses of biodiversity consistently reveal recurrent patterns of species distributions worldwide. However, unveiling the specific mechanisms behind those patterns remains logistically challenging, yet necessary for reliable biodiversity forecasts. Here, we combine theory and experiments to investigate the processes underlying spatial biodiversity patterns in dendritic, river-like landscapes, iconic examples of highly threatened ecosystems. We used geometric scaling properties, common to all rivers, to show that the distribution of biodiversity in these landscapes fundamentally depends on...

Data from: Testing the devil's impact on southern Baltic and North Sea basin whitefish (Coregonus spp.) diversity

Thomas Mehner, Kirsten Pohlmann, David Bittner & Jörg Freyhof
Background: The diversity and phylogeny of whitefish of the genus Coregonus is complex, and includes many endemic species of high conservation concern. However, because of commercial importance of whitefish fisheries, stockings and translocations have occurred repeatedly, which challenges the identification of local populations as conservation units. This study analyses the phylogenetic relationships of 15 contemporary and two historical populations of lake-resident and anadromous whitefish (Coregonus spp.) from the southern Baltic and North Sea basins. We...

Data from: Enhanced virus filtration in hybrid membranes with MWCNT nanocomposite

Zoltan Nemeth, Gergo Peter Szekeres, Mateusz Schabikowski, Krisztina Schrantz, Jacqueline Traber, Wouter Pronk, Klara Hernadi & Thomas Graule
Membrane separation is proved to be a powerful tool for several applications such as wastewater treatment or the elimination of various microorganisms from drinking water. In this study, the efficiency of inorganic composite based multi-walled carbon nanotube hybrid membranes was investigated in the removal of MS2 bacteriophages from contaminated water. With this object multi-walled carbon nanotubes were coated with copper(I) oxide, titanium(IV) oxide and iron(III) oxide nanoparticles, respectively, and their virus removal capability was tested...

Data from: Genomics of parallel ecological speciation in Lake Victoria cichlids

Joana Isabel Meier, David Alexander Marques, Catherine Elise Wagner, Laurent Excoffier & Ole Seehausen
The genetic basis of parallel evolution of similar species is of great interest in evolutionary biology. In the adaptive radiation of Lake Victoria cichlid fishes, sister species with either blue or red-back male nuptial coloration have evolved repeatedly, often associated with shallower and deeper water, respectively. One such case are blue and red-backed Pundamilia species, for which we recently showed that a young species pair may have evolved through “hybrid parallel speciation”. Coalescent simulations suggested...

Data from: The role of plasticity in the evolution of cryptic pigmentation in a freshwater isopod

Moritz D. Lürig, Rebecca J. Best, Marek Svitok, Jukka Jokela & Blake Matthews
1. Cryptic pigmentation of prey is often thought to evolve in response to predator-mediated selection, but pigmentation traits can also be plastic, and change with respect to both abiotic and biotic environmental conditions. In such cases, identifying the presence of, and drivers of, trait plasticity is useful for understanding the evolution of crypsis. 2. Previous work suggests that cryptic pigmentation of freshwater isopods (Asellus aquaticus) has evolved in response to predation pressure by fish in...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: Population size changes and selection drive patterns of parallel evolution in a host-virus system

Jens Frickel, Philine G.D. Feulner, Emre Karakoc & Lutz Becks
Predicting the repeatability of evolution remains elusive. Theory and empirical studies suggest that strong selection and large population sizes increase the probability for parallel evolution at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. However, selection and population sizes are not constant, but rather change continuously and directly affect each other even on short time scales. Here, we examine the degree of parallel evolution shaped through eco-evolutionary dynamics in an algal host population coevolving with a virus. We...

