217 Works

Data from: Parallel evolution of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the face of gene flow

Roger K. Butlin, Maria Saura, Grégory Charrier, Benjamin Jackson, Carl André, Armando Caballero, Jerry A. Coyne, Juan Galindo, John W. Grahame, Johann Hollander, Petri Kemppainen, Mónica Martínez-Fernández, Marina Panova, Humberto Quesada, Kerstin Johannesson, Emilio Rolán-Alvarez & Johan Hollander
Parallel evolution of similar phenotypes provides strong evidence for the operation of natural selection. Where these phenotypes contribute to reproductive isolation, they further support a role for divergent, habitat-associated selection in speciation. However, the observation of pairs of divergent ecotypes currently occupying contrasting habitats in distinct geographical regions is not sufficient to infer parallel origins. Here we show striking parallel phenotypic divergence between populations of the rocky-shore gastropod, Littorina saxatilis, occupying contrasting habitats exposed to...

Data from: Insectivorous bat pollinates columnar cactus more effectively per visit than specialized nectar bat

Winifred F. Frick, Ryan D. Price, & Kathleen M. Kay
Plant-pollinator interactions are great model systems to investigate mutualistic relationships. We compared pollinator effectiveness between facultative and obligate nectar-feeding bats to determine how foraging specialization influences mutualistic interactions in a bat-adapted cactus. We predicted that a specialized nectarivorous bat would deliver more pollen than an opportunistic nectar-feeding bat because of specialized adaptations to nectar-feeding that indicate close association with their food plants. Counter to our predictions, the opportunistic Antrozous pallidus delivered significantly more pollen grains...

Data from: Patterns and processes in complex landscapes: testing alternative biogeographic hypotheses through integrated analysis of phylogeography and community ecology in Hawai'i

Jon Eldon, Jonathan P. Price, Donald K. Price & Karl Magnacca
The Island of Hawai‘i is a dynamic assemblage of five volcanoes with wet forest habitat currently existing in four distinct natural regions that vary in area, age, and geographic isolation. In this complex landscape, alternative assumptions of the relative importance of specific habitat characteristics on evolutionary and ecological processes predict strikingly different general patterns of local diversity and regional similarity. In this study we compare alternative a priori hypotheses against observed patterns within two distinct...

Data from: Elucidating steroid alkaloid biosynthesis in Veratrum californicum: production of verazine in Sf9 cells

Megan M. Augustin, Dan R. Ruzicka, Ashutosh K. Shukla, Courtney M. Starks, Mark O'Neil-Johnson, Michael R. McKain, Bradley S. Evans, Matthew D. Barrett, Ann Smithson, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Michael K. Deyholos, Patrick P. Edger, J. Chris Pires, James H. Leebens-Mack, Dave A. Mann, Toni M. Kutchan & Matt D. Barrett
Steroid alkaloids have been shown to elicit a wide range of pharmacological effects that include anticancer and antifungal activities. Understanding the biosynthesis of these molecules is essential to bioengineering for sustainable production. Herein, we investigate the biosynthetic pathway to cyclopamine, a steroid alkaloid that shows promising antineoplastic activities. Supply of cyclopamine is limited, as the current source is solely derived from wild collection of the plant Veratrum californicum. To elucidate the early stages of the...

Data from: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in wild birds in northwestern California: associations with ecological factors, bird behavior and tick infestation

Erica A. Newman, Lars Eisen, Rebecca J. Eisen, Natalia Fedorova, Jeomhee M. Hasty, Charles Vaughn & Robert S. Lane
Although Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) are found in a great diversity of vertebrates, most studies in North America have focused on the role of mammals as spirochete reservoir hosts. We investigated the roles of birds as hosts for subadult Ixodes pacificus ticks and potential reservoirs of the Lyme disease spirochete B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in northwestern California. Overall, 623 birds representing 53 species yielded 284 I. pacificus larvae and nymphs. We used generalized...

