53 Works

Data from: Self-organizing dominance hierarchies in a wild primate population

Mathias Franz, Emily McLean, Jenny Tung, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Linear dominance hierarchies, which are common in social animals, can profoundly influence access to limited resources, reproductive opportunities and health. In spite of their importance, the mechanisms that govern the dynamics of such hierarchies remain unclear. Two hypotheses explain how linear hierarchies might emerge and change over time. The ‘prior attributes hypothesis’ posits that individual differences in fighting ability directly determine dominance ranks. By contrast, the ‘social dynamics hypothesis’ posits that dominance ranks emerge from...

Data from: Natural variation, differentiation and genetic tradeoffs of ecophysiological traits in response to water limitation in Brachypodium distachyon and its descendent allotetraploid B. hybridum (Poaceae)

Antonio J. Manzaneda, Pedro José Rey, Jill Theresa Anderson, Evan Raskin, Christopher Weiss-Lehman & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Differences in tolerance to water stress may underlie ecological divergence of closely-related ploidy lineages. However, the mechanistic basis of physiological variation governing eco-geographical cytotype segregation is not well understood. Here, using Brachypodium distachyon and its derived allotetraploid B. hybridum as model, we test the hypothesis that, for heteroploid annuals, ecological divergence of polyploids in drier environments is based on trait differentiation enabling drought-escape. We demonstrate that under water limitation allotetraploids maintain higher photosynthesis and stomatal...

Data from: Phylogeny and biogeography of the American live oaks (Quercus subsection Virentes): a genomic and population genetics approach

Jeannine Cavender-Bares, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Deren A. R. Eaton, Andrew A. L. Hipp, Anne Beulke & Paul S. Manos
The nature and timing of evolution of niche differentiation among closely related species remains an important question in ecology and evolution. The American live oak clade, Virentes, which spans the unglaciated temperate and tropical regions of North America and Mesoamerica, provides an instructive system in which to examine speciation and niche evolution. We generated a fossil-calibrated phylogeny of Virentes using RADseq data to estimate divergence times and used nuclear microsatellites, chloroplast sequences and an intron...

Data from: Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life

Cody E. Hinchliff, Stephen A. Smith, James F. Allman, J. Gordon Burleigh, Ruchi Chaudhary, Lyndon M. Coghill, Keith A. Crandall, Jiabin Deng, Bryan T. Drew, Romina Gazis, Karl Gude, David S. Hibbett, Laura A. Katz, , Emily Jane McTavish, Peter E. Midford, Christopher L. Owen, Richard H. Ree, Jonathan A. Rees, Douglas E. Soltis, Tiffani Williams & Karen Ann Cranston
Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips—the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly...

Data from: Optimal group size in a highly social mammal

A. Catherine Markham, Laurence R. Gesquiere, Susan C. Alberts & Jeanne Altmann
What are the costs and benefits for animals living in groups of different sizes? Balancing the trade-offs between within-group competition (which favors smaller groups) and between-group competition (which favors larger groups) suggests that intermediate-sized groups may be best, yet empirical support for this prediction has largely been lacking. Using long-term data on wild baboons, we provide novel evidence that individuals living in intermediate-sized groups have energetically optimal space-use strategies and lower glucocorticoid (stress hormone) concentrations...

Data from: Resource base influences genome-wide DNA methylation levels in wild baboons (Papio cynocephalus)

Amanda J. Lea, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C. Alberts & Jenny Tung
Variation in resource availability commonly exerts strong effects on fitness-related traits in wild animals. However, we know little about the molecular mechanisms that mediate these effects, or about their persistence over time. To address these questions, we profiled genome-wide whole blood DNA methylation levels in two sets of wild baboons: (i) ‘wild-feeding’ baboons that foraged naturally in a savanna environment and (ii) ‘Lodge’ baboons that had ready access to spatially concentrated human food scraps, resulting...

