452 Works

Data from: High fat diet induces microbiota-dependent silencing of enteroendocrine cells

John Rawls, Lihua Ye, Olaf Mueller, Jennifer Bagwell, Michel Bagnat & Rodger Liddle
Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are specialized sensory cells in the intestinal epithelium that sense and transduce nutrient information. Consumption of dietary fat contributes to metabolic disorders, but EEC adaptations to high fat feeding were unknown. Here, we established a new experimental system to directly investigate EEC activity in vivo using a zebrafish reporter of EEC calcium signaling. Our results reveal that high fat feeding alters EEC morphology and converts them into a nutrient insensitive state that...

Latch-based control of energy output in spring actuated systems

Sarah Bergbreiter, Sathvik Divi, Xiaotian Ma, Mark Ilton, Ryan St. Pierre, Babak Eslami & S. N. Patek
The inherent force-velocity trade-off of muscles and motors can be overcome by instead loading and releasing energy in springs to power extreme movements. A key component of this paradigm is the latch that mediates the release of spring energy to power the motion. Latches have traditionally been considered as switches; they maintain spring compression in one state and allow the spring to release energy without constraint in the other. Using a mathematical model, we demonstrate...

Molecular underpinning of intracellular pH regulation on TMEM16F

Pengfei Liang & Huanghe Yang
TMEM16F, a dual functional phospholipid scramblase and ion channel, is important in blood coagulation, skeleton development, HIV infection and cell fusion. Despite advances in understanding its structure and activation mechanism, how TMEM16F is regulated by intracellular factors remains largely elusive. Here we report that TMEM16F lipid scrambling and ion channel activities are strongly influenced by intracellular pH (pHi). We found that low pHi attenuates, whereas high pHi potentiates, TMEM16F channel and scramblase activation under physiological...

Snaps of a tiny amphipod push the boundary of ultrafast, repeatable movement

Sarah Longo, William Ray, Grace Farley, Jacob Harrison, Justin Jorge, Tomonari Kaji, A. Richard Palmer & Sheila Patek
Surprisingly, the fastest motions are not produced by large animals or robots. Rather, small organisms or structures, including cnidarian stinging cells, fungal shooting spores, and mandible strikes of ants, termites, and spiders hold the world acceleration records. These diverse systems share common features: they rapidly convert potential energy - stored in deformed material or fluid - into kinetic energy when a latch is released. However, the fastest and smallest known movements often cannot be used...

Duncan and Rausher 2020

Mark Rausher & Tanya Duncan
Data set for Figures 2-4 from Duncan and Rausher, Selection. favors loss of floral pigmentation in a highly selfing morning glory. Data are for qPCR and pyrosequencing of anthocyanin pathway genes, and microsatellite genotypes for plants from various study sites.

Do dog breeds differ in pain sensitivity? Veterinarians and the public believe they do

Margaret Gruen, Brian Hare & Philip White
Humans do not respond to the pain of all humans equally; physical appearance and associated group identity affect how people respond to the pain of others. Here we ask if a similar differential response occurs when humans evaluate different individuals of another species. Beliefs about pain in pet dogs (Canis familiaris) provide a powerful test, since dogs vary so much in size, shape, and color, and are often associated with behavioral stereotypes. Using an on-line...

Comparative skeletal anatomy of neonatal ursids and the extreme altriciality of the giant panda

Peishu Li & Kathleen Smith
Vertebrate neonates are born with a wide range of maturity at birth. Altricial newborns are born with limited sensory agency and require significant parental care, while precocial neonates are relatively mature physically and often capable of independent function. In extant mammals, placental newborns span this range, while marsupials and monotremes are all extremely altricial at birth. Bears (family Ursidae) have one of the lowest neonatal-maternal mass ratios in placental mammals and are considered to have...

Assessing the effects of elephant foraging on the structure and diversity of an Afrotropical forest

Cooper Rosin, Kendall Beals, Michael Belovitch, Ruby Harrison, Megan Pendred, Megan Sullivan, Nicolas Yao & John Poulsen
African forest elephants (Loxodonta cyclotis) are ecosystem engineers that browse and damage large quantities of vegetation during their foraging and movement. Though elephant trail networks and clearings are conspicuous features of many African forests, the consequences of elephant foraging for forest structure and diversity are poorly documented. In this study in northeastern Gabon, we compare stem size, stem density, proportional damage, species diversity, and species relative abundance of seedlings and saplings in the vicinity of...