Data from: Sequence Capture using PCR-generated Probes (SCPP): a cost-effective method of targeted high-throughput sequencing for non-model organisms

Joshua V. Peñalba, Lydia L. Smith, Maria A. Tonione, Chodon Sass, Sarah M. Hykin, Phillip L. Skipwith, James A. McGuire, Rauri C. K. Bowie, Craig Moritz & Jimmy A. McGuire
Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing library preparation and subgenomic enrichment methods have opened new avenues for population genetics and phylogenetics of non-model organisms. To multiplex large numbers of indexed samples while sequencing predominantly orthologous, targeted regions of the genome, we propose modifications to an existing, in-solution capture that utilizes PCR products as target probes to enrich library pools for the genomic subset of interest. The sequence capture using PCR-generated probes (SCPP) protocol requires no specialized...

Data from: Crop-to-wild gene flow and spatial genetic structure in the closest wild relatives of the cultivated apple

Amandine Cornille, Pierre Gladieux & Tatiana Giraud
Crop-to-wild gene flow have important evolutionary and ecological consequences and require careful consideration in conservation programs for wild genetic resources of potential use in breeding programs and in assessments of the risk of transgene escape into natural ecosystems. Using 26 microsatellites and a set of 1181 trees, we investigated the extent of introgression from the cultivated apple, Malus domestica, to its three closest wild relatives, M. sylvestris in Europe, M. orientalis in the Caucasus and...

Data from: Artificial bat roosts did not accelerate forest regeneration in abandoned pastures in southern Costa Rica

J. Leighton Reid, Ellen K. Holste & Rakan A. Zahawi
Artificial roosts have been proposed as a tool for augmenting bat populations and catalyzing tropical forest regeneration. In the best case scenario, roosts would attract seed-carrying bats (Family Phyllostomidae) into degraded pastures and form nucleating patches of native vegetation. We tested this scenario by monitoring 48 artificial roosts in pastures and adjacent forest fragments in southern Costa Rica over 2 years. Half of the pasture roosts were exposed to direct sunlight and half were affixed...

Data from: Large-scale parentage analysis reveals reproductive patterns and heritability of spawn timing in a hatchery population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

Alicia Abadía-Cardoso, Eric C. Anderson, Devon E. Pearse & John Carlos Garza
Understanding life history traits is an important first step in formulating effective conservation and management strategies. The use of artificial propagation and supplementation as such a strategy can have numerous effects on the supplemented natural populations and minimizing life history divergence is crucial in minimizing these effects. Here, we use single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes for large-scale parentage analysis and pedigree reconstruction in a hatchery population of steelhead, the anadromous form of rainbow trout. Nearly...

Data from: An evaluation of transcriptome-based exon capture for frog phylogenomics across multiple scales of divergence (Class: Amphibia, Order: Anura)

Daniel M. Portik, Lydia L. Smith & Ke Bi
Custom sequence capture experiments are becoming an efficient approach for gathering large sets of orthologous markers in nonmodel organisms. Transcriptome-based exon capture utilizes transcript sequences to design capture probes, typically using a reference genome to identify intron–exon boundaries to exclude shorter exons (<200 bp). Here, we test directly using transcript sequences for probe design, which are often composed of multiple exons of varying lengths. Using 1260 orthologous transcripts, we conducted sequence captures across multiple phylogenetic...

Data from: Spatiotemporal patterns of duck nest density and predation risk: a multi-scale analysis of 18 years and more than 10 000 nests

Kevin Ringelman, John M. Eadie, Joshua T. Ackerman, Andy Sih, Daniel L. Loughman, Gregory S. Yarris, Shaun L. Oldenburger, M. Robert McLandress, Kevin M. Ringelman & Andrew Sih
Many avian species are behaviorally-plastic in selecting nest sites, and may shift to new locations or habitats following an unsuccessful breeding attempt. If there is predictable spatial variation in predation risk, the process of many individuals using prior experience to adaptively change nest sites may scale up to create shifting patterns of nest density at a population level. We used 18 years of waterfowl nesting data to assess whether there were areas of consistently high...

