217 Works

Data from: Seed source impacts germination and early establishment of dominant grasses in prairie restorations

M. Kate Gallagher & Stuart Wagenius
Land managers choose seed from a variety of provenances for restoration projects. By selecting seed of the local ecotype, managers can increase establishment in the short term and prevent the disruption of local adaptations and genetic swamping in the long term. However, local seed may be disadvantageous if populations are inbred or maladapted to managed restoration environments. Seed selection may be further confounded by propagation methods. Three dominant C4 grasses, Andropogon gerardii, Bouteloua curtipendula and...

Data from: Queen killing is linked to high worker-worker relatedness in a social wasp

Kevin J. Loope
Social insect colonies are pinnacles of evolved altruism, but also contain dramatic conflict among relatives [1, 2]. In many species, a colony’s workers compete with the queen and each other over the production of males. Interspecific comparisons demonstrate the importance of within-colony relatedness in determining the outcome of this conflict [3, 4], but facultative responses to within-colony relatedness are rarely reported [5-7]. Here, I report facultative matricide (worker killing of a colony’s queen) in the...

Data from: Spatiotemporal patterns of duck nest density and predation risk: a multi-scale analysis of 18 years and more than 10 000 nests

Kevin Ringelman, John M. Eadie, Joshua T. Ackerman, Andy Sih, Daniel L. Loughman, Gregory S. Yarris, Shaun L. Oldenburger, M. Robert McLandress, Kevin M. Ringelman & Andrew Sih
Many avian species are behaviorally-plastic in selecting nest sites, and may shift to new locations or habitats following an unsuccessful breeding attempt. If there is predictable spatial variation in predation risk, the process of many individuals using prior experience to adaptively change nest sites may scale up to create shifting patterns of nest density at a population level. We used 18 years of waterfowl nesting data to assess whether there were areas of consistently high...

Data from: Selection for collective aggressiveness favors social susceptibility in social spiders

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Colin M. Wright, James L. L. Lichtenstein, Gregory T. Chism, Brendan L. McEwen, Ambika Kamath & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Particularly socially influential individuals are present in many groups, but it is unclear whether their emergence is determined by their social influence versus the social susceptibility of others. The social spider Stegodyphus dumicola shows regional variation in apparent leader-follower dynamics. We use this variation to evaluate the relative contributions of leader social influence versus follower social susceptibility in driving this social order. Using chimeric colonies that combine potential leaders and followers, we discover that leader-follower...

Data from: Resistance, tolerance and environmental transmission dynamics determine host extinction risk in a load-dependent amphibian disease

Mark Q. Wilber, Roland A. Knapp, Mary Toothman & Cheryl J. Briggs
While disease-induced extinction is generally considered rare, a number of recently emerging infectious diseases with load-dependent pathology have led to extinction in wildlife populations. Transmission is a critical factor affecting disease-induced extinction, but the relative importance of transmission compared to load-dependent host resistance and tolerance is currently unknown. Using a combination of models and experiments on an amphibian species suffering extirpations from the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), we show that while transmission from an...

Data from: The origin and evolution of coral species richness in a marine biodiversity hotspot

Danwei Huang, Emma E. Goldberg, Loke Ming Chou & Kaustuv Roy
The Coral Triangle region of the Indo-Pacific realm harbors an extraordinary number of species, with richness decreasing away from this biodiversity hotspot. Despite multiple competing hypotheses, the dynamics underlying this regional diversity pattern remain poorly understood. Here we use a time-calibrated evolutionary tree of living reef coral species, their current geographic ranges, and model-based estimates of regional rates of speciation, extinction, and geographic range shifts to show that origination rates within the Coral Triangle are...

Data from: Environmental stress linked to consumption of maternally derived carotenoids in brown trout embryos (Salmo trutta)

Laetitia G. E. Wilkins, Lucas Marques Da Cunha, Gaëtan Glauser, Armelle Vallat & Claus Wedekind
The yellow, orange, or red colors of salmonid eggs are due to maternally derived carotenoids whose functions are not sufficiently understood yet. Here, we studied the significance of naturally acquired carotenoids as maternal environmental effects during embryo development in brown trout (Salmo trutta). We collected eggs from wild females, quantified their egg carotenoid content, fertilized them in vitro in full-factorial breeding blocks to separate maternal from paternal effects, and raised 3,278 embryos singly at various...