Data from: Landscape configuration alters spatial arrangement of terrestrial-aquatic subsidies in headwater streams

Chelsea J. Little & Florian Altermatt
Context: Freshwater ecosystems depend on surrounding terrestrial landscape for resources. Most important are terrestrial leaf litter subsidies, which differ depending on land use. We lack a good understanding of the variation of these inputs across spatial scales. Objectives: We sought to determine: (1) the relative importance of local versus catchment-level forestation for benthic leaf litter biomass in streams, (2) how landscape configuration alters these relationships, and (3) how land use affects the quality and diversity...

Data from: Effective polyploidy causes phenotypic delay and influences bacterial evolvability

Lei Sun, Helen K. Alexander, Balazs Bogos, Daniel J. Kiviet, Martin Ackermann & Sebastian Bonhoeffer
Whether mutations in bacteria exhibit a noticeable delay before expressing their corresponding mutant phenotype was discussed intensively in the 1940s to 1950s, but the discussion eventually waned for lack of supportive evidence and perceived incompatibility with observed mutant distributions in fluctuation tests. Phenotypic delay in bacteria is widely assumed to be negligible, despite the lack of direct evidence. Here, we revisited the question using recombineering to introduce antibiotic resistance mutations into E. coli at defined...

Data from: Transmission risk predicts avoidance of infected conspecifics in Trinidadian guppies

Jessica F. Stephenson, Sarah E. Perkins & Joanne Cable
1.Associating with conspecifics afflicted with infectious diseases increases the risk of becoming infected, but engaging in avoidance behaviour incurs the cost of lost social benefits. Across systems, infected individuals vary in the transmission risk they pose, so natural selection should favour risk‐sensitive avoidance behaviour that optimally balances the costs and benefits of sociality. 2.Here we use the guppy Poecilia reticulata‐Gyrodactylus turnbulli host‐parasite system to test the prediction that individuals avoid infected conspecifics in proportion to...

Data from: Relative importance of chemical attractiveness to parasites for susceptibility to trematode infection

Laura Langeloh & Otto Seppälä
While the host immune system is often considered the most important physiological mechanism against parasites, pre-contact mechanisms determining exposure to parasites may also affect infection dynamics. For instance, chemical cues released by hosts can attract parasite transmission stages. We used the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis and its trematode parasite Echinoparyphium aconiatum to examine the role of host chemical attractiveness, physiological condition and immune function in determining its susceptibility to infection. We assessed host attractiveness through...

Data from: The onset of ecological diversification 50 years after colonization of a crater lake by haplochromine cichlid fishes

Florian N. Moser, Jacco C. Rijssel, Salome Mwaiko, Joana I. Meier, Benjamin Ngatunga, Ole Seehausen & Jacco C. Van Rijssel
Adaptive radiation research typically relies on the study of evolution in retrospective, leaving the predictive value of the concept hard to evaluate. Several radiations, including the cichlid fish in the East African Great Lakes, have been studied extensively, yet no study has investigated the onset of the intraspecific processes of niche expansion and differentiation shortly after colonization of an adaptive zone by cichlids. Haplochromine cichlids of one of the two lineages that seeded the Lake...

Data from: Simultaneous exposure to a pulsed and a prolonged anthropogenic stressor can alter consumer multifunctionality

Tiina Salo, Katja Rasanen, Christian Stamm, Francis J. Burdon & Otto Seppala
Ecosystems face multiple anthropogenic threats globally, and the effects of these environmental stressors range from individual-level organismal responses to altered system functioning. Understanding the combined effects of stressors on process rates mediated by individuals in ecosystems would greatly improve our ability to predict organismal multifunctionality (e.g. multiple consumer-mediated functions). We conducted a laboratory experiment to test direct and indirect, as well as immediate and delayed effects of a heat wave (pulsed stress) and micropollutants (MPs)...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    21

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    21

Affiliations

  • Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
    21
  • University of Bern
    6
  • Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
    6
  • University of Wyoming
    2
  • University of Zurich
    2
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    2
  • Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research
    2
  • Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics
    1
  • Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute
    1
  • University of Saskatchewan
    1