Data from: Comparing the responses of bryophytes and short-statured vascular plants to climate shifts and eutrophication

Risto Virtanen, Anu Eskelinen & Susan Harrison
Few experimental studies have tested how abundance and diversity of grassland bryophytes respond to global environmental changes such as climate shifts and eutrophication. Because bryophytes in grasslands are low-statured, and because plant height is a key functional trait governing plant responses to resource gradients, their responses to these factors could resemble those of better-studied small vascular plants. Alternatively, traits unique to bryophytes could lead to qualitatively different responses than those of small vascular plants. In...

Data from: Honey bee inhibitory signaling is tuned to threat severity and can act as a colony alarm signal

Ken Tan, Shihao Dong, Xinyu Li, Xiwen Liu, Chao Wang, Jianjun Li & James C. Nieh
Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that like A....

Data from: Population structure of a vector-borne plant parasite

Kelsey M. Yule, Jennifer A. H. Koop, Nicolas M. Alexandre, Lauren R. Johnston & Noah K. Whiteman
Parasites are among the most diverse groups of life on Earth, yet complex natural histories often preclude studies of their speciation processes. The biology of parasitic plants facilitates in situ collection of data on both genetic structure and the mechanisms responsible for that structure. Here, we studied the role of mating, dispersal and establishment in host race formation of a parasitic plant. We investigated the population genetics of a vector-borne desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum) across...

Data from: Unlinked Mendelian inheritance of red and black pigmentation in snakes: implications for Batesian mimicry

Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Christian L. Cox & Daniel L. Rabosky
Identifying the genetic basis of mimetic signals is critical to understanding both the origin and dynamics of mimicry over time. For species not amenable to large laboratory breeding studies, widespread color polymorphism across natural populations offers a powerful way to assess the relative likelihood of different genetic systems given observed phenotypic frequencies. We classified color phenotype for 2,175 ground snakes (Sonora semiannulata) across the continental United States to analyze morph ratios and test among competing...

Data from: Queen killing is linked to high worker-worker relatedness in a social wasp

Kevin J. Loope
Social insect colonies are pinnacles of evolved altruism, but also contain dramatic conflict among relatives [1, 2]. In many species, a colony’s workers compete with the queen and each other over the production of males. Interspecific comparisons demonstrate the importance of within-colony relatedness in determining the outcome of this conflict [3, 4], but facultative responses to within-colony relatedness are rarely reported [5-7]. Here, I report facultative matricide (worker killing of a colony’s queen) in the...

Data from: Do high-impact invaders have the strongest negative effects on abundant and functionally similar resident species?

Erica J. Case, Susan Harrison & Howard V. Cornell
1.Although invasive plants may outcompete and cause local-scale extirpations of resident species, it is widely observed that they cause few extinctions at larger spatial scales. 2.One possible explanation is that highly successful invaders tend to be functionally similar to, and therefore compete most strongly with, resident species that are also relatively successful and widespread. High abundance may then protect these functionally similar residents from complete extinction over large areas despite their stronger competition with the...

Data from: Seed source impacts germination and early establishment of dominant grasses in prairie restorations

M. Kate Gallagher & Stuart Wagenius
Land managers choose seed from a variety of provenances for restoration projects. By selecting seed of the local ecotype, managers can increase establishment in the short term and prevent the disruption of local adaptations and genetic swamping in the long term. However, local seed may be disadvantageous if populations are inbred or maladapted to managed restoration environments. Seed selection may be further confounded by propagation methods. Three dominant C4 grasses, Andropogon gerardii, Bouteloua curtipendula and...