Data from: Reproductive sharing in relation to group and colony-level attributes in a cooperative breeding fish

Jennifer K. Hellmann, Isaac Y. Ligocki, Constance M. O'Connor, Adam R. Reddon, Kelly A. Garvy, Susan E. Marsh-Rollo, H. Lisle Gibbs, Sigal Balshine & Ian M. Hamilton
The degree to which group members share reproduction is dictated by both within-group (e.g. group size and composition) and between-group (e.g. density and position of neighbours) characteristics. While many studies have investigated reproductive patterns within social groups, few have simultaneously explored how within-group and between-group social structure influence these patterns. Here, we investigated how group size and composition, along with territory density and location within the colony, influenced parentage in 36 wild groups of a...

Data from: Pulmonary nodule detection in patients with a primary malignancy using hybrid PET/MRI: is there value in adding contrast-enhanced MR imaging?

Kyung Hee Lee, Chang Min Park, Sang Min Lee, Jeong Min Lee, Jeong Yeon Cho, Jin Chul Paeng, Su Yeon Ahn & Jin Mo Goo
Purpose: To investigate the added value of post-contrast VIBE (volumetric-interpolated breath-hold examination) to PET/MR imaging for pulmonary nodule detection in patients with primary malignancies. Materials and Methods: This retrospective institutional review board–approved study, with waiver of informed consent, included 51 consecutive patients who underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/MR followed by PET/CT for cancer staging. In all patients, the thorax was examined with pre-and post-contrast VIBE MR with simultaneous PET acquisition. Two readers blinded to the patients’...

Data from: Exaggerated sexual swellings and male mate choice in primates: testing the reliable indicator hypothesis in the Amboseli baboons

Courtney L. Fitzpatrick, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
The paradigm of competitive males vying to influence female mate choice has been repeatedly upheld, but, increasingly, studies also report competitive females and choosy males. One female trait that is commonly proposed to influence male mate choice is the exaggerated sexual swelling displayed by females of many Old World primate species. The reliable indicator hypothesis posits that females use the exaggerated swellings to compete for access to mates, and that the swellings advertise variation in...

Data from: Eye-spots in Lepidoptera attract attention in humans

Jessica L. Yorzinski, Michael L. Platt & Geoffrey K. Adams
Many prey species exhibit defensive traits to decrease their chances of predation. Conspicuous eye-spots, concentric rings of contrasting colours, are one type of defensive trait that some species exhibit to deter predators. We examined the function of eye-spots in Lepidoptera to determine whether they are effective at deterring predators because they resemble eyes (‘eye mimicry hypothesis’) or are highly salient (‘conspicuous signal hypothesis’). We recorded the gaze behaviour of men and women as they viewed...

Data from: Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna

Craig R. McClain, Meghan A. Balk, Mark C. Benfield, Trevor A. Branch, Catherine Chen, James Cosgrove, Alistair D. M. Dove, Leo C. Gaskins, Rebecca Helm, Frederick G. Hochberg, Frank B. Lee, Andrea Marshall, Steven E. McMurray, Caroline Schanche, Shane N. Stone, Andrew D. Thaler & Rebecca R. Helm
What are the greatest sizes that the largest marine megafauna obtain? This is a simple question with a difficult and complex answer. Many of the largest-sized species occur in the world’s oceans. For many of these, rarity, remoteness, and quite simply the logistics of measuring these giants has made obtaining accurate size measurements difficult. Inaccurate reports of maximum sizes run rampant through the scientific literature and popular media. Moreover, how intraspecific variation in the body...

Data from: Mechanical sensitivity reveals evolutionary dynamics of mechanical systems

Philip S. L. Anderson & Sheila N. Patek
A classic question in evolutionary biology is how form–function relationships promote or limit diversification. Mechanical metrics, such as kinematic transmission (KT) in linkage systems, are useful tools for examining the evolution of form and function in a comparative context. The convergence of disparate systems on equivalent metric values (mechanical equivalence) has been highlighted as a source of potential morphological diversity under the assumption that morphology can evolve with minimal impact on function. However, this assumption...