Data from: Joint evolution of differential seed dispersal and self-fertilization

Ryosuke Iritani, Pierre-Olivier Cheptou & P.-O. Cheptou
Differential seed dispersal, in which selfed and outcrossed seeds possess different dispersal propensities, represents a potentially important individual-level association. A variety of traits can mediate differential seed dispersal, including inflorescence and seed size variation. However, how natural selection shapes such associations is poorly known. Here, we developed theoretical models for the evolution of mating system and differential seed dispersal in metapopulations, incorporating heterogeneous pollination, dispersal cost, cost of outcrossing, and environment-dependent inbreeding depression. We considered...

Data from: Comparing the responses of bryophytes and short-statured vascular plants to climate shifts and eutrophication

Risto Virtanen, Anu Eskelinen & Susan Harrison
Few experimental studies have tested how abundance and diversity of grassland bryophytes respond to global environmental changes such as climate shifts and eutrophication. Because bryophytes in grasslands are low-statured, and because plant height is a key functional trait governing plant responses to resource gradients, their responses to these factors could resemble those of better-studied small vascular plants. Alternatively, traits unique to bryophytes could lead to qualitatively different responses than those of small vascular plants. In...

Data from: Unlinked Mendelian inheritance of red and black pigmentation in snakes: implications for Batesian mimicry

Alison R. Davis Rabosky, Christian L. Cox & Daniel L. Rabosky
Identifying the genetic basis of mimetic signals is critical to understanding both the origin and dynamics of mimicry over time. For species not amenable to large laboratory breeding studies, widespread color polymorphism across natural populations offers a powerful way to assess the relative likelihood of different genetic systems given observed phenotypic frequencies. We classified color phenotype for 2,175 ground snakes (Sonora semiannulata) across the continental United States to analyze morph ratios and test among competing...

Data from: Honey bee inhibitory signaling is tuned to threat severity and can act as a colony alarm signal

Ken Tan, Shihao Dong, Xinyu Li, Xiwen Liu, Chao Wang, Jianjun Li & James C. Nieh
Alarm communication is a key adaptation that helps social groups resist predation and rally defenses. In Asia, the world's largest hornet, Vespa mandarinia, and the smaller hornet, Vespa velutina, prey upon foragers and nests of the Asian honey bee, Apis cerana. We attacked foragers and colony nest entrances with these predators and provide the first evidence, in social insects, of an alarm signal that encodes graded danger and attack context. We show that like A....

Data from: Non-random dispersal mediates invader impacts on the invertebrate community

Julien Cote, Tomas Brodin, Sean Fogarty & Andrew Sih
(1) Dispersers are often not a random draw from a population, dispersal propensity being conditional on individual phenotypic traits and local conditions. This non-randomness consequently results in phenotypic differences between dispersers and non-dispersers and, in the context of biological invasions, in an invasion front made of individuals with a biased phenotype. This bias of phenotypes at the front may subsequently modulate the strength of ecological effects of an invasive species on invaded communities. (2) We...

Data from: Transcriptome-wide patterns of divergence during allopatric evolution

Ricardo J. Pereira, Felipe S. Barreto, N. Tessa Pierce, Miguel Carneiro & Ronald S. Burton
Recent studies have revealed repeated patterns of genomic divergence associated with species formation. Such patterns suggest that natural selection tends to target a set of available genes, but is also indicative that closely related taxa share evolutionary constraints that limit genetic variability. Studying patterns of genomic divergence among populations within the same species may shed light on the underlying evolutionary processes. Here, we examine transcriptome-wide divergence and polymorphism in the marine copepod Tigriopus californicus, a...