Data from: Joint evolution of differential seed dispersal and self-fertilization

Ryosuke Iritani, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou & P.-O. Cheptou
Differential seed dispersal, in which selfed and outcrossed seeds possess different dispersal propensities, represents a potentially important individual-level association. A variety of traits can mediate differential seed dispersal, including inflorescence and seed size variation. However, how natural selection shapes such associations is poorly known. Here, we developed theoretical models for the evolution of mating system and differential seed dispersal in metapopulations, incorporating heterogeneous pollination, dispersal cost, cost of outcrossing, and environment-dependent inbreeding depression. We considered...

Data from: Resistance, tolerance and environmental transmission dynamics determine host extinction risk in a load-dependent amphibian disease

Mark Q. Wilber, Roland A. Knapp, Mary Toothman & Cheryl J. Briggs
While disease-induced extinction is generally considered rare, a number of recently emerging infectious diseases with load-dependent pathology have led to extinction in wildlife populations. Transmission is a critical factor affecting disease-induced extinction, but the relative importance of transmission compared to load-dependent host resistance and tolerance is currently unknown. Using a combination of models and experiments on an amphibian species suffering extirpations from the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), we show that while transmission from an...

Data from: Non-random dispersal mediates invader impacts on the invertebrate community

Julien Cote, Tomas Brodin, Sean Fogarty & Andrew Sih
(1) Dispersers are often not a random draw from a population, dispersal propensity being conditional on individual phenotypic traits and local conditions. This non-randomness consequently results in phenotypic differences between dispersers and non-dispersers and, in the context of biological invasions, in an invasion front made of individuals with a biased phenotype. This bias of phenotypes at the front may subsequently modulate the strength of ecological effects of an invasive species on invaded communities. (2) We...

Data from: Environmental stress linked to consumption of maternally derived carotenoids in brown trout embryos (Salmo trutta)

Laetitia G. E. Wilkins, Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Gaëtan Glauser, Armelle Vallat & Claus Wedekind
The yellow, orange, or red colors of salmonid eggs are due to maternally derived carotenoids whose functions are not sufficiently understood yet. Here, we studied the significance of naturally acquired carotenoids as maternal environmental effects during embryo development in brown trout (Salmo trutta). We collected eggs from wild females, quantified their egg carotenoid content, fertilized them in vitro in full-factorial breeding blocks to separate maternal from paternal effects, and raised 3,278 embryos singly at various...

Data from: Introduced ants reduce interaction diversity in a multi-species, ant-aphid mutualism

Katherine E. LeVan, Sarah K. Barney & Erin E. Wilson Rankin
Mutualisms contribute in fundamental ways to the origin, maintenance and organization of biological diversity. Introduced species commonly participate in mutualisms, but how this phenomenon affects patterns of interactions among native mutualists remains incompletely understood. Here we examine how networks of interactions among aphid-tending ants, ant-tended aphids, and aphid-attacking parasitoid wasps differ between 12 spatially paired riparian study sites with and without the introduced Argentine ant Linepithema humile in southern California. To resolve challenges in species...

Data from: Dynamic changes in display architecture and function across environments revealed by a systems approach to animal communication

Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Matthew R. Wilkins, Daizaburo Shizuka & Eileen A. Hebets
Animal communication is often structurally complex and dynamic, with signaler and receiver behavior varying in response to multiple environmental factors. To date, studies assessing signal dynamics have mostly focused on the relationships between select signaling traits and receiver responses in a single environment. We use the wolf spider Schizocosa floridana to explore the relationships between courtship display form and function across two social contexts (female presence vs. absence) and two light environments (light vs. dark)....

Data from: RRapid global spread of wRi-like Wolbachia across multiple Drosophila

Michael Turelli, Brandon S. Cooper, Kelly M. Richardson, Paul S. Ginsberg, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Chenling X. Antelope, Kevin J. Kim, Michael R. May, Antoine Abrieux, Derek A. Wilson, Michael J. Bronski, Brian R. Moore, Jian-Jun Gao, Michael B. Eisen, Joanna C. Chiu, William R. Conner & Ary A. Hoffmann
Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects, but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare. Here we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila...

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