Data from: Phytochrome diversity in green plants and the origin of canonical plant phytochromes

Fay-Wei Li, Michael Melkonian, Carl J. Rothfels, Juan Carlos Villarreal, Dennis W. Stevenson, Sean W. Graham, Gane Ka-Shu Wong, Kathleen M. Pryer & Sarah Mathews
Phytochromes are red/far-red photoreceptors that play essential roles in diverse plant morphogenetic and physiological responses to light. Despite their functional significance, phytochrome diversity and evolution across photosynthetic eukaryotes remain poorly understood. Using newly available transcriptomic and genomic data we show that canonical plant phytochromes originated in a common ancestor of streptophytes (charophyte algae and land plants). Phytochromes in charophyte algae are structurally diverse, including canonical and non-canonical forms, whereas in land plants, phytochrome structure is...

Data from: Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda)

Patrick A. Green & Sheila N. Patek
Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral...

Data from: A test for repertoire matching in eastern song sparrows

Adrienne L. DuBois, Stephen Nowicki & William A. Searcy
Repertoire matching occurs when one songbird replies to another with a song type that the two birds share. Repertoire matching has previously been demonstrated to occur at well above chance levels in a western population of song sparrows, where it is hypothesized to serve as a low level threat in a hierarchy of aggressive signals. Here we test for repertoire matching in an eastern population of song sparrows. Previous work indicates that this eastern population...

Data from: Variation in the impact of non-native seaweeds along gradients of habitat degradation: a meta-analysis and an experimental test

Laura Tamburello, Elena Maggi, Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi, Giuseppe Bellistri, Alex James Rattray, Chiara Ravaglioli, Luca Rindi, Jason Roberts & Fabio Bulleri
Biological invasions are acknowledged among the main drivers of global changes in biodiversity. Despite compelling evidence of species interactions being strongly regulated by environmental conditions, there is a dearth of studies investigating how the effects of non-native species vary among areas exposed to different anthropogenic pressures. Focusing on marine macroalgae, we performed a meta-analysis to test whether and how the direction and magnitude of their effects on resident communities and species varies in relation to...

Data from: Feed-forward motor control of ultrafast, ballistic movements

K. Kagaya & S. N. Patek
To circumvent the limits of muscle, ultrafast movements achieve high power through the use of springs and latches. The timescale of these movements is too short for control through typical neuromuscular mechanisms, thus ultrafast movements are either invariant or are controlled prior to movement. We tested whether mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda: Neogonodactylus bredini) vary their ultrafast smashing strikes and, if so, how this control is achieved prior to movement. We collected high speed images of strike...

Data from: Social and environmental impacts of forest management certification in Indonesia

Daniela A. Miteva, Colby J. Loucks & Subhrendu K. Pattanayak
In response to unsustainable timber production in tropical forest concessions, voluntary forest management certification programs such as the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) have been introduced to improve environmental, social, and economic performance over existing management practices. However, despite the proliferation of forest certification over the past two decades, few studies have evaluated its effectiveness. Using temporally and spatially explicit village-level data on environmental and socio-economic indicators in Kalimantan (Indonesia), we evaluate the performance of the...

Data from: Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank

Jordi Galbany, Jenny Tung, Jeanne Altmann & Susan C. Alberts
Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many...

Data from: Genetic diversity, sexual condition, and microhabitat preference determine mating patterns in Sphagnum (Sphagnaceae) peat-mosses.

Matthew G. Johnson & A. Jonathan Shaw
In bryophytes, the possibility of intragametophytic selfing creates complex mating patterns that are not possible in seed plants, although relatively little is known about patterns of inbreeding in natural populations. In the peat-moss genus Sphagnum, taxa are generally bisexual (gametophytes produce both sperm and egg) or unisexual (gametes produced by separate male and female plants). We sampled populations of 14 species, aiming to assess inbreeding variation and inbreeding depression in sporophytes, and to evaluate correlations...