Data from: Testing a developmental model in the fossil record: molar proportions in South American ungulates

Laura A. B. Wilson, Richard H. Madden, Richard F. Kay & Marcelo R. Sánchez-Villagra
A developmental model, based upon murine rodents, has been proposed by Kavanagh et al. (2007) to explain lower molar proportions in mammals. We produce a clade-wide macroevolutionary test of the model using the dental evolutionary trends in a unique radiation of extinct mammals endemic to South America (“Meridiungulata”) that comprise a diverse array of molar morphologies. All of the South American ungulate groups examined follow the inhibitory cascade model with the exception of two groups:...

Data from: Genome-wide analysis of SNPs is consistent with no domestic dog ancestry in the endangered Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi)

Robert R. Fitak, Sarah E. Rinkevich & Melanie Culver
The Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) was historically distributed throughout the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Extensive predator removal campaigns during the early 20th century, however, resulted in its eventual extirpation by the mid 1980s. At this time, the Mexican wolf existed only in three separate captive lineages (McBride, Ghost Ranch, and Aragón) descended from three, two, and two founders, respectively. These lineages were merged in 1995 to increase the available genetic variation,...

Data from: When good neighbors don’t need fences: Temporal landscape partitioning among baboon social groups

A. Catherine Markham, Vishwesha Guttal, Susan C. Alberts & Jeanne Altmann
Intraspecific competition is a key factor shaping space-use strategies and movement decisions inmany species, yet how and when neighbors utilize shared areas while exhibiting active avoidance of one another is largely un- known. Here, we investigated temporal landscape partitioning in a population of wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus). We used global positioning system (GPS) collars to synchronously record the hourly locations of five baboon social groups for ∼900 days, and we used behavioral, demographic, and life...

Data from: Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

Christopher Krupenye, Alexandra G. Rosati & Brian Hare
Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option...

Data from: Parasite infection alters nitrogen cycling at the ecosystem scale

John Mischler, Pieter T. J. Johnson, Valerie J. McKenzie & Alan R. Townsend
Despite growing evidence that parasites often alter nutrient flows through their hosts and can comprise a substantial amount of biomass in many systems, whether endemic parasites influence ecosystem nutrient cycling, and which nutrient pathways may be important, remains conjectural. A framework to evaluate how endemic parasites alter nutrient cycling across varied ecosystems requires an understanding of: (1) parasite effects on host nutrient excretion, (2) ecosystem nutrient limitation, (3) effects of parasite abundance, host density, host...

Data from: A microbiotic survey of lichen-associated bacteria reveals a new lineage from the Rhizobiales

Brendan P. Hodkinson & François Lutzoni
This study uses a set of PCR-based methods to examine the putative microbiota associated with lichen thalli. In initial experiments, generalized oligonucleotide-primers for the 16S rRNA gene resulted in amplicon pools populated almost exclusively with fragments derived from lichen photobionts (i.e., Cyanobacteria or chloroplasts of algae). This effectively masked the presence of other lichen-associated prokaryotes. In order to facilitate the study of the lichen microbiota, 16S ribosomal oligonucleotide-primers were developed to target Bacteria, but exclude...

Data from: Predicting the response to simultaneous selection: genetic architecture and physiological constraints

Goggy Davidowitz, H. Frederik Nijhout & Derek A. Roff
A great deal is known about the evolutionary significance of body size and development time. They are determined by the non-linear interaction of three physiological traits: two hormonal events and growth rate. In this study we investigate how the genetic architecture of the underlying three physiological traits affects the simultaneous response to selection on the two life history traits in the hawk moth Manduca sexta. The genetic architecture suggests that when the two life history...

Data from: The genetic architecture of local adaptation and reproductive isolation in sympatry within the Mimulus guttatus species complex

Kathleen G. Ferris, Laryssa L. Barnett, Benjamin K. Blackman & John H. Willis
The genetic architecture of local adaptation has been of central interest to evolutionary biologists since the modern synthesis. In addition to classic theory on the effect size of adaptive mutations by Fisher, Kimura and Orr, recent theory addresses the genetic architecture of local adaptation in the face of ongoing gene flow. This theory predicts that with substantial gene flow between populations local adaptation should proceed primarily through mutations of large effect or tightly linked clusters...

Data from: Context-dependent scaling of kinematics and energetics during contests and feeding in mantis shrimp

P.A. Green, M.J. McHenry & S.N. Patek
Measurements of energy use, and its scaling with size, are critical to understanding how organisms accomplish myriad tasks. For example, energy budgets are central to game theory models of assessment during contests and underlie patterns of feeding behavior. Clear tests connecting energy to behavioral theory require measurements of the energy use of single individuals for particular behaviors. Many species of mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Crustacea) use elastic energy storage to power high-speed strikes that they deliver...