Data from: The effect of nitrogen availability and water conditions on competition between a facultative CAM plant and an invasive grass

Kailiang Yu, Paolo D'Odorico, David E. Carr, Ashden Personius & Scott L. Collins
Abstract Plants with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) are increasing their abundance in drylands worldwide. The drivers and mechanisms underlying the increased dominance of CAM plants and CAM expression (i.e., nocturnal carboxylation) in facultative CAM plants, however, remain poorly understood. We investigated how nutrient and water availability affected competition between Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (a model facultative CAM species) and the invasive C3 grass Bromus mollis that co-occur in California's coastal grasslands. Specifically we investigated the extent to...

Data from: Dynamic changes in display architecture and function across environments revealed by a systems approach to animal communication

Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Matthew R. Wilkins, Daizaburo Shizuka & Eileen A. Hebets
Animal communication is often structurally complex and dynamic, with signaler and receiver behavior varying in response to multiple environmental factors. To date, studies assessing signal dynamics have mostly focused on the relationships between select signaling traits and receiver responses in a single environment. We use the wolf spider Schizocosa floridana to explore the relationships between courtship display form and function across two social contexts (female presence vs. absence) and two light environments (light vs. dark)....

Data from: Genome-wide expression reveals multiple systemic effects associated with detection of anticoagulant poisons in bobcats (Lynx rufus)

Devaughn Fraser, Alice Mouton, Laurel E.K. Serieys, Steve Cole, Scott Carver, Sue Vandewoude, Michael Lappin, Seth P.D. Riley, Robert Wayne & Laurel E. K. Serieys
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are indiscriminate toxicants that threaten non-target predatory and scavenger species through secondary poisoning. Accumulating evidence suggests that AR exposure may have disruptive sublethal consequences on individuals that can affect fitness. We evaluated AR-related effects on genome wide expression patterns in a population of bobcats in southern California. We identify differential expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, epithelial integrity, and both adaptive and innate immune function. Further, we...

Data from: Sexual signal loss: the link between behavior and rapid evolutionary dynamics in a field cricket

Marlene Zuk, Nathan W. Bailey, Brian Gray & John T. Rotenberry
1. Sexual signals may be acquired or lost over evolutionary time, and are tempered in their exaggeration by natural selection. 2. In the Pacific field cricket, Teleogryllus oceanicus, a mutation (“flatwing”) causing loss of the sexual signal, the song, spread in < 20 generations in two of three Hawaiian islands where the crickets have been introduced. Flatwing (as well as some normal-wing) males behave as satellites, moving towards and settling near calling males to intercept...

Data from: A new genus of horse from Pleistocene North America

Peter D. Heintzman, Grant D. Zazula, Ross D.E. MacPhee, Eric Scott, James A. Cahill, Brianna K. McHorse, Joshua D. Kapp, Mathias Stiller, Matthew J. Wooller, Ludovic Orlando, John R. Southon, Duane G. Froese, Beth Shapiro & John Southon
The extinct “New World stilt-legged”, or NWSL, equids constitute a perplexing group of Pleistocene horses endemic to North America. Their slender distal limb bones resemble those of Asiatic asses, such as the Persian onager. Previous palaeogenetic studies, however, have suggested a closer relationship to caballine horses than to Asiatic asses. Here, we report complete mitochondrial and partial nuclear genomes from NWSL equids from across their geographic range. Although multiple NWSL equid species have been named,...

Data from: RRapid global spread of wRi-like Wolbachia across multiple Drosophila

Michael Turelli, Brandon S. Cooper, Kelly M. Richardson, Paul S. Ginsberg, Brooke Peckenpaugh, Chenling X. Antelope, Kevin J. Kim, Michael R. May, Antoine Abrieux, Derek A. Wilson, Michael J. Bronski, Brian R. Moore, Jian-Jun Gao, Michael B. Eisen, Joanna C. Chiu, William R. Conner & Ary A. Hoffmann
Maternally transmitted Wolbachia, Spiroplasma and Cardinium bacteria are common in insects, but their interspecific spread is poorly understood. Endosymbionts can spread rapidly within host species by manipulating host reproduction, as typified by the global spread of wRi Wolbachia observed in Drosophila simulans. However, because Wolbachia cannot survive outside host cells, spread between distantly related host species requires horizontal transfers that are presumably rare. Here we document spread of wRi-like Wolbachia among eight highly diverged Drosophila...