Data from: The contrasting phylodynamics of human influenza B viruses

Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Edward C. Holmes, Udayan Joseph, Mathieu Fourment, Yvonne C. F. Su, Rebecca Halpin, Raphael T. C. Lee, Yi-Mo Deng, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Xudong Lin, Tim Stockwell, Nadia B. Fedorova, Bin Zhou, Natalie Spirason, Denise K. Kühnert, Veronika Bošková, Tanja Stadler, Anna-Maria Costa, Dominic E. Dwyer, Q. Sue Huang, Lance C. Jennings, William Rawlinson, Sheena G. Sullivan, Aeron C. Hurt, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh … & Raphael TC Lee
A complex interplay of viral, host and ecological factors shape the spatio-temporal incidence and evolution of human influenza viruses. Although considerable attention has been paid to influenza A viruses, a lack of equivalent data means that an integrated evolutionary and epidemiological framework has until now not been available for influenza B viruses, despite their significant disease burden. Through the analysis of over 900 full genomes from an epidemiological collection of more than 26,000 strains from...

Data from: The emergent geography of biophysical dispersal barriers across the Indo-West Pacific

Eric A. Treml, Jason Roberts, Patrick N. Halpin, Hugh P. Possingham & Cynthia Riginos
Aim: To discover and evaluate potential dispersal barriers across the Indo-West Pacific Ocean and to develop spatially explicit hypotheses regarding the location of barriers and their capacity to filter taxa. Additionally, to compare model predictions with previously described barriers and build a more thorough understanding of the region's biogeographic patterns. Location: The reefs of the Indo-West Pacific Ocean, from 100 to 170°E and from 30°N to 30°S. Methods: A biophysical larval dispersal model was used...

Data from: Paternity analyses in wild-caught and lab-reared Caribbean cricket females reveal the influence of mating environment on post-copulatory sexual selection

Elen Oneal & L. Lacey Knowles
Polyandry is ubiquitous in insects and provides the conditions necessary for male- and female-driven forms of post-copulatory sexual selection to arise. Populations of Amphiacusta sanctaecrucis exhibit significant divergence in portions of the male genitalia that are inserted directly into the female reproductive tract, suggesting that males may exercise some post-copulatory control over fertilization success. We examine the potential for male-male and male-female post-copulatory interactions to influence paternity in wild-caught females of A. sanctaecrucis and contrast...

Data from: Comparative analyses of clinical and environmental populations of Cryptococcus neoformans in Botswana

Yuan Chen, Anastasia P. Litvintseva, Aubrey E. Frazzitta, Miriam R. Haverkamp, Liuyang Wang, Charles Fang, Charles Muthoga, Thomas G. Mitchell & John R. Perfect
Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (Cng) is the most common cause of fungal meningitis, and its prevalence is highest in sub-Saharan Africa. Patients become infected by inhaling airborne spores or desiccated yeast cells from the environment, where the fungus thrives in avian droppings, trees and soil. To investigate the prevalence and population structure of Cng in southern Africa, we analysed isolates from 77 environmental samples and 64 patients. We detected significant genetic diversity among isolates and...

Data from: Genome-wide evidence reveals that African and Eurasian Golden Jackals are distinct species

Klaus-Peter Koepfli, John Pollinger, Raquel Godinho, Jacqueline Robinson, Amanda Lea, Sarah Hendricks, Rena M. Schweizer, Olaf Thalmann, Pedro Silva, Zhenxin Fan, Andrey A. Yurchenko, Pavel Dobrynin, Alexey Makunin, James A. Cahill, Beth Shapiro, Francisco Álvares, José C. Brito, Eli Geffen, Jennifer A. Leonard, Kristofer M. Helgen, Warren E. Johnson, Stephen J. O'Brien, Blaire Van Valkenburgh & Robert K. Wayne
The golden jackal of Africa (Canis aureus) has long been considered a conspecific of jackals distributed throughout Eurasia, with the nearest source populations in the Middle East. However, two recent reports found that mitochondrial haplotypes of some African golden jackals aligned more closely to gray wolves (Canis lupus), which is surprising given the absence of gray wolves in Africa and the phenotypic divergence between the two species. Moreover, these results imply the existence of a...

Registration Year

  • 2015

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • Duke University
  • University of California, Berkeley
  • Princeton University
  • University of Alberta
  • University of Minnesota
  • Institute of Primate Research
  • Smithsonian Institution
  • Yale University
  • The Bronx Defenders
  • Stanford University