Data from: Is local adaptation in Mimulus guttatus caused by trade-offs at individual loci?

Megan Hall, David Lowry & John Willis
Local adaptation is considered to be the result of fitness trade-offs for particular phenotypes across different habitats. However, it is unclear whether such phenotypic trade-offs exist at the level of individual genetic loci. Local adaptation could arise from trade-offs of alternative alleles at individual loci or by complementary sets of loci with different fitness effects of alleles in one habitat but selective neutrality in the alternative habitat. To evaluate the genome-wide basis of local adaptation,...

Data from: Costs of injury for scent signalling in a strepsirrhine primate

Rachel L. Harris, Marylène Boulet, Kathleen E. Grogan & Christine M. Drea
Honesty is crucial in animal communication when signallers are conveying information about their condition. Condition dependence implies a cost to signal production; yet, evidence of such cost is scarce. We examined the effects of naturally occurring injury on the quality and salience of olfactory signals in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Over a decade, we collected genital secretions from 23 (13 male, 10 female) adults across 34 unique injuries, owing primarily to intra-group fights. Using gas...

Data from: Natural variation, differentiation and genetic tradeoffs of ecophysiological traits in response to water limitation in Brachypodium distachyon and its descendent allotetraploid B. hybridum (Poaceae)

Antonio J. Manzaneda, Pedro José Rey, Jill Theresa Anderson, Evan Raskin, Christopher Weiss-Lehman & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Differences in tolerance to water stress may underlie ecological divergence of closely-related ploidy lineages. However, the mechanistic basis of physiological variation governing eco-geographical cytotype segregation is not well understood. Here, using Brachypodium distachyon and its derived allotetraploid B. hybridum as model, we test the hypothesis that, for heteroploid annuals, ecological divergence of polyploids in drier environments is based on trait differentiation enabling drought-escape. We demonstrate that under water limitation allotetraploids maintain higher photosynthesis and stomatal...

Data from: A keystone mutualism underpins resilience of a coastal ecosystem to drought

Christine Angelini, John N. Griffin, Johan Van De Koppel, Leon P. M. Lamers, Alfons J. P. Smolders, Marlous Derksen-Hooijberg, Tjisse Van Der Heide & Brian R. Silliman
Droughts are increasing in severity and frequency, yet the mechanisms that strengthen ecosystem resilience to this stress remain poorly understood. Here, we test whether positive interactions in the form of a mutualism between mussels and dominant cordgrass in salt marshes enhance ecosystem resistance to and recovery from drought. Surveys spanning 250 km of southeastern US coastline reveal spatially dispersed mussel mounds increased cordgrass survival during severe drought by 5- to 25-times. Surveys and mussel addition...

Data from: A total evidence approach to understanding phylogenetic relationships and ecological diversity in Selaginella subg. Tetragonostachys

Nils Arrigo, James Therrien, Cajsa Lisa Anderson, Michael D. Windham, Christopher H. Haufler & Michael S. Barker
Premise of the Study: Several members of Selaginella are renowned for their ability to survive extreme drought and “resurrect” when conditions improve. Many of these belong to subgenus Tetragonostachys, a group of ∼45 species primarily found in North and Central America, with substantial diversity in the Sonoran and Chihuahuan Deserts. We evaluated the monophyly and the age of subgenus Tetragonostachys and assess how drought tolerance contributed to the evolution of this clade. Methods: Our study...

Data from: Interbirth intervals in wild baboons: environmental predictors and hormonal correlates

Laurence R. Gesquiere, Jeanne Altmann, Elizabeth A. Archie & Susan C. Alberts
Objectives: Interbirth intervals (IBIs) are a key metric of female reproductive success; understanding how they are regulated by environmental, social, and demographic factors can provide insight into sources of variance in female fitness. Materials and Methods: Using 36 years of reproductive data on 490 IBIs for 160 wild female baboons, we identified sources of variance in the duration of IBIs and of their component phases: postpartum amenorrhea (PPA), sexual cycling, and pregnancy. We also examined...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Remotely sensed data informs red list evaluations and conservation priorities in southeast Asia

Binbin V. Li, Alice C. Hughs, Clinton N. Jenkins, Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela, Stuart L. Pimm & Alice C. Hughes
The IUCN Red List has assessed the global distributions of the majority of the world’s amphibians, birds and mammals. Yet these assessments lack explicit reference to widely available, remotely-sensed data that can sensibly inform a species’ risk of extinction. Our first goal is to add additional quantitative data to the existing standardised process that IUCN employs. Secondly, we ask: do our results suggest species of concern—those at considerably greater risk than hitherto appreciated? Thirdly, these...

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