Data from: Do correlated responses to multiple environmental changes exacerbate or mitigate species loss?

Luke O. Frishkoff, Alejandra Echeverri, Kai M.A. Chan, Daniel S. Karp & Kai M. A. Chan
Biological communities face multiple global changes simultaneously, and predicting how they will respond remains a key challenge. Co-tolerance theory offers a framework for understanding how species-level responses to multiple stressors affect community properties. Co-tolerance theory predicts that positive correlations in species responses (i.e., species that are susceptible to one stressor are more likely to be highly susceptible to a second) lessen total species loss, essentially because species cannot be eliminated from a community twice. However,...

Data from: Phylogenetic comparative analysis supports aposematic colouration–body size association in millipede assassins (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Ectrichodiinae)

Michael Forthman & Christiane Weirauch
The diversity of colour patterns and its importance in interactions with the environment make colouration in animals an intriguing research focus. Aposematic colouration is positively correlated with body size in certain groups of animals, suggesting that warning colours are more effective or that crypsis is harder to achieve in larger animals. Surprisingly, this relationship has not been recovered in studies investigating insects, which may have been confounded by a focus on aposematic taxa that are...

Data from: Introduced ants reduce interaction diversity in a multi-species, ant-aphid mutualism

Katherine E. LeVan, Sarah K. Barney & Erin E. Wilson Rankin
Mutualisms contribute in fundamental ways to the origin, maintenance and organization of biological diversity. Introduced species commonly participate in mutualisms, but how this phenomenon affects patterns of interactions among native mutualists remains incompletely understood. Here we examine how networks of interactions among aphid-tending ants, ant-tended aphids, and aphid-attacking parasitoid wasps differ between 12 spatially paired riparian study sites with and without the introduced Argentine ant Linepithema humile in southern California. To resolve challenges in species...

Data from: A stable phylogenomic classification of Travunioidea (Arachnida, Opiliones, Laniatores) based on sequence capture of ultraconserved elements

Shahan Derkarabetian, James Starrett, Nobuo Tsurusaki, Darrell Ubick, Stephanie Castillo & Marshal Hedin
Molecular phylogenetics has transitioned into the phylogenomic era, with data derived from next-generation sequencing technologies allowing unprecedented phylogenetic resolution in all animal groups, including understudied invertebrate taxa. Within the most diverse harvestmen suborder, Laniatores, most relationships at all taxonomic levels have yet to be explored from a phylogenomics perspective. Travunioidea is an early-diverging lineage of laniatorean harvestmen with a Laurasian distribution, with species distributed in eastern Asia, eastern and western North America, and south-central Europe....

Data from: Missing the people for the trees: identifying coupled natural-human system feedbacks driving the ecology of Lyme disease

Andrew J. MacDonald, Ashley E. Larsen & Andrew J. Plantinga
1. Infectious diseases are rapidly emerging and many are increasing in incidence across the globe. Processes of land-use change, notably habitat loss and fragmentation, have been widely implicated in emergence and spread of zoonoses such as Lyme disease, yet evidence remains equivocal. 2. Here we discuss and apply an innovative approach from the social sciences, instrumental variables, that seeks to tease out causality from observational data. Using this approach, we revisit the effect of forest...

Data from: Disease and climate effects on individuals drive post-reintroduction population dynamics of an endangered amphibian

Maxwell B. Joseph & Roland A. Knapp
The emergence of novel pathogens often has dramatic negative effects on previously unexposed host populations. Subsequent disease can drive populations and even species to extinction. After establishment in populations, pathogens can continue to affect host dynamics, influencing the success or failure of species recovery efforts. However, quantifying the effect of pathogens on host populations in the wild is challenging because individual hosts and their pathogens are difficult to observe. Here we use long-term mark-recapture data...

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